Medically reviewed by Militian Inessa Mesropovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2020-03-29
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Reflexan® (cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride extended-release capsules) is indicated as an adjunct to rest and physical therapy for relief of muscle spasm associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions. Improvement is manifested by relief of muscle spasm and its associated signs and symptoms, namely, pain, tenderness, and limitation of motion.
Limitations of Use
- Reflexan should be used only for short periods (up to two or three weeks) because adequate evidence of effectiveness for more prolonged use is not available and because muscle spasm associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions is generally of short duration and specific therapy for longer periods is seldom warranted.
- Reflexan has not been found effective in the treatment of spasticity associated with cerebral or spinal cord disease or in children with cerebral palsy.
The recommended adult dose for most patients is one (1) Reflexan 15 mg capsule taken once daily. Some patients may require up to 30 mg/day, given as one (1) Reflexan 30 mg capsule taken once daily or as two (2) Reflexan 15 mg capsules taken once daily.
- It is recommended that doses be taken at approximately the same time each day.
- Use of Reflexan for periods longer than two or three weeks is not recommended.
- Hypersensitivity to any component of this product. These adverse reactions may manifest as an anaphylactic reaction, urticaria, facial and/or tongue swelling or pruritus. Discontinue Reflexan if a hypersensitivity reaction is suspected.
- Concomitant use of monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors or within 14 days after their discontinuation. Hyperpyretic crisis seizures and deaths have occurred in patients receiving cyclobenzaprine (or structurally similar tricyclic antidepressants) concomitantly with MAO inhibitor drugs.
- During the acute recovery phase of myocardial infarction, and in patients with arrhythmias, heart block or conduction disturbances, or congestive heart failure.
Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.
The development of a potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome has been reported with cyclobenzaprine when used in combination with other drugs, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), tramadol, bupropion, meperidine, verapamil, or MAO inhibitors. The concomitant use of Reflexan with MAO inhibitors is contraindicated. Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., confusion, agitation, hallucinations), autonomic instability (e.g., diaphoresis, tachycardia, labile blood pressure, hyperthermia), neuromuscular abnormalities (e.g., tremor, ataxia, hyperreflexia, clonus, muscle rigidity), and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). Treatment with Reflexan and any concomitant serotonergic agents should be discontinued immediately if the above reactions occur and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated. If concomitant treatment with Reflexan and other serotonergic drugs is clinically warranted, careful observation is advised, particularly during treatment initiation or dose increases.
Tricyclic Antidepressant-like Effects
Cyclobenzaprine is structurally related to the tricyclic antidepressants, e.g., amitriptyline and imipramine. Tricyclic antidepressants have been reported to produce arrhythmias, sinus tachycardia, prolongation of the conduction time leading to myocardial infarction and stroke. Reflexan may enhance the effects of alcohol, barbiturates, and other CNS depressants.
Some of the more serious central nervous system (CNS) reactions noted with the tricyclic antidepressants have occurred in short-term studies of cyclobenzaprine for indications other than muscle spasm associated with acute musculoskeletal conditions, and usually at doses somewhat greater than those recommended for skeletal muscle spasm. If clinically significant CNS symptoms develop, consider discontinuation of Reflexan.
Use In The Elderly
As a result of a 40% increase in cyclobenzaprine plasma levels and a 56% increase in plasma half-life following administration of Reflexan in elderly subjects as compared to young adults, use of Reflexan is not recommended in the elderly.
Use In Patients With Hepatic Impairment
As a result of two-fold higher cyclobenzaprine plasma levels in subjects with mild hepatic impairment, as compared to healthy subjects, following administration of immediate-release cyclobenzaprine and because there is limited dosing flexibility with Reflexan, use of Reflexan is not recommended in patients with mild, moderate or severe hepatic impairment.
Because of its atropine-like action, Reflexan should be used with caution in patients with a history of urinary retention, angle-closure glaucoma, increased intraocular pressure, and in patients taking anticholinergic medication.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION).
- Advise patients to stop taking Reflexan and to notify their physician right away if they experience symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as difficulty breathing, hives, swelling of face or tongue, or itching.
- Advise patients that Reflexan should not be taken with MAO inhibitors or within 14 days after their discontinuation.
- Caution patients about the risk of serotonin syndrome with concomitant use of Reflexan and other drugs, such as SSRIs, SNRIs, TCAs, tramadol, bupropion, meperidine, verapamil, or MAO inhibitors. Advise patients of the signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome and instruct patients to seek medical care immediately if they experience these symptoms.
- Advise patients to stop taking Reflexan and to notify their physician right away if they experience arrhythmias or tachycardia.
- Advise patients that Reflexan may enhance the impairment effects of alcohol. These effects may also be seen if Reflexan is taken with other CNS depressants.
- Caution patients about operating an automobile or other hazardous machinery until it is reasonably certain that Reflexan therapy will not adversely affect their ability to engage in such activities.
- Advise patients to take Reflexan at approximately the same time each day.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Long-term studies were conducted in CD-1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats with cyclobenzaprine to evaluate its carcinogenic potential. In an 81-week carcinogenicity study, metastatic hemangiosarcoma was seen in 3 of 21 male mice at 10 mg/kg/day (2 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis). In a 105-week carcinogenicity study, malignant astrocytoma was seen in 3 of 50 male rats at 10 mg/kg/day (3 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis). There were no tumor findings in female mice or rats.
Cyclobenzaprine HCl was not mutagenic or clastogenic in the following assays: an in vitro Ames bacterial mutation assay, in vitro Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell chromosomal aberration test, and in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay. Cyclobenzaprine HCl had no effects on fertility and reproductive performance in male or female rats at oral doses up to 20 mg/kg/day (6 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis).
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category B
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Reflexan in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, Reflexan should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. No treatment-related effects on embryofetal development were observed in mice and rabbits at approximately 3 and 15 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD), respectively (on a mg/m² basis at maternal doses of 20 mg/kg/day in both mice and rabbits).
Cyclobenzaprine has been shown to adversely affect pup postnatal development when dams were treated with the drug during pregnancy and lactation periods in rats. This study found that cyclobenzaprine decreased pup body weight and survival at approximately ≥ 3 times the MRHD (on a mg/m² basis at maternal doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg/day in rats).
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because cyclobenzaprine is closely related to the tricyclic antidepressants, some of which are known to be excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Reflexan is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and effectiveness of Reflexan has not been studied in pediatric patients.
Clinical studies of Reflexan did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine the safety and efficacy of Reflexan in the elderly population. The plasma concentration and half-life of cyclobenzaprine are substantially increased in the elderly when compared to the general patient population. Accordingly, use of Reflexan is not recommended in the elderly.
The use of Reflexan is not recommended in patients with mild, moderate or severe hepatic impairment.
Most Common Adverse Reactions in the Reflexan Clinical Trials
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
The data described below reflect exposure to Reflexan in 253 patients in 2 clinical trials. Reflexan was studied in two double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, active-controlled trials of identical design. The study population was composed of patients with muscle spasms associated with acute painful musculoskeletal conditions. Patients received 15 mg or 30 mg of Reflexan taken orally once daily, cyclobenzaprine immediate-release (IR) 10 mg three times a day, or placebo for 14 days.
The most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 3% in any treatment group and greater than placebo) were dry mouth, dizziness, fatigue, constipation, nausea, dyspepsia, and somnolence (see Table 1).
Table 1: Incidence of the Most Common Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥ 3% of Patients in any Treatment Group* and Greater Than Placebo in the Two Phase 3, Double-Blind Reflexan Trials
|Reflexan 15 mg |
|Reflexan 30 mg |
|*Reflexan 15 mg QD, Reflexan 30 mg QD, or cyclobenzaprine IR tablets TID|
Additional Adverse Reactions from Clinical Studies and Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been reported in clinical studies or postmarketing experience with Reflexan, cyclobenzaprine IR, or tricyclic drugs. Because some of these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
In a postmarketing surveillance program of cyclobenzaprine IR, the adverse reactions reported most frequently were drowsiness, dry mouth, and dizziness and adverse reactions reported in 1% to 3% of the patients were: fatigue/tiredness, asthenia, nausea, constipation, dyspepsia, unpleasant taste, blurred vision, headache, nervousness, and confusion.
The following adverse reactions have been reported in postmarketing experience (Reflexan or cyclobenzaprine IR), in clinical studies of cyclobenzaprine IR (incidence < 1%), or in postmarketing experience with other tricyclic drugs:
Body as a Whole: Syncope; malaise; chest pain; edema.
Cardiovascular: Tachycardia; arrhythmia; vasodilatation; palpitation; hypotension; hypertension; myocardial infarction; heart block; stroke.
Digestive: Vomiting; anorexia; diarrhea; gastrointestinal pain; gastritis; thirst; flatulence; edema of the tongue; abnormal liver function and rare reports of hepatitis, jaundice, and cholestasis; paralytic ileus, tongue discoloration; stomatitis; parotid swelling.
Endocrine: Inappropriate ADH syndrome.
Hematologic and Lymphatic: Purpura; bone marrow depression; leukopenia; eosinophilia; thrombocytopenia.
Hypersensitivity: Anaphylaxis; angioedema; pruritus; facial edema; urticaria; rash.
Metabolic, Nutritional and Immune: Elevation and lowering of blood sugar levels; weight gain or loss.
Musculoskeletal: Local weakness; myalgia.
Nervous System and Psychiatric: Seizures, ataxia; vertigo; dysarthria; tremors; hypertonia; convulsions; muscle twitching; disorientation; insomnia; depressed mood; abnormal sensations; anxiety; agitation; psychosis, abnormal thinking and dreaming; hallucinations; excitement; paresthesia; diplopia; serotonin syndrome; neuroleptic malignant syndrome; decreased or increased libido; abnormal gait; delusions; aggressive behavior; paranoia; peripheral neuropathy; Bell's palsy; alteration in EEG patterns; extrapyramidal symptoms.
Skin: Sweating; photosensitization; alopecia.
Special Senses: Ageusia; tinnitus.
Urogenital: Urinary frequency and/or retention; impaired urination; dilatation of urinary tract; impotence; testicular swelling; gynecomastia; breast enlargement; galactorrhea.
Although rare, deaths may occur from overdosage with Reflexan. Multiple drug ingestion (including alcohol) is common in deliberate cyclobenzaprine overdose. As management of overdose is complex and changing, it is recommended that the physician contact a poison control center for current information on treatment. Signs and symptoms of toxicity may develop rapidly after cyclobenzaprine overdose; therefore, hospital monitoring is required as soon as possible.
The most common effects associated with cyclobenzaprine overdose are drowsiness and tachycardia. Less frequent manifestations include tremor, agitation, coma, ataxia, hypertension, slurred speech, confusion, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and hallucinations. Rare but potentially critical manifestations of overdose are cardiac arrest, chest pain, cardiac dysrhythmias, severe hypotension, seizures, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Changes in the electrocardiogram, particularly in QRS axis or width, are clinically significant indicators of cyclobenzaprine toxicity. Other potential effects of overdosage include any of the symptoms listed under Adverse Reactions (6).
As management of overdose is complex and changing, it is recommended that the physician contact a poison control center for current information on treatment. In order to protect against the rare but potentially critical manifestations described above, obtain an ECG and immediately initiate cardiac monitoring. Protect the patient's airway, establish an intravenous line, and initiate gastric decontamination. Observation with cardiac monitoring and observation for signs of CNS or respiratory depression, hypotension, cardiac dysrhythmias and/or conduction blocks, and seizures is necessary. If signs of toxicity occur at any time during this period, extended monitoring is required. Monitoring of plasma drug levels should not guide management of the patient. Dialysis is probably of no value because of low plasma concentrations of the drug.
All patients suspected of an overdose with Reflexan should receive gastrointestinal decontamination. This should include large volume gastric lavage followed by activated charcoal. If consciousness is impaired, the airway should be secured prior to lavage and emesis is contraindicated.
A maximal limb-lead QRS duration of 0.10 seconds may be the best indication of the severity of the overdose. Serum alkalinization, to a pH of 7.45 to 7.55, using intravenous sodium bicarbonate and hyperventilation (as needed), should be instituted for patients with dysrhythmias and/or QRS widening. A pH > 7.60 or a pCO2 < 20 mmHg is undesirable. Dysrhythmias unresponsive to sodium bicarbonate therapy/hyperventilation may respond to lidocaine, bretylium, or phenytoin. Type 1A and 1C antiarrhythmics are generally contraindicated (e.g., quinidine, disopyramide, and procainamide).
In patients with CNS depression, early intubation is advised because of the potential for abrupt deterioration. Seizures should be controlled with benzodiazepines or, if these are ineffective, other anticonvulsants (e.g., phenobarbital, phenytoin). Physostigmine is not recommended except to treat life-threatening symptoms that have been unresponsive to other therapies, and then only in close consultation with a poison control center.
Since overdosage is often deliberate, patients may attempt suicide by other means during the recovery phase. Psychiatric referral may be appropriate.
The principles of management of child and adult overdosage are similar. It is strongly recommended that the physician contact the local poison control center for specific pediatric treatment.
Following single-dose administration of Reflexan 15 mg and 30 mg in healthy adult subjects (n=15), Cmax, AUC0-168h and AUC0-∞ increased in an approximately doseproportional manner from 15 mg to 30 mg. The time to peak plasma cyclobenzaprine concentration (Tmax) was 7 to 8 hours for both doses of Reflexan.
A food effect study conducted in healthy adult subjects (n=15) utilizing a single dose of Reflexan 30 mg demonstrated a statistically significant increase in bioavailability when Reflexan 30 mg was given with food relative to the fasted state. There was a 35% increase in peak plasma cyclobenzaprine concentration (Cmax) and a 20% increase in exposure (AUC0-168h and AUC0-∞) in the presence of food. No effect, however, was noted in Tmax or the shape of the mean plasma cyclobenzaprine concentration versus time profile. Cyclobenzaprine in plasma was first detectable in both the fed and fasted states at 1.5 hours.
In a multiple-dose study utilizing Reflexan 30 mg administered once daily for 7 days in a group of healthy adult subjects (n=35), a 2.5-fold accumulation of plasma cyclobenzaprine levels was noted at steady-state.
Metabolism and Excretion
Cyclobenzaprine is extensively metabolized and is excreted primarily as glucuronides via the kidney. Cytochromes P-450 3A4, 1A2, and, to a lesser extent, 2D6, mediate N-demethylation, one of the oxidative pathways for cyclobenzaprine. Cyclobenzaprine has an elimination half-life of 32 hours (range 8-37 hours; n=18); plasma clearance is 0.7 L/min following single dose administration of Reflexan.