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Components:
Sulphamethoxazole, Trimethoprim
Method of action:
Sulfonamide Combination
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Medically reviewed by Militian Inessa Mesropovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2019.12.15

Name of the medicinal product

Koan-I

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Sulphamethoxazole; Trimethoprim

Therapeutic indications

The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Koan-I is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Koan-I of the medicine (Sulphamethoxazole, Trimethoprim). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Therapeutic indications in the instructions to the drug Koan-I directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Injectable
Solution for infusion

Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia

Koan-I is indicated in the treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in adults and pediatric patients two months of age and older.

Shigellosis

Koan-I is indicated in the treatment of enteritis caused by susceptible strains of Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei in adults and pediatric patients two months of age and older.

Urinary Tract Infections

Koan-I is indicated in the treatment of severe or complicated urinary tract infections in adults and pediatric patients two months of age and older due to susceptible strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Enterobacter species, Morganella morganii and Proteus species when oral administration of Koan-I is not feasible and when the organism is not susceptible to single-agent antibacterials effective in the urinary tract.

Usage

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Koan-I and other antibacterial drugs, Koan-I should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to empiric selection of therapy.

Although appropriate culture and susceptibility studies should be performed, therapy may be started while awaiting the results of these studies.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Koan-I and other antibacterial drugs, Koan-I should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Urinary Tract Infections

For the treatment of urinary tract infections due to susceptible strains of the following organisms: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Enterobacter species, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis, and Proteus vulgaris. It is recommended that initial episodes of uncomplicated urinary tract infections be treated with a single effective antibacterial agent rather than the combination.

Acute Otitis Media

For the treatment of acute otitis media in pediatric patients due to susceptible strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae when, in the judgment of the physician, Koan-I offers some advantage over the use of other antimicrobial agents. To date, there is limited data on the safety of repeated use of Koan-I in pediatric patients under two years of age. Koan-I is not indicated for prophylactic or prolonged administration in otitis media at any age.

Acute Exacerbations Of Chronic Bronchitis In Adults

For the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis due to susceptible strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae when, a physician deems that, Koan-I could offer some advantage over the use of a single antimicrobial agent.

Travelers' Diarrhea In Adults

For the treatment of travelers' diarrhea due to susceptible strains of enterotoxigenic E. coli.

Shigellosis

For the treatment of enteritis caused by susceptible strains of Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei when antibacterial therapy is indicated.

Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia

For the treatment of documented Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. For prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in individuals who are immunosuppressed and considered to be at an increased risk of developing Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia.

Septrin Paediatric Suspension is indicated for the treatment of the following infections when owing to sensitive organisms :

Treatment and prevention of Pneumocystis jiroveci (P. carinii) pneumonitis

Treatment and prophylaxis of toxoplasmosis

Treatment of nocardiosis

The following infections may be treated with Septrin where there is bacterial evidence of sensitivity to Septrin and good reason to prefer the combination of antibiotics in Septrin to a single antibiotic:

Acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection

Acute otitis media

Acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis

Consideration should be given to official guidance on the appropriate use of antibacterial agents.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administration of Koan-I is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Koan-I of the medicine (Sulphamethoxazole, Trimethoprim). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Koan-I directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Injection; Suspension; Syrup
Injectable
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Dosage In Adults And Pediatric Patients (Two Months Of Age And Older)

The maximum recommended daily dose is 60 mL (960 mg trimethoprim) per day.

Table 1: Dosage in Adults and Pediatric Patients (Two Months of Age and Older) by Indication

Dosage Guidelines
Infection Total Daily Dose (based on trimethoprim content) Frequency Duration
Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia* 15-20 mg/kg (in 3 or 4 equally divided doses) Every 6 to 8 hours 14 days
Severe Urinary Tract Infections 8-10 mg/kg (in 2 to 4 equally divided doses) Every 6, 8 or 12 hours 14 days
Shigellosis 8-10 mg/kg (in 2 to 4 equally divided doses) Every 6, 8 or 12 hours 5 days
* A total daily dose of 10 to 15 mg/kg was sufficient in 10 adult patients with normal renal function in a published literature.1

Dosage Modifications In Patients With Impaired Renal Function

When renal function is impaired, a reduced dosage should be employed, as shown in Table 2.

Table 2: Impaired Renal Function Dosage Guidelines

Creatinine Clearance (mL/min) Recommended Dosage Regimen
Above 30 Usual standard dosage regimen
15 – 30 ½ the usual dosage regimen
Below 15 Use not recommended

Important Administration Instructions

Administer the solution by intravenous infusion over a period of 60 to 90 minutes. Avoid administration by rapid infusion or bolus injection. Do NOT administer Koan-I intramuscularly.

Visually inspect parenteral drug products for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever the solution and container permit.

Method Of Preparation

Dilution Of Single- And Multiple-Dose Vials

Koan-I must be diluted. Each 5 mL should be added to 125 mL of 5% dextrose in water. After diluting with 5% dextrose in water, the solution should not be refrigerated and should be used within 6 hours.

If a dilution of 5 mL per 100 mL of 5% dextrose in water is desired, it should be used within 4 hours.

In those instances where fluid restriction is desirable, each 5 mL may be added to 75 mL of 5% dextrose in water. Under these circumstances the solution should be mixed just prior to use and should be administered within 2 hours.

If upon visual inspection there is cloudiness or evidence of crystallization after mixing, the solution should be discarded and a fresh solution prepared.

Do NOT mix Koan-I in 5% dextrose in water with drugs or solutions in the same container.

Multiple-Dose Vials (Handling)

After initial entry into the vial, the remaining contents must be used within 48 hours.

Infusion Systems For Intravenous Administration

The following infusion systems have been tested and found satisfactory: unit-dose glass containers; unit-dose polyvinyl chloride and polyolefin containers. No other systems have been tested and therefore no others can be recommended.

Koan-I is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 2 months of age.

Urinary Tract Infections and Shigellosis in Adults and Pediatric Patients and Acute Otitis Media in Pediatric Patients

Adults

The usual adult dosage in the treatment of urinary tract infections is one Koan-I DS (double strength) tablet, two Koan-I tablets, or four teaspoonfuls (20 mL) Koan-I Suspension every 12 hours for 10 to 14 days. An identical daily dosage is used for 5 days in the treatment of shigellosis.

Pediatric Patients

The recommended dose for pediatric patients with urinary tract infections or acute otitis media is 8 mg/kg trimethoprim and 40 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole per 24 hours, given in two divided doses every 12 hours for 10 days. An identical daily dosage is used for 5 days in the treatment of shigellosis. The following table is a guideline for the attainment of this dosage:

Pediatric Patients: Two Months of Age or Older

Weight Dose-Every 12 Hours
lb kg Teaspoonfuls Tablets
22 10 1 (5 mL)  
44 20 2 (10 mL) 1
66 30 3 (15 mL) 1 ½
88 40 4 (20 mL) 2 (or 1 DS Tablet)

For Patients With Impaired Renal Function

When renal function is impaired, a reduced dosage should be employed using the following table:

Creatinine Clearance (mL/min) Recommended Dosage Regimen
Above 30 Use Standard Regimen
15-30 ½ the Usual Regimen
Below 15 Use Not Recommended

Acute Exacerbations Of Chronic Bronchitis In Adults

The usual adult dosage in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis is one Koan-I DS (double strength) tablet, two Koan-I tablets, or four teaspoonfuls (20 mL) Koan-I Suspension every 12 hours for 14 days.

Travelers' Diarrhea In Adults

For the treatment of travelers' diarrhea, the usual adult dosage is one Koan-I DS (double strength) tablet, two Koan-I tablets, or four teaspoonfuls (20 mL) of Koan-I Suspension every 12 hours for 5 days.

Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia

Treatment

Adults And Pediatric Patients

The recommended dosage for treatment of patients with documented P jiroveci pneumonia is 15 to 20 mg/kg trimethoprim and 75 to 100 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole per 24 hours given in equally divided doses every 6 hours for 14 to 21 days. The following table is a guideline for the upper limit of this dosage:

Weight Dose - Every 6 Hours
lb kg Teaspoonfuls Tablets
18 8 1 (5 mL)  
35 16 2 (10 mL) 1
53 24 3 (15 mL) 1 ½
70 32 4 (20 mL) 2 (or 1 DS Tablet)
88 40 5 (25 mL) 2 ½
106 48 6 (30 mL) 3 (or 1 ½ DS Tablets)
141 64 8 (40 mL) 4 (or 2 DS Tablets)
176 80 10 (50 mL) 5 (or 2 ½ DS Tablets)

For the lower limit dose (15 mg/kg trimethoprim and 75 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole per 24 hours) administer 75% of the dose in the above table.

Prophylaxis

Adults

The recommended dosage for prophylaxis in adults is one Koan-I DS (double strength) tablet daily.

Pediatric Patients

For pediatric patients, the recommended dose is 150 mg/m /day trimethoprim 2 with 750 mg/m²/day sulfamethoxazole given orally in equally divided doses twice a day, on 3 consecutive days per week. The total daily dose should not exceed 320 mg trimethoprim and 1,600 mg sulfamethoxazole. The following table is a guideline for the attainment of this dosage in pediatric patients:

Body Surface Area Dose-every 12 hours
(m²) Teaspoonfuls Tablets
0.26 12 (2.5 mL)  
0.53 1 (5 mL) 12
1.06 2 (10 mL) 1

Method of administration: oral.

It may be preferable to take Septrin with some food or drink to minimise the possibility of gastrointestinal disturbances.

Standard dosage recommendations for acute infections

Children aged 12 years and under:

STANDARD DOSAGE

Age

Paediatric Suspension

6 to 12 years

10 ml every 12 hours

6 months to 5 years

5 ml every 12 hours

6 weeks to 5 months

2.5 ml every 12 hours

This dosage approximates to 6 mg trimethoprim and 30 mg sulfamethoxazole per kilogram body weight per 24 hours.

Treatment should be continued until the patient has been symptom free for two days; the majority will require treatment for at least 5 days. If clinical improvement is not evident after 7 days' therapy, the patient should be reassessed.

As an alternative to Standard Dosage for acute uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections, short-term therapy of 1 to 3 days' duration has been shown to be effective.

Special dosage recommendations

(Standard dosage applies unless otherwise specified)

Pneumocystis jiroveci (P. carinii) pneumonitis:

Treatment: A higher dosage is recommended using 20 mg trimethoprim and 100 mg sulfamethoxazole per kg of body weight per day in two or more divided doses for two weeks. The aim is to obtain peak plasma or serum levels of trimethoprim of greater than or equal to 5 microgram/ml (verified in patients receiving 1-hour infusions of intravenous Septrin). (See 4.8 Undesirable Effects).

Prevention:

The following dose schedules may be used for the duration of the period at risk (see Standard dosage recommendations for acute infections subsection of 4.2):

− Standard dosage taken in two divided doses, seven days per week

− Standard dosage taken in two divided doses, three times per week on alternate days

− Standard dosage taken in two divided doses, three times per week on consecutive days

− Standard dosage taken as a single dose, three times per week on consecutive days

The daily dose given on a treatment day approximates to 150 mg trimethoprim/m2/day and 750 mg sulfamethoxazole/m2/day. The total daily dose should not exceed 320 mg trimethoprim and 1600 mg sulfamethoxazole.

Nocardiosis: There is no consensus on the most appropriate dosage. Adult doses of 6 to 8 tablets daily for up to 3 months have been used (one tablet contains 400 mg sulfamethoxazole and 80 mg trimethoprim).

Toxoplasmosis: There is no consensus on the most appropriate dosage for the treatment or prophylaxis of this condition. The decision should be based on clinical experience. For prophylaxis, however, the dosages suggested for prevention of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonitis may be appropriate.

Children aged 12 years and under with renal impairment:

No data are available relating to dosage in children aged 12 years and under with impaired renal function.

Children aged 12 years and under with hepatic impairment:

No data are available relating to dosage in children aged 12 years and under with impaired hepatic function.

Contraindications

The information provided in Contraindications of Koan-I is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Koan-I of the medicine (Sulphamethoxazole, Trimethoprim). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Koan-I directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Koan-I is contraindicated in the following:

  • Known hypersensitivity to trimethoprim or sulfonamides
  • History of drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia with use of trimethoprim and/or sulfonamides
  • Patients with documented megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency
  • Pediatric patients less than two months of age
  • Marked hepatic damage
  • Severe renal insufficiency when renal function status cannot be monitored
  • Concomitant administration with dofetilide2,3

Koan-I is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to trimethoprim or sulfonamides, in patients with a history of drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia with use of trimethoprim and/or sulfonamides, and in patients with documented megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency. Koan-I is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 2 months of age. Koan-I is also contraindicated in patients with marked hepatic damage or with severe renal insufficiency when renal function status cannot be monitored.

Septrin should not be given to patients with a history of hypersensitivity to sulphonamides, trimethoprim, co-trimoxazole, or any excipients of Septrin.

Contra-indicated in patients showing marked liver parenchymal damage.

Contra-indicated in severe renal insufficiency where repeated measurements of the plasma concentration cannot be performed.

Septrin should not be given to premature babies nor to full-term infants during the first 6 weeks of life except for the treatment/prophylaxis of PCP in infants 4 weeks of age or greater.

Special warnings and precautions for use

The information provided in Special warnings and precautions for use of Koan-I is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Koan-I of the medicine (Sulphamethoxazole, Trimethoprim). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special warnings and precautions for use in the instructions to the drug Koan-I directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Injection; Suspension; Syrup
Injectable
Solution for infusion

WARNINGS

Included as part of the "PRECAUTIONS" Section

PRECAUTIONS

Embryo-Fetal Toxicity

Some epidemiologic studies suggest that exposure to Koan-I during pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations, particularly neural tube defects, cardiovascular malformations, urinary tract defects, oral clefts, and club foot. If Koan-I is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be advised of the potential hazards to the fetus.

Hypersensitivity And Other Fatal Reactions

Fatalities associated with the administration of sulfonamides, have occurred due to severe reactions, including, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, fulminant hepatic necrosis, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia and other blood dyscrasias.

Sulfonamides, including sulfonamide-containing products such as Koan-I, should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any sign of adverse reaction. Clinical signs, such as rash, sore throat, fever, arthralgia, cough, shortness of breath, pallor, purpura or jaundice may be early indications of serious reactions. A skin rash may be followed by more severe reactions, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, hepatic necrosis or serious blood disorder. Complete blood counts should be done frequently in patients receiving sulfonamides. Cough, shortness of breath, and pulmonary infiltrates are hypersensitivity reactions of the respiratory tract that have been reported in association with sulfonamide treatment.

Thrombocytopenia

Koan-I-induced thrombocytopenia may be an immune-mediated disorder. Severe cases of thrombocytopenia that are fatal or life threatening have been reported. Monitor patients for hematologic toxicity. Thrombocytopenia usually resolves within a week upon discontinuation of Koan-I.

Streptococcal Infections And Rheumatic Fever

Avoid use of Koan-I in the treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis. Clinical studies have documented that patients with group A β-hemolytic streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis have a greater incidence of bacteriologic failure when treated with Koan-I than do those patients treated with penicillin, as evidenced by failure to eradicate this organism from the tonsillopharyngeal area. Therefore, Koan-I will not prevent sequelae such as rheumatic fever.

Clostridium Difficile-Associated Diarrhea

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Koan-I, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Sulfite Sensitivity

Koan-I contains sodium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions, including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in non-asthmatic people.

Benzyl Alcohol Toxicity In Pediatric Patients (“Gasping Syndrome”)

Koan-I contains benzyl alcohol as a preservative. Serious and fatal adverse reactions including “gasping syndrome” can occur in neonates and low birth weight infants treated with benzyl alcohol-preserved formulations in infusion solutions, including Koan-I. The “gasping syndrome” is characterized by central nervous system depression, metabolic acidosis, and gasping respirations. Koan-I is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than two months of age.

When prescribing Koan-I in pediatric patients (two months of age and older), consider the combined daily metabolic load of benzyl alcohol from all sources including Koan-I (contains 10 mg of benzyl alcohol per mL) and other drugs containing benzyl alcohol.

The minimum amount of benzyl alcohol at which serious adverse reactions may occur is not known.

Risk Associated With Concurrent Use Of Leucovorin For Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia

Treatment failure and excess mortality were observed when Koan-I was used concomitantly with leucovorin for the treatment of HIV positive patients with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in a randomized placebo controlled trial.4 Avoid coadministration of Koan-I and leucovorin during treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia.

Folate Deficiency

Avoid use of Koan-I in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function, in those with possible folate deficiency (e.g., the elderly, chronic alcoholics, patients receiving anticonvulsant therapy, patients with malabsorption syndrome, and patients in malnutrition states) and in those with severe allergies or bronchial asthma.

Hematologic changes indicative of folic acid deficiency may occur in elderly patients or in patients with preexisting folic acid deficiency or kidney failure. These effects are reversible by folinic acid therapy.

Hemolysis

In glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient individuals, hemolysis may occur. This reaction is frequently dose-related.

Infusion Reactions

Local irritation and inflammation due to extravascular infiltration of the infusion have been observed with Koan-I. If these occur the infusion should be discontinued and restarted at another site.

Hypoglycemia

Cases of hypoglycemia in non-diabetic patients treated with Koan-I have been seen, usually occurring after a few days of therapy. Patients with renal dysfunction, liver disease, malnutrition or those receiving high doses of Koan-I are particularly at risk.

Impaired Phenylalanine Metabolism

Trimethoprim, component of Koan-I, has been noted to impair phenylalanine metabolism, but this is of no significance in phenylketonuric patients on appropriate dietary restriction.

Porphyria And Hypothyroidism

Like other drugs containing sulfonamides, Koan-I can precipitate porphyria crisis and hypothyroidism. Avoid use of Koan-I in patients with porphyria or thyroid dysfunction.

Potential Risk In The Treatment Of Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia In Patients With Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

AIDS patients may not tolerate or respond to Koan-I in the same manner as non-AIDS patients. The incidence of adverse reactions, particularly rash, fever, leukopenia, and elevated aminotransferase (transaminase) values, with Koan-I therapy in AIDS patients who are being treated for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia has been reported to be greatly increased compared with the incidence normally associated with the use of Koan-I in non-AIDS patients. If a patient develops skin rash or any sign of an adverse reaction, reevaluate therapy with Koan-I.

Avoid coadministration of Koan-I and leucovorin during treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia.

Electrolyte Abnormalities

High dosage of trimethoprim, as used in patients with P. jirovecii pneumonia, induces a progressive but reversible increase of serum potassium concentrations in a substantial number of patients. Even treatment with recommended doses may cause hyperkalemia when trimethoprim is administered to patients with underlying disorders of potassium metabolism, with renal insufficiency, or if drugs known to induce hyperkalemia are given concomitantly. Close monitoring of serum potassium is warranted in these patients.

Severe and symptomatic hyponatremia can occur in patients receiving Koan-I, particularly for the treatment of P. jirovecii pneumonia. Evaluation for hyponatremia and appropriate correction is necessary in symptomatic patients to prevent life-threatening complications.

During treatment, ensure adequate fluid intake and urinary output to prevent crystalluria. Patients who are “slow acetylators” may be more prone to idiosyncratic reactions to sulfonamides.

Monitoring Of Laboratory Tests

Complete blood counts should be done frequently in patients receiving Koan-I. Discontinue Koan-I if a significant reduction in the count of any formed blood element is noted. Perform urinalyses with careful microscopic examination and renal function tests during therapy, particularly for those patients with impaired renal function.

Development Of Drug-Resistant Bacteria

Prescribing Koan-I in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Carcinogenesis

Sulfamethoxazole was not carcinogenic when assessed in a 26-week tumorigenic mouse (Tg-rasH2) study at doses up to 400 mg/kg/day sulfamethoxazole; equivalent to 2-fold the human systemic exposure (at a daily dose of 800 mg sulfamethoxazole b.i.d. (twice a day).

Mutagenesis

In vitro reverse mutation bacterial tests according to the standard protocol have not been performed with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in combination. An in vitro chromosomal aberration test in human lymphocytes with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim was negative. In in vitro and in vivo tests in animal species, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim did not damage chromosomes. In vivo micronucleus assays were positive following oral administration of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Observations of leukocytes obtained from patients treated with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim revealed no chromosomal abnormalities.

Sulfamethoxazole alone was positive in an in vitro reverse mutation bacterial assay and in in vitro micronucleus assays using cultured human lymphocytes.

Trimethoprim alone was negative in in vitro reverse mutation bacterial assays and in in vitro chromosomal aberration assays with Chinese Hamster ovary or lung cells with or without S9 activation. In in vitro Comet, micronucleus and chromosomal damage assays using cultured human lymphocytes, trimethoprim was positive. In mice following oral administration of trimethoprim, no DNA damage in Comet assays of liver, kidney, lung, spleen, or bone marrow was recorded.

Impairment Of Fertility

No adverse effects on fertility or general reproductive performance were observed in rats given oral dosages as high as 350 mg/kg/day sulfamethoxazole plus 70 mg/kg/day trimethoprim, doses roughly two times the recommended human daily dose on a body surface area basis.

Use In Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Koan-I may cause fetal harm if administered to a pregnant woman. Some epidemiologic studies suggest that exposure to Koan-I during pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations, particularly neural tube defects, cardiovascular abnormalities, urinary tract defects, oral clefts, and club foot.

One of 3 rat studies showed cleft palate at doses approximately 5 times the recommended human dose on a body surface area basis; the other 2 studies did not show teratogenicity at similar doses. Studies in pregnant rabbits showed increased fetal loss at approximately 6 times the human dose on a body surface area basis.

The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriages for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively. Advise pregnant women of the potential harm of Koan-I to the fetus.

Clinical Considerations

Disease-associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk

Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and pre-eclampsia, and increased mortality to the pregnant woman. P. jirovecii pneumonia in pregnancy is associated with preterm birth and increased morbidity and mortality for the pregnant woman. Koan-I should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Data

Human Data

While there are no large, prospective, well-controlled studies in pregnant women and their babies, some retrospective epidemiologic studies suggest an association between first trimester exposure to Koan-I with an increased risk of congenital malformations, particularly neural tube defects, cardiovascular abnormalities, urinary tract defects, oral clefts, and club foot. These studies, however, were limited by the small number of exposed cases and the lack of adjustment for multiple statistical comparisons and confounders. These studies are further limited by recall, selection, and information biases, and by limited generalizability of their findings. Lastly, outcome measures varied between studies, limiting cross-study comparisons.

Alternatively, other epidemiologic studies did not detect statistically significant associations between Koan-I exposure and specific malformations. Brumfitt and Pursell,10 in a retrospective study, reported the outcome of 186 pregnancies during which the mother received either placebo or oral trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. The incidence of congenital abnormalities was 4.5% (3 of 66) in those who received placebo and 3.3% (4 of 120) in those receiving trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. There were no abnormalities in the 10 children whose mothers received the drug during the first trimester.

In a separate survey, Brumfitt and Pursell also found no congenital abnormalities in 35 children whose mothers had received oral trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole at the time of conception or shortly thereafter.

Animal Data

In rats, oral doses of either 533 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole or 200 mg/kg trimethoprim produced teratologic effects manifested mainly as cleft palates. These doses are approximately 5 and 6 times the recommended human total daily dose on a body surface area basis. In two studies in rats, no teratology was observed when 512 mg/kg of sulfamethoxazole was used in combination with 128 mg/kg of trimethoprim. In some rabbit studies, an overall increase in fetal loss (dead and resorbed conceptuses) was associated with doses of trimethoprim 6 times the human therapeutic dose based on body surface area.

Lactation

Risk Summary

Levels of Koan-I in breast milk are approximately 2 to 5% of the recommended daily dose for pediatric patients over two months of age. There is no information regarding the effect of Koan-I on the breastfed infant or the effect on milk production. Because of the potential risk of bilirubin displacement and kernicterus on the breastfed child , advise women to avoid breastfeeding during treatment with Koan-I.

Pediatric Use

Koan-I is contraindicated in pediatric patients younger than two months of age because of the potential risk of bilirubin displacement and kernicterus.

Serious adverse reactions including fatal reactions and the “gasping syndrome” occurred in premature neonates and low birth weight infants in the neonatal intensive care unit who received benzyl alcohol as a preservative in infusion solutions. In these cases, benzyl alcohol dosages of 99 to 234 mg/kg/day produced high levels of benzyl alcohol and its metabolites in the blood and urine (blood levels of benzyl alcohol were 0.61 to 1.378 mmol/L). Additional adverse reactions included gradual neurological deterioration, seizures, intracranial hemorrhage, hematologic abnormalities, skin breakdown, hepatic and renal failure, hypotension, bradycardia, and cardiovascular collapse. Preterm, low-birth weight infants may be more likely to develop these reactions because they may be less able to metabolize benzyl alcohol.

When prescribing Koan-I in pediatric patients consider the combined daily metabolic load of benzyl alcohol from all sources including Koan-I (Koan-I contains 10 mg of benzyl alcohol per mL) and other drugs containing benzyl alcohol. The minimum amount of benzyl alcohol at which serious adverse reactions may occur is not known.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Koan-I did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects.

There may be an increased risk of severe adverse reactions in elderly patients, particularly when complicating conditions exist, e.g., impaired kidney and/or liver function, or concomitant use of other drugs.

Severe skin reactions, generalized bone marrow suppression , a specific decrease in platelets (with or without purpura), and hyperkalemia are the most frequently reported severe adverse reactions in elderly patients.

In those concurrently receiving certain diuretics, primarily thiazides, an increased incidence of thrombocytopenia with purpura has been reported. Increased digoxin blood levels can occur with concomitant Koan-I therapy, especially in elderly patients. Serum digoxin levels should be monitored.

Hematologic changes indicative of folic acid deficiency may occur in elderly patients. These effects are reversible by folinic acid therapy. Appropriate dosage adjustments should be made for patients with impaired kidney function and duration of use should be as short as possible to minimize risks of undesired reactions.

The trimethoprim component of Koan-I may cause hyperkalemia when administered to patients with underlying disorders of potassium metabolism, with renal insufficiency or when given concomitantly with drugs known to induce hyperkalemia, such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Close monitoring of serum potassium is warranted in these patients. Discontinuation of Koan-I treatment is recommended to help lower potassium serum levels.

Pharmacokinetics parameters for sulfamethoxazole were similar for geriatric subjects and younger adult subjects. The mean maximum serum trimethoprim concentration was higher and mean renal clearance of trimethoprim was lower in geriatric subjects compared with younger subjects.

REFERENCES

4. Safrin S, Lee BL, Sande MA. Adjunctive folinic acid with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients is associated with an increased risk of therapeutic failure and death. J Infect Dis. Oct 1994;170(4):912-7.

10. Brumfitt W, Pursell R. Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole in the Treatment of Bacteriuria in Women. J Infect Dis. Nov 1973;128 (Suppl): S657-S663.

WARNINGS

Embryofetal Toxicity

Some epidemiologic studies suggest that exposure to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim during pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations, particularly neural tube defects, cardiovascular malformations, urinary tract defects, oral clefts, and club foot. If sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be advised of the potential hazards to the fetus.

Hypersensitivity And Other Fatal Reactions

Fatalities associated with the administration of sulfonamides, although rare, have occurred due to severe reactions, including Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, fulminant hepatic necrosis, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia and other blood dyscrasias.

Sulfonamides, including sulfonamide-containing products such as sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any sign of adverse reaction. In rare instances, a skin rash may be followed by a more severe reaction, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, hepatic necrosis, and serious blood disorders (see PRECAUTIONS). Clinical signs, such as rash, sore throat, fever, arthralgia, pallor, purpura or jaundice may be early indications of serious reactions.

Cough, shortness of breath, and pulmonary infiltrates are hypersensitivity reactions of the respiratory tract that have been reported in association with sulfonamide treatment.

Thrombocytopenia

Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim-induced thrombocytopenia may be an immune-mediated disorder. Severe cases of thrombocytopenia that are fatal or life threatening have been reported. Thrombocytopenia usually resolves within a week upon discontinuation of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim.

Streptococcal Infections And Rheumatic Fever

The sulfonamides should not be used for the treatment of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections. In an established infection, they will not eradicate the streptococcus and, therefore, will not prevent sequelae such as rheumatic fever.

Clostridium Difficile Associated Diarrhea

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Koan-I, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use.

Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Adjunctive Treatment With Leucovorin For Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia

Treatment failure and excess mortality were observed when trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was used concomitantly with leucovorin for the treatment of HIV positive patients with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in a randomized placebo controlled trial.7 Co-administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and leucovorin during treatment of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia should be avoided.

PRECAUTIONS

Development Of Drug Resistant Bacteria

Prescribing Koan-I in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Folate deficiency

Koan-I should be given with caution to patients with impaired renal or hepatic function, to those with possible folate deficiency (e.g., the elderly, chronic alcoholics, patients receiving anticonvulsant therapy, patients with malabsorption syndrome, and patients in malnutrition states), and to those with severe allergy or bronchial asthma.

Hemolysis

In glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient individuals, hemolysis may occur. This reaction is frequently dose-related (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Hypoglycemia

Cases of hypoglycemia in non-diabetic patients treated with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim have been reported, usually occurring after a few days of therapy. Patients with renal dysfunction, liver disease, malnutrition or those receiving high doses of Koan-I are particularly at risk.

Phenylalanine Metabolism

Trimethoprim has been noted to impair phenylalanine metabolism, but this is of no significance in phenylketonuric patients on appropriate dietary restriction.

Porphyria And Hypothyroidism

As with all drugs containing sulfonamides, caution is advisable in patients with porphyria or thyroid dysfunction.

Use In The Treatment Of And Prophylaxis For Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia In Patients With Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

AIDS patients may not tolerate or respond to Koan-I it the same manner as non-AIDS patients. The incidence of side effects, particularly rash, fever, leukopenia, and elevated aminotransferase (transaminase) values in AIDS patients who are being treated with Koan-I for P. jiroveci pneumonia has been reported to be greatly increased compared with the incidence normally associated with the use of Koan-I in non-AIDS patients. Adverse effects are generally less severe in patients receiving Koan-I for prophylaxis. A history of mild intolerance to Koan-I in AIDS patients does not appear to predict intolerance of subsequent secondary prophylaxis. However, if a patient develops skin rash or any sign of adverse reaction, therapy with Koan-I should be re-evaluated (see WARNINGS).

Co-administration of Koan-I and leucovorin should be avoided with P. jiroveci pneumonia (see WARNINGS).

Electrolyte Abnormalities

High dosage of trimethoprim, as used in patients with P. jiroveci pneumonia, induces a progressive but reversible increase of serum potassium concentrations in a substantial number of patients. Even treatment with recommended doses may cause hyperkalemia when trimethoprim is administered to patients with underlying disorders of potassium metabolism, with renal insufficiency, or if drugs known to induce hyperkalemia are given concomitantly. Close monitoring of serum potassium is warranted in these patients.

Severe and symptomatic hyponatremia can occur in patients receiving sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, particularly for the treatment of P. jiroveci pneumonia. Evaluation for hyponatremia and appropriate correction is necessary in symptomatic patients to prevent life-threatening complications.

During treatment, adequate fluid intake and urinary output should be ensured to prevent crystalluria. Patients who are “slow acetylators” may be more prone to idiosyncratic reactions to sulfonamides.

Laboratory Tests

Complete blood counts should be done frequently in patients receiving Koan-I; if a significant reduction in the count of any formed blood element is noted, Koan-I should be discontinued. Urinalyses with careful microscopic examination and renal function tests should be performed during therapy, particularly for those patients with impaired renal function.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Carcinogenesis

Sulfamethoxazole was not carcinogenic when assessed in a 26-week tumorigenic mouse (Tg-rasH2) study at doses up to 400 mg/kg/day sulfamethoxazole; equivalent to 2.4-fold the human systemic exposure (at a daily dose of 800 mg sulfamethoxazole b.i.d.).

Mutagenesis

In vitro reverse mutation bacterial tests according to the standard protocol have not been performed with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in combination. An in vitro chromosomal aberration test in human lymphocytes with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim was negative. In in vitro and in vivo tests in animal species, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim did not damage chromosomes. In vivo micronucleus assays were positive following oral administration of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Observations of leukocytes obtained from patients treated with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim revealed no chromosomal abnormalities.

Sulfamethoxazole alone was positive in an in vitro reverse mutation bacterial assay and in in vitro micronucleus assays using cultured human lymphocytes.

Trimethoprim alone was negative in in vitro reverse mutation bacterial assays and in in vitro chromosomal aberration assays with Chinese Hamster ovary or lung cells with or without S9 activation. In in vitro Comet, micronucleus and chromosomal damage assays using cultured human lymphocytes, trimethoprim was positive. In mice following oral administration of trimethoprim, no DNA damage in Comet assays of liver, kidney, lung, spleen, or bone marrow was recorded.

Impairment Of Fertility

No adverse effects on fertility or general reproductive performance were observed in rats given oral dosages as high as 70 mg/kg/day trimethoprim plus 350 mg/kg/day sulfamethoxazole, doses roughly two times the recommended human daily dose on a body surface area basis.

Pregnancy

While there are no large, well-controlled studies on the use of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in pregnant women, Brumfitt and Pursell,9 in a retrospective study, reported the outcome of 186 pregnancies during which the mother received either placebo or trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. The incidence of congenital abnormalities was 4.5% (3 of 66) in those who received placebo and 3.3% (4 of 120) in those receiving trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. There were no abnormalities in the 10 children whose mothers received the drug during the first trimester. In a separate survey, Brumfitt and Pursell also found no congenital abnormalities in 35 children whose mothers had received oral trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole at the time of conception or shortly thereafter.

Because trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole may interfere with folic acid metabolism, Koan-I should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category D

Human Data

While there are no large prospective, well controlled studies in pregnant women and their babies, some retrospective epidemiologic studies suggest an association between first trimester exposure to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim with an increased risk of congenital malformations, particularly neural tube defects, cardiovascular abnormalities, urinary tract defects, oral clefts, and club foot. These studies, however, were limited by the small number of exposed cases and the lack of adjustment for multiple statistical comparisons and confounders. These studies are further limited by recall, selection, and information biases, and by limited generalizability of their findings. Lastly, outcome measures varied between studies, limiting cross-study comparisons. Alternatively, other epidemiologic studies did not detect statistically significant associations between sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim exposure and specific malformations.

Animal Data

In rats, oral doses of either 533 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole or 200 mg/kg trimethoprim produced teratologic effects manifested mainly as cleft palates. These doses are approximately 5 and 6 times the recommended human total daily dose on a body surface area basis. In two studies in rats, no teratology was observed when 512 mg/kg of sulfamethoxazole was used in combination with 128 mg/kg of trimethoprim. In some rabbit studies, an overall increase in fetal loss (dead and resorbed conceptuses) was associated with doses of trimethoprim 6 times the human therapeutic dose based on body surface area.

Nonteratogenic Effects

See CONTRAINDICATIONS section.

Nursing Mothers

Levels of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in breast milk are approximately 2-5% of the recommended daily dose for infants over 2 months of age. Caution should be exercised when Koan-I is administered to a nursing woman, especially when breastfeeding jaundiced, ill, stressed, or premature infants because of the potential risk of bilirubin displacement and kernicterus.

Pediatric Use

Koan-I is contraindicated for pediatric patients younger than 2 months of age (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE and CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Koan-I did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects.

There may be an increased risk of severe adverse reactions in elderly patients, particularly when complicating conditions exist, e.g., impaired kidney and/or liver function, possible folate deficiency, or concomitant use of other drugs. Severe skin reactions, generalized bone marrow suppression (see WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS sections), a specific decrease in platelets (with or without purpura), and hyperkalemia are the most frequently reported severe adverse reactions in elderly patients. In those concurrently receiving certain diuretics, primarily thiazides, an increased incidence of thrombocytopenia with purpura has been reported. Increased digoxin blood levels can occur with concomitant Koan-I therapy, especially in elderly patients. Serum digoxin levels should be monitored. Hematological changes indicative of folic acid deficiency may occur in elderly patients. These effects are reversible by folinic acid therapy. Appropriate dosage adjustments should be made for patients with impaired kidney function and duration of use should be as short as possible to minimize risks of undesired reactions (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section). The trimethoprim component of Koan-I may cause hyperkalemia when administered to patients with underlying disorders of potassium metabolism, with renal insufficiency, or when given concomitantly with drugs known to induce hyperkalemia, such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.8 Close monitoring of serum potassium is warranted in these patients. Discontinuation of Koan-I treatment is recommended to help lower potassium serum levels. Koan-I Tablets contain 1.8 mg (0.08 mEq) of sodium per tablet. Koan-I DS Tablets contain 3.6 mg (0.16 mEq) of sodium per tablet.

Pharmacokinetics parameters for sulfamethoxazole were similar for geriatric subjects and younger adult subjects. The mean maximum serum trimethoprim concentration was higher and mean renal clearance of trimpethoprim was lower in geriatric subjects compared with younger subjects3 (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Geriatric Pharmacokinetics:).

REFERENCES

3. Varoqaux O, et al. Pharmacokinetics of the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination in the elderly. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1985; 20: 575-581.

7. Safrin S, Lee BL, Sande MA. Adjunctive folinic acid with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients is associated with an increased risk of therapeutic failure and death. J Infect Dis. 1994 Oct; 170(4): 912-7.

8. Marinella MA. Trimethoprim - induced hyperkalemia: An analysis of reported cases. Gerontology 45: 209-212, 1999.

9. Brumfitt W, Pursell R. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of bacteriuria in women. J Infect Dis. 1973;128 (suppl):S657-S663.

Fatalities, although very rare, have occurred due to severe reactions including fulminant hepatic necrosis, agranulocytosis, aplastic anaemia, other blood dyscrasias and hypersensitivity of the respiratory tract.

-Life-threatening cutaneous reactions Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) have been reported with the use of Septrin.

-Patients should be advised of the signs and symptoms and monitored closely for skin reactions. The highest risk for occurrence of SJS or TEN is within the first weeks of treatment.

-If symptoms or signs of SJS or TEN (e.g. progressive skin rash often with blisters or mucosal lesions) are present, Septrin treatment should be discontinued (see 4.8 Undesirable Effects).

-The best results in managing SJS and TEN come from early diagnosis and immediate discontinuation of any suspect drug. Early withdrawal is associated with a better prognosis.

-If the patient has developed SJS or TEN with the use of Septrin, Septrin must not be re-started in this patient at any time.

Particular care is always advisable when treating elderly patients because, as a group, they are more susceptible to adverse reactions and more likely to suffer serious effects as a result particularly when complicating conditions exist, e.g. impaired kidney and/or liver function and/or concomitant use of other drugs.

An adequate urinary output should be maintained at all times. Evidence of crystalluria in vivo is rare, although sulphonamide crystals have been noted in cooled urine from treated patients. In patients suffering from malnutrition the risk may be increased.

Regular monthly blood counts are advisable when Septrin is given for long periods, or to folate deficient patients or to the elderly, since there exists a possibility of asymptomatic changes in haematological laboratory indices due to lack of available folate. These changes may be reversed by administration of folinic acid (5 to 10 mg/day) without interfering with the antibacterial activity.

In glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficient patients haemolysis may occur.

Septrin should be given with caution to patients with severe allergy or bronchial asthma.

Septrin should not be used in the treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis due to Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci; eradication of these organisms from the oropharynx is less effective than with penicillin.

Trimethoprim has been noted to impair phenylalanine metabolism but this is of no significance in phenylketonuric patients on appropriate dietary restriction.

The administration of Septrin to patients known or suspected to be at risk of acute porphyria should be avoided. Both trimethoprim and sulphonamides (although not specifically sulfamethoxazole) have been associated with clinical exacerbation of porphyria.

Close monitoring of serum potassium and sodium is warranted in patients at risk of hyperkalaemia and hyopnatraemia.

Except under careful supervision Septrin should not be given to patients with serious haematological disorders (see 4.8 Undesirable Effects). Septrin has been given to patients receiving cytotoxic therapy with little or no additional effect on the bone marrow or peripheral blood.

The combination of antibiotics in Septrin should only be used where, in the judgement of the physician, the benefits of treatment outweigh any possible risks; consideration should be given to the use of a single effective antibacterial agent.

Patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance should not take this medicine. See Section 2 Quantitative and Qualitative Composition.

This medicinal product contains methyl hydroxybenzoate, which may cause allergic reactions (possibly delayed).

This medicinal product contains small amounts of ethanol (alcohol), less than 100 mg per 5 ml.

This medicinal product contains less than 1 mmol of sodium (23 mg) per dose, and therefore is essentially sodium free.

Effects on ability to drive and use machines

The information provided in Effects on ability to drive and use machines of Koan-I is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Koan-I of the medicine (Sulphamethoxazole, Trimethoprim). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Effects on ability to drive and use machines in the instructions to the drug Koan-I directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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There have been no studies to investigate the effect of Septrin on driving performance or the ability to operate machinery. Further a detrimental effect on such activities cannot be predicted from the pharmacology of the drug. Nevertheless the clinical status of the patient and the adverse events profile of Septrin should be borne in mind when considering the patients ability to operate machinery.

Undesirable effects

The information provided in Undesirable effects of Koan-I is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Koan-I of the medicine (Sulphamethoxazole, Trimethoprim). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Undesirable effects in the instructions to the drug Koan-I directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Injection; Suspension; Syrup
Injectable
Solution for infusion

The following serious adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling:

  • Embryo-fetal Toxicity
  • Hypersensitivity and Other Fatal Reactions
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea
  • Sulfite Sensitivity
  • Risk Associated with Concurrent Use of Leucovorin for Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia
  • Infusion Reactions
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Electrolyte Abnormalities

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

The most common adverse reactions are gastrointestinal disturbances (nausea, vomiting, and anorexia) and allergic skin reactions (such as rash and urticaria).

Local reaction, pain and slight irritation on intravenous (IV) administration are infrequent. Thrombophlebitis has been observed.

Table 3: Adverse Reactions Reported with Koan-I

Body System Adverse Reactions
Hematologic
  • Agranulocytosis
  • Aplastic anemia
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Leukopenia
  • Neutropenia
  • Hemolytic anemia
  • Megaloblastic anemia
  • Hypoprothrombinemia
  • Methemoglobinemia
  • Eosinophilia
Allergic Reactions
  • Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  • Toxic epidermal necrolysis
  • Anaphylaxis
  • Allergic myocarditis
  • Erythema multiforme
  • Exfoliative dermatitis
  • Angioedema
  • Drug fever
  • Chills
  • Henoch-Schoenlein purpura
  • Serum sickness-like syndrome
  • Conjunctival and scleral injection
  • Photosensitivity
  • Pruritus
  • Urticaria
  • Rash
  • Periarteriitis nodosa
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
Gastrointestinal
  • Hepatitis (including cholestatic jaundice and hepatic necrosis)
  • Elevation of serum transaminase and bilirubin
  • Pseudomembranous enterocolitis
  • Pancreatitis
  • Stomatitis
  • Glossitis
  • Nausea
  • Emesis
  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Anorexia
Genitourinary
  • Renal failure
  • Interstitial nephritis
  • BUN and serum creatinine elevation
  • Toxic nephrosis with oliguria and anuria
  • Crystalluria
Metabolic and Nutritional
  • Hyperkalemia
  • Hyponatremia
Neurologic
  • Aseptic meningitis
  • Convulsions
  • Peripheral neuritis
  • Ataxia
  • Vertigo
  • Tinnitus
  • Headache
Psychiatric
  • Hallucinations
  • Depression
  • Apathy
  • Nervousness
Endocrine
  • Sulfonamides bear certain chemical similarities to some goitrogens, diuretics (acetazolamide and the thiazides) and oral hypoglycemic agents (cross-sensitivity may exist with these agents)
  • Diuresis and hypoglycemia (have occurred in patients receiving sulfonamides)
Musculoskeletal
  • Arthralgia
  • Myalgia
  • Rhabdomyolysis
Respiratory
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Pulmonary infiltrates
Miscellaneous
  • Weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Insomnia
Eye Disorders
  • Uveitis5

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Koan-I. Because these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure:

  • Thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura
  • Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
  • QT prolongation resulting in ventricular tachycardia and torsade de pointes

The most common adverse effects are gastrointestinal disturbances (nausea, vomiting, anorexia) and allergic skin reactions (such as rash and urticaria). FATALITIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE ADMINISTRATION OF SULFONAMIDES, ALTHOUGH RARE, HAVE OCCURRED DUE TO SEVERE REACTIONS, INCLUDING STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROME, TOXIC EPIDERMAL NECROLYSIS, FULMINANT HEPATIC NECROSIS, AGRANULOCYTOSIS, APLASTIC ANEMIA, OTHER BLOOD DYSCRASIAS, AND HYPERSENSITIVITY OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT (SEE WARNINGS).

Hematologic

Agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, neutropenia, hemolytic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, hypoprothrombinemia, methemoglobinemia, eosinophilia.

Allergic

Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, anaphylaxis, allergic myocarditis, erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, angioedema, drug fever, chills, Henoch- Schonlein purpura, serum sickness-like syndrome, generalized allergic reactions, generalized skin eruptions, photosensitivity, conjunctival and scleral injection, pruritus, urticaria, and rash. In addition, periarteritis nodosa and systemic lupus erythematosus have been reported.

Gastrointestinal

Hepatitis, including cholestatic jaundice and hepatic necrosis, elevation of serum transaminase and bilirubin, pseudomembranous enterocolitis, pancreatitis, stomatitis, glossitis, nausea, emesis, abdominal pain, diarrhea, anorexia.

Genitourinary

Renal failure, interstitial nephritis, BUN and serum creatinine elevation, toxic nephrosis with oliguria and anuria, crystalluria, and nephrotoxicity in association with cyclosporine.

Metabolic

Hyperkalemia, hyponatremia (see PRECAUTIONS: Electrolyte Abnormalities).

Neurologic

Aseptic meningitis, convulsions, peripheral neuritis, ataxia, vertigo, tinnitus, headache.

Psychiatric

Hallucinations, depression, apathy, nervousness.

Endocrine

The sulfonamides bear certain chemical similarities to some goitrogens, diuretics (acetazolamide and the thiazides), and oral hypoglycemic agents. Cross-sensitivity may exist with these agents. Diuresis and hypoglycemia have occurred rarely in patients receiving sulfonamides.

Musculoskeletal

Arthralgia and myalgia. Cases of rhabdomyolysis have been reported with Koan-I, mainly in AIDS patients.

Respiratory System

Cough, shortness of breath, and pulmonary infiltrates (see WARNINGS).

Miscellaneous

Weakness, fatigue, insomnia.

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Because these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure:

  • Thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura
  • Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
  • QT prolongation resulting in ventricular tachycardia and torsade de pointes
).

Prevention:

The following dose schedules may be used for the duration of the period at risk (see Standard dosage recommendations for acute infections subsection of 4.2):

− Standard dosage taken in two divided doses, seven days per week

− Standard dosage taken in two divided doses, three times per week on alternate days

− Standard dosage taken in two divided doses, three times per week on consecutive days

− Standard dosage taken as a single dose, three times per week on consecutive days

The daily dose given on a treatment day approximates to 150 mg trimethoprim/m2/day and 750 mg sulfamethoxazole/m2/day. The total daily dose should not exceed 320 mg trimethoprim and 1600 mg sulfamethoxazole.

Nocardiosis: There is no consensus on the most appropriate dosage. Adult doses of 6 to 8 tablets daily for up to 3 months have been used (one tablet contains 400 mg sulfamethoxazole and 80 mg trimethoprim).

Toxoplasmosis: There is no consensus on the most appropriate dosage for the treatment or prophylaxis of this condition. The decision should be based on clinical experience. For prophylaxis, however, the dosages suggested for prevention of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonitis may be appropriate.

Children aged 12 years and under with renal impairment:

No data are available relating to dosage in children aged 12 years and under with impaired renal function.

Children aged 12 years and under with hepatic impairment:

No data are available relating to dosage in children aged 12 years and under with impaired hepatic function.

4.3 Contraindications

Septrin should not be given to patients with a history of hypersensitivity to sulphonamides, trimethoprim, co-trimoxazole, or any excipients of Septrin.

Contra-indicated in patients showing marked liver parenchymal damage.

Contra-indicated in severe renal insufficiency where repeated measurements of the plasma concentration cannot be performed.

Septrin should not be given to premature babies nor to full-term infants during the first 6 weeks of life except for the treatment/prophylaxis of PCP in infants 4 weeks of age or greater.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Fatalities, although very rare, have occurred due to severe reactions including fulminant hepatic necrosis, agranulocytosis, aplastic anaemia, other blood dyscrasias and hypersensitivity of the respiratory tract.

-Life-threatening cutaneous reactions Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) have been reported with the use of Septrin.

-Patients should be advised of the signs and symptoms and monitored closely for skin reactions. The highest risk for occurrence of SJS or TEN is within the first weeks of treatment.

-If symptoms or signs of SJS or TEN (e.g. progressive skin rash often with blisters or mucosal lesions) are present, Septrin treatment should be discontinued (see 4.8 Undesirable Effects).

-The best results in managing SJS and TEN come from early diagnosis and immediate discontinuation of any suspect drug. Early withdrawal is associated with a better prognosis.

-If the patient has developed SJS or TEN with the use of Septrin, Septrin must not be re-started in this patient at any time.

Particular care is always advisable when treating elderly patients because, as a group, they are more susceptible to adverse reactions and more likely to suffer serious effects as a result particularly when complicating conditions exist, e.g. impaired kidney and/or liver function and/or concomitant use of other drugs.

An adequate urinary output should be maintained at all times. Evidence of crystalluria in vivo is rare, although sulphonamide crystals have been noted in cooled urine from treated patients. In patients suffering from malnutrition the risk may be increased.

Regular monthly blood counts are advisable when Septrin is given for long periods, or to folate deficient patients or to the elderly, since there exists a possibility of asymptomatic changes in haematological laboratory indices due to lack of available folate. These changes may be reversed by administration of folinic acid (5 to 10 mg/day) without interfering with the antibacterial activity.

In glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficient patients haemolysis may occur.

Septrin should be given with caution to patients with severe allergy or bronchial asthma.

Septrin should not be used in the treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis due to Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci; eradication of these organisms from the oropharynx is less effective than with penicillin.

Trimethoprim has been noted to impair phenylalanine metabolism but this is of no significance in phenylketonuric patients on appropriate dietary restriction.

The administration of Septrin to patients known or suspected to be at risk of acute porphyria should be avoided. Both trimethoprim and sulphonamides (although not specifically sulfamethoxazole) have been associated with clinical exacerbation of porphyria.

Close monitoring of serum potassium and sodium is warranted in patients at risk of hyperkalaemia and hyopnatraemia.

Except under careful supervision Septrin should not be given to patients with serious haematological disorders (see 4.8 Undesirable Effects). Septrin has been given to patients receiving cytotoxic therapy with little or no additional effect on the bone marrow or peripheral blood.

The combination of antibiotics in Septrin should only be used where, in the judgement of the physician, the benefits of treatment outweigh any possible risks; consideration should be given to the use of a single effective antibacterial agent.

Patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance should not take this medicine. See Section 2 Quantitative and Qualitative Composition.

This medicinal product contains methyl hydroxybenzoate, which may cause allergic reactions (possibly delayed).

This medicinal product contains small amounts of ethanol (alcohol), less than 100 mg per 5 ml.

This medicinal product contains less than 1 mmol of sodium (23 mg) per dose, and therefore is essentially sodium free.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Trimethoprim may interfere with the estimation of serum/plasma creatinine when the alkaline picrate reaction is used. This may result in overestimation of serum/plasma creatinine of the order of 10%. The creatinine clearance is reduced: the renal tubular secretion of creatinine is decreased from 23% to 9% whilst the glomerular filtration remains unchanged.

In some situations, concomitant treatment with zidovudine may increase the risk of haematological adverse reactions to co-trimoxazole. If concomitant treatment is necessary, consideration should be given to monitoring of haematological parameters.

Reversible deterioration in renal function has been observed in patients treated with co-trimoxazole and cyclosporin following renal transplantation.

Concurrent use of rifampicin and Septrin results in a shortening of the plasma half-life of trimethoprim after a period of about one week. This is not thought to be of clinical significance.

When trimethoprim is administered simultaneously with drugs that form cations at physiological pH, and are also partly excreted by active renal secretion (e.g. procainamide, amantadine), there is the possibility of competitive inhibition of this process which may lead to an increase in plasma concentration of one or both of the drugs.

In elderly patients concurrently receiving diuretics, mainly thiazides, there appears to be an increased risk of thrombocytopenia with or without purpura.

Occasional reports suggest that patients receiving pyrimethamine at doses in excess of 25 mg weekly may develop megaloblastic anaemia should co-trimoxazole be prescribed concurrently.

Co-trimoxazole has been shown to potentiate the anticoagulant activity of warfarin via stereo-selective inhibition of its metabolism. Sulfamethoxazole may displace warfarin from plasma-albumin protein-binding sites in vitro. Careful control of the anticoagulant therapy during treatment with Septrin is advisable.

Co-trimoxazole prolongs the half-life of phenytoin and if co-administered could result in excessive phenytoin effect. Close monitoring of the patient's condition and serum phenytoin levels are advisable.

Concomitant use of trimethoprim with digoxin has been shown to increase plasma digoxin levels in a proportion of elderly patients.

Co-trimoxazole may increase the free plasma levels of methotrexate.

Trimethoprim interferes with assays for serum methotrexate when dihydrofolate reductase from Lactobacillus casei is used in the assay. No interference occurs if methotrexate is measured by radioimmuno assay.

Administration of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 160mg/800mg (co-trimoxazole) causes a 40% increase in lamivudine exposure because of the trimethoprim component. Lamivudine has no effect on the pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim or sulfamethoxazole.

Interaction with sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic agents is uncommon but potentiation has been reported.

Caution should be exercised in patients taking any other drugs that can cause hyperkalaemia.

If Septrin is considered appropriate therapy in patients receiving other anti-folate drugs such as methotrexate, a folate supplement should be considered.

4.6. Pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

There are not any adequate data from the use of Septrin in pregnant women. Case-control studies have shown that there may be an association between exposure to folate antagonists and birth defects in humans.

Trimethoprim is a folate antagonist and, in animal studies, both agents have been shown to cause foetal abnormalities (see 5.3 Preclinical Safety Data).

Septrin should not be used in pregnancy, particularly in the first trimester, unless clearly necessary. Folate supplementation should be considered if Septrin is used in pregnancy.

Sulfamethoxazole competes with bilirubin for binding to plasma albumin. As significantly maternally derived drug levels persist for several days in the newborn, there may be a risk of precipitating or exacerbating neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, with an associated theoretical risk of kernicterus, when Septrin is administered to the mother near the time of delivery. This theoretical risk is particularly relevant in infants at increased risk of hyperbilirubinaemia, such as those who are preterm and those with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

Lactation

The components of Septrin (trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole) are excreted in breast milk. Administration of Septrin should be avoided in late pregnancy and in lactating mothers where the mother or infant has, or is at particular risk of developing, hyperbilirubinaemia. Additionally, administration of Septrin should be avoided in infants younger than eight weeks in view of the predisposition of young infants to hyperbilirubinaemia.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

There have been no studies to investigate the effect of Septrin on driving performance or the ability to operate machinery. Further a detrimental effect on such activities cannot be predicted from the pharmacology of the drug. Nevertheless the clinical status of the patient and the adverse events profile of Septrin should be borne in mind when considering the patients ability to operate machinery.

4.8 Undesirable effects

As co-trimoxazole contains trimethoprim and a sulphonamide the type and frequency of adverse reactions associated with such compounds are expected to be consistent with extensive historical experience.

Data from large published clinical trials were used to determine the frequency of very common to rare adverse events. Very rare adverse events were primarily determined from post-marketing experience data and therefore refer to reporting rate rather than a "true" frequency. In addition, adverse events may vary in their incidence depending on the indication.

The following convention has been used for the classification of adverse events in terms of frequency:- Very common >1/10, common >1/100 and <1/10, uncommon >1/1000 and <1/100, rare >1/10,000 and <1/1000, very rare <1/10,000.

Infections and Infestations

Common:Monilial overgrowth

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Very rare:

Leucopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, megaloblastic anaemia, aplastic anaemia, haemolytic anaemia, methaemoglobinaemia, eosinophilia, purpura, haemolysis in certain susceptible G-6-PD deficient patients

Immune system disorders

Very rare:

Serum sickness, anaphylaxis, allergic myocarditis, angioedema, drug fever, allergic vasculitis resembling Henoch-Schoenlein purpura, periarteritis nodosa, systemic lupus erythematosus

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Very common:

Hyperkalaemia

Very rare:

Hypoglycaemia, hyponatraemia, anorexia

Psychiatric disorders

Very rare:

Depression, hallucinations

Nervous system disorders

Common:

Headache

Very rare:

Aseptic meningitis, convulsions, peripheral neuritis, ataxia, vertigo, tinnitus, dizziness

Aseptic meningitis was rapidly reversible on withdrawal of the drug, but recurred in a number of cases on re-exposure to either co-trimoxazole or to trimethoprim alone.

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Very rare:

Cough, shortness of breath, pulmonary infiltrates

Cough, shortness of breath and pulmonary infiltrates may be early indicators of respiratory hypersensitivity which, while very rare, has been fatal.

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common:

Nausea, diarrhoea

Uncommon:

Vomiting

Very rare:

Glossitis, stomatitis, pseudomembranous colitis, pancreatitis

Eye Disorders

Very rare:

Uveitis

Hepatobiliary disorders

Very rare:

Elevation of serum transaminases, elevation of bilirubin levels, cholestatic jaundice, hepatic necrosis

Cholestatic jaundice and hepatic necrosis may be fatal.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Common:

Skin rashes

Very rare:

Photosensitivity, exfoliative dermatitis, fixed drug eruption, erythema multiforme, severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs): Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) have been reported

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Very rare:

Arthralgia, myalgia

Renal and urinary disorders

Very rare:

Impaired renal function (sometimes reported as renal failure), interstitial nephritis

Effects associated with Pneumocystis jiroveci (P. carinii) Pneumonitis (PCP) management

Very rare:

Severe hypersensitivity reactions, rash, fever, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, raised liver enzymes, hyperkalaemia, hyponatraemia, rhabdomyolysis.

At the high dosages used for PCP management severe hypersensitivity reactions have been reported, necessitating cessation of therapy. If signs of bone marrow depression occur, the patient should be given calcium folinate supplementation (5-10 mg/day). Severe hypersensitivity reactions have been reported in PCP patients on re-exposure to co-trimoxazole, sometimes after a dosage interval of a few days. Rhabdomyolysis has been reported in HIV positive patients receiving co-trimoxazole for prophylaxis or treatment of PCP.

Overdose

The information provided in Overdose of Koan-I is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Koan-I of the medicine (Sulphamethoxazole, Trimethoprim). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Overdose in the instructions to the drug Koan-I directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Injection; Suspension; Syrup
Injectable
Solution for infusion

Acute

Since there has been no extensive experience in humans with single doses of Koan-I in excess of 25 mL (400 mg trimethoprim and 2000 mg sulfamethoxazole), the maximum tolerated dose in humans is unknown.

Signs and symptoms of overdosage reported with sulfonamides include anorexia, colic, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, drowsiness and unconsciousness. Pyrexia, hematuria and crystalluria may be noted. Blood dyscrasias and jaundice are potential late manifestations of overdosage.

Signs of acute overdosage with trimethoprim include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, mental depression, confusion and bone marrow depression.

General principles of treatment include the administration of intravenous fluids if urine output is low and renal function is normal. Acidification of the urine will increase renal elimination of trimethoprim. The patient should be monitored with blood counts and appropriate blood chemistries, including electrolytes. If a significant blood dyscrasia or jaundice occurs, specific therapy should be instituted for these complications. Peritoneal dialysis is not effective and hemodialysis is only moderately effective in eliminating trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole.

Chronic

Use of Koan-I at high doses and/or for extended periods of time may cause bone marrow depression manifested as thrombocytopenia, leukopenia and/or megaloblastic anemia. If signs of bone marrow depression occur, the patient should be given leucovorin 5 to 15 mg daily until normal hematopoiesis is restored.

Acute

The amount of a single dose of Koan-I that is either associated with symptoms of overdosage or is likely to be life-threatening has not been reported. Signs and symptoms of overdosage reported with sulfonamides include anorexia, colic, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, drowsiness, and unconsciousness. Pyrexia, hematuria, and crystalluria may be noted. Blood dyscrasias and jaundice are potential late manifestations of overdosage. Signs of acute overdosage with trimethoprim include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, mental depression, confusion, and bone marrow depression.

General principles of treatment include the institution of gastric lavage or emesis; forcing oral fluids; and the administration of intravenous fluids if urine output is low and renal function is normal. Acidification of the urine will increase renal elimination of trimethoprim. The patient should be monitored with blood counts and appropriate blood chemistries, including electrolytes. If a significant blood dyscrasia or jaundice occurs, specific therapy should be instituted for these complications. Peritoneal dialysis is not effective and hemodialysis is only moderately effective in eliminating trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole.

Chronic

Use of Koan-I at high doses and/or for extended periods of time may cause bone marrow depression manifested as thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and/or megaloblastic anemia. If signs of bone marrow depression occur, the patient should be given leucovorin; 5 to 15 mg leucovorin daily has been recommended by some investigators.

Nausea, vomiting, dizziness and confusion are likely signs/symptoms of overdosage. Bone marrow depression has been reported in acute trimethoprim overdosage.

If vomiting has not occurred, induction of vomiting may be desirable. Gastric lavage may be useful, though absorption from the gastrointestinal tract is normally very rapid and complete within approximately two hours. This may not be the case in gross overdosage. Dependant on the status of renal function administration of fluids is recommended if urine output is low.

Both trimethoprim and active sulfamethoxazole are moderately dialysable by haemodialysis. Peritoneal dialysis is not effective.

Pharmacodynamic properties

The information provided in Pharmacodynamic properties of Koan-I is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Koan-I of the medicine (Sulphamethoxazole, Trimethoprim). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacodynamic properties in the instructions to the drug Koan-I directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Pharmacotherapeutic group: Combinations of sulfonamides and trimethoprim, incl. derivatives; ATC code: J01EE01

Mode of Action

Septrin is an antibacterial drug composed of two active principles, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Sulfamethoxazole is a competitive inhibitor of dihydropteroate synthetase enzyme. Sulfamethoxazole competitively inhibits the utilisation of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) in the synthesis of dihydrofolate by the bacterial cell resulting in bacteriostasis. Trimethoprim binds to and reversibly inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and blocks the production of tetrahydrofolate. Depending on the conditions the effect may be bactericidal. Thus trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole block two consecutive steps in the biosynthesis of purines and therefore nucleic acids essential to many bacteria. This action produces marked potentiation of activity in vitro between the two agents.

Mechanism of resistance

In vitro studies have shown that bacterial resistance can develop more slowly with both sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in combination that with either sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim alone.

Resistance to sulfamethoxazole may occur by different mechanisms. Bacterial mutations cause an increase the concentration of PABA and thereby out-compete with sulfamethoxazole resulting in a reduction of the inhibitory effect on dihydropteroate synthetase enzyme. Another resistance mechanism is plasmid-mediated and results from production of an altered dihydropteroate synthetase enzyme, with reduced affinity for sulfamethoxazole compared to the wild-type enzyme.

Resistance to trimethoprim occurs through a plasmid-mediated mutation which results in production of an altered dihydrofolate reductase enzyme having a reduced affinity for trimethoprim compared to the wild-type enzyme.

Trimethoprim binds to plasmodial DHFR but less tightly than to bacterial enzyme. Its affinity for mammalian DHFR is some 50,000 times less than for the corresponding bacterial enzyme.

Many common pathogenic bacteria are susceptible in vitro to trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole at concentrations well below those reached in blood, tissue fluids and urine after the administration of recommended doses. In common with other antibiotics, however, in vitro activity does not necessarily imply that clinical efficacy has been demonstrated and it must be noted that satisfactory susceptibility testing is achieved only with recommended media free from inhibitory substances, especially thymidine and thymine.

Breakpoints

EUCAST

Enterobacteriaceae: S≤ 2 R> 4

S. maltophilia: S≤ 4 R> 4

Acinetobacter: S≤ 2 R> 4

Staphylococcus: S≤ 2 R> 4

Enterococcus: S≤ 0.032 R> 1

Streptococcus ABCG: S≤ 1 R> 2

Streptococcus pneumoniae: S≤ 1 R> 2

Hemophilus influenza: S≤ 0.5 R> 1

Moraxella catarrhalis: S≤0.5 R >1

Psuedomonas aeruginosa and other non-enterobacteriaceae: S≤ 2* R> 4*

S = susceptible, R = resistant. *These are CLSI breakpoints since no EUCAST breakpoints are currently available for these organisms.

Trimethoprim: sulfamethoxazole in the ratio 1:19. Breakpoints are expressed as trimethoprim concentration.

Antibacterial Spectrum

The prevalence of resistance may vary geographically and with time for selected species and local information on resistance is desirable, particularly when treating severe infections. As necessary, expert advice should be sought when the local prevalence of resistance is such that the utility of the agent in at least some types of infections is questionable. This information gives only an approximate guidance on probabilities whether microorganisms will be susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or not.

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole susceptibility against a number of bacteria are shown in the table below:

Commonly susceptible species:

Gram-positive aerobes:

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus saprophyticus

Streptococcus pyogenes

Gram-negative aerobes:

Enterobacter cloacae

Haemophilus influenzae

Klebsiella oxytoca

Moraxella catarrhalis

Salmonella spp.

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

Yersinia spp.

Species for which acquired resistance may be a problem:

Gram-positive aerobes:

Enterococcus faecalis

Enterococcus faecium

Nocardia spp.

Staphylococcus epidermidis

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Gram-negative aerobes:

Citrobacter spp.

Enterobacter aerogenes

Escherichia coli

Klebsiella pneumoniae

Klebsiella pneumonia

Proteus mirabilis

Proteus vulgaris

Providencia spp.

Serratia marcesans

Inherently resistant organisms:

Gram-negative aerobes:

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Shigella spp.

Vibrio cholera

Pharmacokinetic properties

The information provided in Pharmacokinetic properties of Koan-I is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Koan-I of the medicine (Sulphamethoxazole, Trimethoprim). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacokinetic properties in the instructions to the drug Koan-I directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Injection; Suspension; Syrup
Injectable
Solution for infusion

Following a 1-hour intravenous infusion of a single dose of 160 mg trimethoprim and 800 mg sulfamethoxazole to 11 patients whose weight ranged from 105 lbs to 165 lbs (mean, 143 lbs), the peak plasma concentrations of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole were 3.4 ± 0.3 μg/mL and 46.3 ± 2.7 μg/mL, respectively. Following repeated intravenous administration of the same dose at 8-hour intervals, the mean plasma concentrations just prior to and immediately after each infusion at steady state were 5.6 ± 0.6 μg/mL and 8.8 ± 0.9 μg/mL for trimethoprim and 70.6 ± 7.3 μg/mL and 105.6 ± 10.9 μg/mL for sulfamethoxazole. The mean plasma half-life was 11.3 ± 0.7 hours for trimethoprim and 12.8 ± 1.8 hours for sulfamethoxazole. All of these 11 patients had normal renal function, and their ages ranged from 17 to 78 years (median, 60 years).11

Pharmacokinetic studies in children and adults suggest an age-dependent half-life of trimethoprim, as indicated in Table 5. 12

Table 5: Half-life of Trimethoprim (TMP) in Pediatric Patients and Adults

Age
(years)
No. of
Patients
Mean TMP
Half-life (hours)
<1 2 7.67
1-10 9 5.49
10-20 5 8.19
20-63 6 12.82

Patients with severely impaired renal function exhibit an increase in the half-lives of both components, requiring dosage regimen adjustment.

Distribution

Both trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole exist in the blood as unbound, protein-bound and metabolized forms; sulfamethoxazole also exists as the conjugated form.

Approximately 44% of trimethoprim and 70% of sulfamethoxazole are bound to plasma proteins. The presence of 10 mg percent sulfamethoxazole in plasma decreases the protein binding of trimethoprim by an insignificant degree; trimethoprim does not influence the protein binding of sulfamethoxazole.

Both trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole distribute to sputum and vaginal fluid; trimethoprim also distributes to bronchial secretions, and both pass the placental barrier and are excreted in breast milk.

Elimination

Metabolism

Sulfamethoxazole is metabolized in humans to at least 5 metabolites: the N4-acetyl-, N4-hydroxy-, 5methylhydroxy-, N4-acetyl-5-methylhydroxy- sulfamethoxazole metabolites, and an N-glucuronide conjugate. The formation of N4-hydroxy metabolite is mediated via CYP2C9.

Trimethoprim is metabolized in vitro to 11 different metabolites, of which, five are glutathione adducts and six are oxidative metabolites, including the major metabolites, 1- and 3-oxides and the 3- and 4hydroxy derivatives.

The free forms of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole are considered to be the therapeutically active forms. In vitro studies suggest that trimethoprim is a substrate of P-glycoprotein, OCT1 and OCT2, and that sulfamethoxazole is not a substrate of P-glycoprotein.

Excretion

Excretion of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole is primarily by the kidneys through both glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Urine concentrations of both trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole are considerably higher than are the concentrations in the blood. The percent of dose excreted in urine over a 12-hour period following the intravenous administration of the first dose of 240 mg of trimethoprim and 1200 mg of sulfamethoxazole on day 1 ranged from 17% to 42.4% as free trimethoprim; 7% to 12.7% as free sulfamethoxazole; and 36.7% to 56% as total (free plus the N4-acetylated metabolite) sulfamethoxazole. When administered together as Koan-I, neither trimethoprim nor sulfamethoxazole affects the urinary excretion pattern of the other.

:).

REFERENCES

3. Varoqaux O, et al. Pharmacokinetics of the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination in the elderly. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1985; 20: 575-581.

7. Safrin S, Lee BL, Sande MA. Adjunctive folinic acid with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients is associated with an increased risk of therapeutic failure and death. J Infect Dis. 1994 Oct; 170(4): 912-7.

8. Marinella MA. Trimethoprim - induced hyperkalemia: An analysis of reported cases. Gerontology 45: 209-212, 1999.

9. Brumfitt W, Pursell R. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of bacteriuria in women. J Infect Dis. 1973;128 (suppl):S657-S663.

Overdosage & Contraindications

OVERDOSE

Acute

The amount of a single dose of Koan-I that is either associated with symptoms of overdosage or is likely to be life-threatening has not been reported. Signs and symptoms of overdosage reported with sulfonamides include anorexia, colic, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, drowsiness, and unconsciousness. Pyrexia, hematuria, and crystalluria may be noted. Blood dyscrasias and jaundice are potential late manifestations of overdosage. Signs of acute overdosage with trimethoprim include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, mental depression, confusion, and bone marrow depression.

General principles of treatment include the institution of gastric lavage or emesis; forcing oral fluids; and the administration of intravenous fluids if urine output is low and renal function is normal. Acidification of the urine will increase renal elimination of trimethoprim. The patient should be monitored with blood counts and appropriate blood chemistries, including electrolytes. If a significant blood dyscrasia or jaundice occurs, specific therapy should be instituted for these complications. Peritoneal dialysis is not effective and hemodialysis is only moderately effective in eliminating trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole.

Chronic

Use of Koan-I at high doses and/or for extended periods of time may cause bone marrow depression manifested as thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and/or megaloblastic anemia. If signs of bone marrow depression occur, the patient should be given leucovorin; 5 to 15 mg leucovorin daily has been recommended by some investigators.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Koan-I is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to trimethoprim or sulfonamides, in patients with a history of drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia with use of trimethoprim and/or sulfonamides, and in patients with documented megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency. Koan-I is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 2 months of age. Koan-I is also contraindicated in patients with marked hepatic damage or with severe renal insufficiency when renal function status cannot be monitored.

Clinical Pharmacology

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Koan-I is rapidly absorbed following oral administration. Both sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim exist in the blood as unbound, protein-bound, and metabolized forms; sulfamethoxazole also exists as the conjugated form.. Sulfamethoxazole is metabolized in humans to at least 5 metabolites: the N4-acetyl-, N4-hydroxy-, 5-methylhydroxy-, N4-acetyl-5-methylhydroxysulfamethoxazole metabolites, and an N-glucuronide conjugate. The formation of N4-hydroxy metabolite is mediated via CYP2C9.

Trimethoprim is metabolized in vitro to 11 different metabolites, of which, five are glutathione adducts and six are oxidative metabolites, including the major metabolites, 1- and 3-oxides and the 3- and 4-hydroxy derivatives.

The free forms of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are considered to be the therapeutically active forms. In vitro studies suggest that trimethoprim is a substrate of P-glycoprotein, OCT1 and OCT2, and that sulfamethoxazole is not a substrate of Pglycoprotein.

Approximately 44% of trimethoprim and 70% of sulfamethoxazole are bound to plasma proteins. The presence of 10 mg percent sulfamethoxazole in plasma decreases the protein binding of trimethoprim by an insignificant degree; trimethoprim does not influence the protein binding of sulfamethoxazole.

Peak blood levels for the individual components occur 1 to 4 hours after oral administration. The mean serum half-lives of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are 10 and 8 to 10 hours, respectively. However, patients with severely impaired renal function exhibit an increase in the half-lives of both components, requiring dosage regimen adjustment (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Detectable amounts of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole are present in the blood 24 hours after drug administration. During administration of 160 mg trimethoprim and 800 mg sulfamethoxazole b.i.d., the mean steady-state plasma concentration of trimethoprim was 1.72 mcg/mL. The steady-state minimal plasma levels of free and total sulfamethoxazole were 57.4 mcg/mL and 68.0 mcg/mL, respectively. These steady-state levels were achieved after 3 days of drug administration.1

Excretion of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is primarily by the kidneys through both glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Urine concentrations of both sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are considerably higher than are the concentrations in the blood. The average percentage of the dose recovered in urine from 0 to 72 hours after a single oral dose is 84.5% for total sulfonamide and 66.8% for free trimethoprim. Thirty percent of the total sulfonamide is excreted as free sulfamethoxazole, with the remaining as N -acetylated metabolite.2 When administered together as Koan-I, neither sulfamethoxazole nor trimethoprim affects the urinary excretion pattern of the other.

Both trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole distribute to sputum, vaginal fluid, and middle ear fluid; trimethoprim also distributes to bronchial secretions, and both pass the placental barrier and are excreted in human milk.

Geriatric Pharmacokinetics

The pharmacokinetics of sulfamethoxazole 800 mg and trimethoprim 160 mg were studied in 6 geriatric subjects (mean age: 78.6 years) and 6 young healthy subjects (mean age: 29.3 years) using a non-US approved formulation. Pharmacokinetic values for sulfamethoxazole in geriatric subjects were similar to those observed in young adult subjects. The mean renal clearance of trimethoprim was significantly lower in geriatric subjects compared with young adult subjects (19 mL/h/kg vs. 55 mL/h/kg). However, after normalizing by body weight, the apparent total body clearance of trimethoprim was an average 19% lower in geriatric subjects compared with young adult subjects.3

Microbiology

Mechanism Of Action

Sulfamethoxazole inhibits bacterial synthesis of dihydrofolic acid by competing with para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). Trimethoprim blocks the production of tetrahydrofolic acid from dihydrofolic acid by binding to and reversibly inhibiting the required enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase. Thus, Koan-I blocks two consecutive steps in the biosynthesis of nucleic acids and proteins essential to many bacteria.

Mechanism Of Resistance

In vitro studies have shown that bacterial resistance develops more slowly with Koan-I than with either trimethoprim or sulfamethoxazole alone.

REPRESENTATIVE MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION VALUES FOR ORGANISMS SUSCEPTIBLE TO Koan-I (MICμg/mL)

Koan-I have been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, bothi n vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section.

Aerobic Gram-Positive Microorganisms

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Aerobic Gram-Negative Microorganisms

Escherichia coli
Klebsiella
species
Enterobacter
species
Haemophilus influenzae

Morganella morganii

Proteus mirabilis

Proteus vulgaris

Shigella flexneri

Shigella sonnei

Other Organisms

Pneumocystis jiroveci

Susceptibility Testing Methods

When available, the clinical microbiology laboratory should provide the results of in vitro susceptibility test results for antimicrobial drug products used in resident hospitals to the physician as periodic reports that describe the susceptibility profile of nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens. These reports should aid the physician in selecting an antibacterial drug for treatment.

Dilution Techniques

Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MICs should be determined using a standardized test method (broth or agar)4,5. The MIC values should be interpreted according to the criteria provided in Table 1.

Diffusion Techniques

Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters can also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The zone size provides an estimate of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The zone size should be determined using a standardized test method5,6. This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 1.25/23.75 μg of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole to test the susceptibility of microorganisms to Koan-I. The disc diffusion interpretive criteria are provided in Table 1.

Table 1: Susceptibility Test Interpretive Criteria for Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole

Bacteria Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (mcg/mL) Zone Diameter (mm)
S I R S I R
Enterobacteriaceae ≤ 2/38 - ≥ 4/76 ≥ 16 11 - 15 ≤ 10
Haemophilus influenzae ≤0.5/9.5 1/19 - 2/38 ≥ 4/76 ≥ 16 11 - 15 ≤10
Streptococcus pneumoniae ≤0.5/9.5 1/19 - 2/38 ≥ 4/76 ≥ 19 16 - 18 ≤15

A report of “Susceptible” indicates that the antimicrobial is likely to inhibit growth of the pathogen if the antimicrobial compound reaches the concentrations at the site of infection necessary to inhibit growth of the pathogen. A report of “Intermediate” indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and, if the microorganism is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where high dosage of drug can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone that prevents small uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of “Resistant” indicates that the antimicrobial is not likely to inhibit growth of the pathogen if the antimicrobial compound reaches the concentrations usually achievable at the infection site; other therapy should be selected.

Quality Control

Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory controls to monitor and ensure the accuracy and precision of supplies and reagents used in the assay and the techniques of the individuals performing the test4-6. Standard trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole powder should provide the following range of MIC values noted in Table 2. For the diffusion technique using the 1.25/23.75 μg trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole disk the criteria in Table 2 should be achieved.

Table 2: Acceptable Quality Control Ranges for Susceptibility Testing for Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole

QC Strain Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (mcg/mL) Zone Diameter (mm)
Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 ≤ 0.5/9.5 23-29
Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 49247 0.03/0.59 - 0.25/4.75 24-32
Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619 0.12/2.4 - 1/19 20-28

REFERENCES

1. Kremers P, Duvivier J, Heusghem C. Pharmacokinetic studies of co-trimoxazole in man after single and repeated doses.J Clin Pharmacol. 1974;14:112-117.

2. Kaplan SA, Weinfeld RE, Abruzzo CW, McFaden K, Jack ML, Weissman L. Pharmacokinetic profile of trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole in man. J Infect Dis. 1973;128(suppl):S547-S555.

3. Varoqaux O, et al. Pharmacokinetics of the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination in the elderly. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1985; 20: 575-581.

4. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically; Approved Standard - Ninth Edition. CLSI document M07-A9, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Road, Suite 2500, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087, USA, 2012.

5. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twentythird Informational Supplement, CLSI document M100-S23. CLSI document M100-S23, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Road, Suite 2500, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087, USA, 2013.

6. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Diffusion Susceptibility Tests; Approved Standard – Eleventh Edition CLSI document M02-A11, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Road, Suite 2500, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087, USA, 2012.

After oral administration trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole are rapidly and nearly completely absorbed. The presence of food does not appear to delay absorption. Peak levels in the blood occur between one and four hours after ingestion and the level attained is dose related. Effective levels persist in the blood for up to 24 hours after a therapeutic dose. Steady state levels in adults are reached after dosing for 2-3 days. Neither component has an appreciable effect on the concentrations achieved in the blood by the other.

Trimethoprim is a weak base with a pKa of 7.4. It is lipophilic. Tissue levels of trimethoprim are generally higher than corresponding plasma levels, the lungs and kidneys showing especially high concentrations. Trimethoprim concentrations exceed those in plasma in the case of bile, prostatic fluid and tissue, saliva, sputum and vaginal secretions. Levels in the aqueous humor, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid, middle ear fluid, synovial fluid and tissue (intestinal) fluid are adequate for antibacterial activity. Trimethoprim passes into amniotic fluid and foetal tissues reaching concentrations approximating those of maternal serum.

Approximately 50% of trimethoprim in the plasma is protein bound. The half-life in man is in the range 8.6 to 17 hours in the presence of normal renal function. It is increased by a factor of 1.5 to 3.0 when the creatinine clearance is less than 10 ml/minute. There appears to be no significant difference in the elderly compared with young patients.

The principal route of excretion of trimethoprim is renal and approximately 50% of the dose is excreted in the urine within 24 hours as unchanged drug. Several metabolites have been identified in the urine. Urinary concentrations of trimethoprim vary widely.

Sulfamethoxazole is a weak acid with a pKa of 6.0. The concentration of active sulfamethoxazole in a variety of body fluids is of the order of 20 to 50% of the plasma concentration.

Approximately 66% of sulfamethoxazole in the plasma is protein bound and the principal route of excretion of sulfamethoxazole is renal. The half-life in man is approximately 9 to 11 hours in the presence of normal renal function. There is no change in the half-life of active sulfamethoxazole with a reduction in renal function but there is prolongation of the half-life of the major, acetylated metabolite when the creatinine clearance is below 25 ml/minute.

The principle route of excretion of sulphamethoxazole is renal; between 15% and 30% of the dose recovered in the urine is in the active form. In elderly patients there is a reduced renal clearance of sulfamethoxazole.

Pharmacotherapeutic group

The information provided in Pharmacotherapeutic group of Koan-I is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Koan-I of the medicine (Sulphamethoxazole, Trimethoprim). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacotherapeutic group in the instructions to the drug Koan-I directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Combinations of sulfonamides and trimethoprim, incl. derivatives; ATC code: J01EE01

Preclinical safety data

The information provided in Preclinical safety data of Koan-I is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Koan-I of the medicine (Sulphamethoxazole, Trimethoprim). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Preclinical safety data in the instructions to the drug Koan-I directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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).

Septrin should not be used in pregnancy, particularly in the first trimester, unless clearly necessary. Folate supplementation should be considered if Septrin is used in pregnancy.

Sulfamethoxazole competes with bilirubin for binding to plasma albumin. As significantly maternally derived drug levels persist for several days in the newborn, there may be a risk of precipitating or exacerbating neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, with an associated theoretical risk of kernicterus, when Septrin is administered to the mother near the time of delivery. This theoretical risk is particularly relevant in infants at increased risk of hyperbilirubinaemia, such as those who are preterm and those with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

Lactation

The components of Septrin (trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole) are excreted in breast milk. Administration of Septrin should be avoided in late pregnancy and in lactating mothers where the mother or infant has, or is at particular risk of developing, hyperbilirubinaemia. Additionally, administration of Septrin should be avoided in infants younger than eight weeks in view of the predisposition of young infants to hyperbilirubinaemia.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

There have been no studies to investigate the effect of Septrin on driving performance or the ability to operate machinery. Further a detrimental effect on such activities cannot be predicted from the pharmacology of the drug. Nevertheless the clinical status of the patient and the adverse events profile of Septrin should be borne in mind when considering the patients ability to operate machinery.

4.8 Undesirable effects

As co-trimoxazole contains trimethoprim and a sulphonamide the type and frequency of adverse reactions associated with such compounds are expected to be consistent with extensive historical experience.

Data from large published clinical trials were used to determine the frequency of very common to rare adverse events. Very rare adverse events were primarily determined from post-marketing experience data and therefore refer to reporting rate rather than a "true" frequency. In addition, adverse events may vary in their incidence depending on the indication.

The following convention has been used for the classification of adverse events in terms of frequency:- Very common >1/10, common >1/100 and <1/10, uncommon >1/1000 and <1/100, rare >1/10,000 and <1/1000, very rare <1/10,000.

Infections and Infestations

Common:Monilial overgrowth

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Very rare:

Leucopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, megaloblastic anaemia, aplastic anaemia, haemolytic anaemia, methaemoglobinaemia, eosinophilia, purpura, haemolysis in certain susceptible G-6-PD deficient patients

Immune system disorders

Very rare:

Serum sickness, anaphylaxis, allergic myocarditis, angioedema, drug fever, allergic vasculitis resembling Henoch-Schoenlein purpura, periarteritis nodosa, systemic lupus erythematosus

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Very common:

Hyperkalaemia

Very rare:

Hypoglycaemia, hyponatraemia, anorexia

Psychiatric disorders

Very rare:

Depression, hallucinations

Nervous system disorders

Common:

Headache

Very rare:

Aseptic meningitis, convulsions, peripheral neuritis, ataxia, vertigo, tinnitus, dizziness

Aseptic meningitis was rapidly reversible on withdrawal of the drug, but recurred in a number of cases on re-exposure to either co-trimoxazole or to trimethoprim alone.

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Very rare:

Cough, shortness of breath, pulmonary infiltrates

Cough, shortness of breath and pulmonary infiltrates may be early indicators of respiratory hypersensitivity which, while very rare, has been fatal.

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common:

Nausea, diarrhoea

Uncommon:

Vomiting

Very rare:

Glossitis, stomatitis, pseudomembranous colitis, pancreatitis

Eye Disorders

Very rare:

Uveitis

Hepatobiliary disorders

Very rare:

Elevation of serum transaminases, elevation of bilirubin levels, cholestatic jaundice, hepatic necrosis

Cholestatic jaundice and hepatic necrosis may be fatal.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Common:

Skin rashes

Very rare:

Photosensitivity, exfoliative dermatitis, fixed drug eruption, erythema multiforme, severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs): Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) have been reported

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Very rare:

Arthralgia, myalgia

Renal and urinary disorders

Very rare:

Impaired renal function (sometimes reported as renal failure), interstitial nephritis

Effects associated with Pneumocystis jiroveci (P. carinii) Pneumonitis (PCP) management

Very rare:

Severe hypersensitivity reactions, rash, fever, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, raised liver enzymes, hyperkalaemia, hyponatraemia, rhabdomyolysis.

At the high dosages used for PCP management severe hypersensitivity reactions have been reported, necessitating cessation of therapy. If signs of bone marrow depression occur, the patient should be given calcium folinate supplementation (5-10 mg/day). Severe hypersensitivity reactions have been reported in PCP patients on re-exposure to co-trimoxazole, sometimes after a dosage interval of a few days. Rhabdomyolysis has been reported in HIV positive patients receiving co-trimoxazole for prophylaxis or treatment of PCP.

4.9 Overdose

Nausea, vomiting, dizziness and confusion are likely signs/symptoms of overdosage. Bone marrow depression has been reported in acute trimethoprim overdosage.

If vomiting has not occurred, induction of vomiting may be desirable. Gastric lavage may be useful, though absorption from the gastrointestinal tract is normally very rapid and complete within approximately two hours. This may not be the case in gross overdosage. Dependant on the status of renal function administration of fluids is recommended if urine output is low.

Both trimethoprim and active sulfamethoxazole are moderately dialysable by haemodialysis. Peritoneal dialysis is not effective.

5. Pharmacological properties 5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Combinations of sulfonamides and trimethoprim, incl. derivatives; ATC code: J01EE01

Mode of Action

Septrin is an antibacterial drug composed of two active principles, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Sulfamethoxazole is a competitive inhibitor of dihydropteroate synthetase enzyme. Sulfamethoxazole competitively inhibits the utilisation of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) in the synthesis of dihydrofolate by the bacterial cell resulting in bacteriostasis. Trimethoprim binds to and reversibly inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and blocks the production of tetrahydrofolate. Depending on the conditions the effect may be bactericidal. Thus trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole block two consecutive steps in the biosynthesis of purines and therefore nucleic acids essential to many bacteria. This action produces marked potentiation of activity in vitro between the two agents.

Mechanism of resistance

In vitro studies have shown that bacterial resistance can develop more slowly with both sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in combination that with either sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim alone.

Resistance to sulfamethoxazole may occur by different mechanisms. Bacterial mutations cause an increase the concentration of PABA and thereby out-compete with sulfamethoxazole resulting in a reduction of the inhibitory effect on dihydropteroate synthetase enzyme. Another resistance mechanism is plasmid-mediated and results from production of an altered dihydropteroate synthetase enzyme, with reduced affinity for sulfamethoxazole compared to the wild-type enzyme.

Resistance to trimethoprim occurs through a plasmid-mediated mutation which results in production of an altered dihydrofolate reductase enzyme having a reduced affinity for trimethoprim compared to the wild-type enzyme.

Trimethoprim binds to plasmodial DHFR but less tightly than to bacterial enzyme. Its affinity for mammalian DHFR is some 50,000 times less than for the corresponding bacterial enzyme.

Many common pathogenic bacteria are susceptible in vitro to trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole at concentrations well below those reached in blood, tissue fluids and urine after the administration of recommended doses. In common with other antibiotics, however, in vitro activity does not necessarily imply that clinical efficacy has been demonstrated and it must be noted that satisfactory susceptibility testing is achieved only with recommended media free from inhibitory substances, especially thymidine and thymine.

Breakpoints

EUCAST

Enterobacteriaceae: S≤ 2 R> 4

S. maltophilia: S≤ 4 R> 4

Acinetobacter: S≤ 2 R> 4

Staphylococcus: S≤ 2 R> 4

Enterococcus: S≤ 0.032 R> 1

Streptococcus ABCG: S≤ 1 R> 2

Streptococcus pneumoniae: S≤ 1 R> 2

Hemophilus influenza: S≤ 0.5 R> 1

Moraxella catarrhalis: S≤0.5 R >1

Psuedomonas aeruginosa and other non-enterobacteriaceae: S≤ 2* R> 4*

S = susceptible, R = resistant. *These are CLSI breakpoints since no EUCAST breakpoints are currently available for these organisms.

Trimethoprim: sulfamethoxazole in the ratio 1:19. Breakpoints are expressed as trimethoprim concentration.

Antibacterial Spectrum

The prevalence of resistance may vary geographically and with time for selected species and local information on resistance is desirable, particularly when treating severe infections. As necessary, expert advice should be sought when the local prevalence of resistance is such that the utility of the agent in at least some types of infections is questionable. This information gives only an approximate guidance on probabilities whether microorganisms will be susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or not.

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole susceptibility against a number of bacteria are shown in the table below:

Commonly susceptible species:

Gram-positive aerobes:

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus saprophyticus

Streptococcus pyogenes

Gram-negative aerobes:

Enterobacter cloacae

Haemophilus influenzae

Klebsiella oxytoca

Moraxella catarrhalis

Salmonella spp.

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

Yersinia spp.

Species for which acquired resistance may be a problem:

Gram-positive aerobes:

Enterococcus faecalis

Enterococcus faecium

Nocardia spp.

Staphylococcus epidermidis

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Gram-negative aerobes:

Citrobacter spp.

Enterobacter aerogenes

Escherichia coli

Klebsiella pneumoniae

Klebsiella pneumonia

Proteus mirabilis

Proteus vulgaris

Providencia spp.

Serratia marcesans

Inherently resistant organisms:

Gram-negative aerobes:

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Shigella spp.

Vibrio cholera

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

After oral administration trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole are rapidly and nearly completely absorbed. The presence of food does not appear to delay absorption. Peak levels in the blood occur between one and four hours after ingestion and the level attained is dose related. Effective levels persist in the blood for up to 24 hours after a therapeutic dose. Steady state levels in adults are reached after dosing for 2-3 days. Neither component has an appreciable effect on the concentrations achieved in the blood by the other.

Trimethoprim is a weak base with a pKa of 7.4. It is lipophilic. Tissue levels of trimethoprim are generally higher than corresponding plasma levels, the lungs and kidneys showing especially high concentrations. Trimethoprim concentrations exceed those in plasma in the case of bile, prostatic fluid and tissue, saliva, sputum and vaginal secretions. Levels in the aqueous humor, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid, middle ear fluid, synovial fluid and tissue (intestinal) fluid are adequate for antibacterial activity. Trimethoprim passes into amniotic fluid and foetal tissues reaching concentrations approximating those of maternal serum.

Approximately 50% of trimethoprim in the plasma is protein bound. The half-life in man is in the range 8.6 to 17 hours in the presence of normal renal function. It is increased by a factor of 1.5 to 3.0 when the creatinine clearance is less than 10 ml/minute. There appears to be no significant difference in the elderly compared with young patients.

The principal route of excretion of trimethoprim is renal and approximately 50% of the dose is excreted in the urine within 24 hours as unchanged drug. Several metabolites have been identified in the urine. Urinary concentrations of trimethoprim vary widely.

Sulfamethoxazole is a weak acid with a pKa of 6.0. The concentration of active sulfamethoxazole in a variety of body fluids is of the order of 20 to 50% of the plasma concentration.

Approximately 66% of sulfamethoxazole in the plasma is protein bound and the principal route of excretion of sulfamethoxazole is renal. The half-life in man is approximately 9 to 11 hours in the presence of normal renal function. There is no change in the half-life of active sulfamethoxazole with a reduction in renal function but there is prolongation of the half-life of the major, acetylated metabolite when the creatinine clearance is below 25 ml/minute.

The principle route of excretion of sulphamethoxazole is renal; between 15% and 30% of the dose recovered in the urine is in the active form. In elderly patients there is a reduced renal clearance of sulfamethoxazole.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Reproductive toxicology:

At doses in excess of recommended human therapeutic dose, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole have been reported to cause cleft palate and other foetal abnormalities in rats, findings typical of a folate antagonist. Effects with trimethoprim were preventable by administration of dietary folate. In rabbits, foetal loss was seen at doses of trimethoprim in excess of human therapeutic doses.

Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The information provided in Special precautions for disposal and other handling of Koan-I is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Koan-I of the medicine (Sulphamethoxazole, Trimethoprim). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special precautions for disposal and other handling in the instructions to the drug Koan-I directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Trimethoprim interferes with assays for serum methotrexate when dihydrofolate reductase from Lactobacillus casei is used in the assay. No interference occurs if methotrexate is measured by radioimmuno assay.

Trimethoprim may interfere with the estimation of serum/plasma creatinine when the alkaline picrate reaction is used. This may result in overestimation of serum/plasma creatinine of the order of 10%. Functional inhibition of the renal tubular secretion of creatinine may produce a spurious fall in the estimated rate of creatinine clearance.

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