Components:
Beclometasone
Method of action:
Antiallergic, Anti-Asthmatic, Antiexudative, Anti-Inflammatory, Decongestant, Decongestant Local, Drugs For Obstructive Airway Diseases, Glucocorticoid, Nasal Preparations, Vasoconstrictive
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Medically reviewed by Kovalenko Svetlana Olegovna, PharmD Last updated on 2019.07.21

Name of the medicinal product

Penbulin

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Beclometasone

Therapeutic indications

The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Penbulin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Penbulin of the medicine (Beclometasone). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Therapeutic indications in the instructions to the drug Penbulin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Aerosol Liquid; Aerosol Powder; Spray
Aerosol for inhalation dosed; Nasal dosing spray
Pressurised inhalation, solution
Aerosol, Metered

Treatment Of Nasal Symptoms Of Allergic Rhinitis

QNASL® Nasal Aerosol is indicated for the treatment of the nasal symptoms associated with seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis in patients 4 years of age and older.

Penbulin dipropionate given by inhalation offers preventative treatment for asthma. It provides effective anti-inflammatory action in the lungs with a lower incidence and severity of adverse effects than those observed when corticosteroids are administered systemically. It also offers preventive treatment of asthma.

Easyhaler® Penbulin 200 micrograms/dose is indicated in the following:

Adults Prophylactic management in:

Mild asthma (PEF values greater than 80% predicted at baseline with less than 20% variability):

Patients requiring intermittent symptomatic bronchodilator asthma medication on a regular basis.

Moderate asthma (PEF values 60-80% predicted at baseline with 20-30% variability):

Patients requiring regular asthma medication and patients with unstable or worsening asthma despite prophylactic therapy or bronchodilator alone.

Severe asthma (PEF values less than 60% predicted at baseline with greater than 30% variability):

Patients with severe chronic asthma. On transfer to high dose inhaled Penbulin dipropionate, many patients who are dependent on systemic corticosteroids for adequate control of symptoms may be able to reduce significantly or eliminate their requirement for oral corticosteroids.

Prophylactic management of mild, moderate or severe asthma.

Penbulin Aqueous Nasal Spray is indicated for the prophylaxis and treatment of perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis including hayfever, and vasomotor rhinitis. Beclometasone dipropionate has a potent anti-inflammatory effect within the respiratory tract, with a lower incidence and severity of adverse events than those observed when corticosteroids are administered systemically.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administration of Penbulin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Penbulin of the medicine (Beclometasone). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Penbulin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Aerosol Liquid; Aerosol Powder; Spray
Aerosol for inhalation dosed; Nasal dosing spray
Pressurised inhalation, solution
Aerosol, Metered

Administer QNASL Nasal Aerosol by the intranasal route only. QNASL Nasal Aerosol must be primed prior to initial use by actuating four times. To do this, remove the protective dust cap from the device, hold the device upright between your thumb and forefinger (index finger) (the canister should be on top, pointing down), and spray 4 times into the air, away from your eyes and face. After the initial priming, the dose counter should read 120 for QNASL 40 mcg Nasal Aerosol and QNASL 80 mcg Nasal Aerosol 120-actuation products and 60 for QNASL 40 mcg Nasal Aerosol 60-actuation product. If QNASL Nasal Aerosol is not used for 7 consecutive days it should be primed by spraying 2 times. See accompanying illustrated PATIENT INFORMATION and Instructions for Use leaflet for proper use of QNASL Nasal Aerosol.

Allergic Rhinitis

Adults And Adolescents (12 Years Of Age And Older)

The recommended dose of QNASL Nasal Aerosol is 320 mcg per day administered as 2 actuations in each nostril (QNASL 80 mcg Nasal Aerosol) once daily (maximum total daily dose of 4 actuations per day).

Children (4 To 11 Years Of Age)

The recommended dose of QNASL Nasal Aerosol is 80 mcg per day administered as 1 actuation in each nostril (QNASL 40 mcg Nasal Aerosol) once daily (maximum total daily dose of 2 actuations per day).

Easyhaler® Penbulin 200 micrograms/dose is for oral inhalation use only.

Patients should be made aware of the prophylactic nature of therapy with inhaled Penbulin dipropionate and that it should be taken regularly everyday even when they are asymptomatic.

Patients should be given a starting dose of inhaled Penbulin dipropionate appropriate to the severity of their disease. The dose may then be adjusted until control is achieved and should be titrated to the lowest dose at which effective control of asthma is maintained.

Adults

The usual starting dose is 200 micrograms twice a day. In more severe cases the starting dose may need to increase to 600 to 800 micrograms per day which may then be reduced when the patient's asthma has stabilised. The total daily dose may be administered as two, three, or four divided doses.

Paediatric population

Easyhaler® Penbulin 200 micrograms/dose is not recommended for children.

Special Patient Groups

There is no need to adjust the dose in older people or in those with hepatic or renal impairment.

Posology

Qvar is for oral inhalation use only

Patients should be instructed in the proper use of their inhaler, including rinsing out their mouth with water after use.

NOTE: The recommended total daily dose of Qvar is lower than that for current beclometasone dipropionate containing products and should be adjusted to the needs of the individual patient.

ADULT STARTING AND MAINTENANCE DOSE:

It is important to gain control of asthma symptoms and optimise pulmonary function as soon as possible. When patients' symptoms remain under satisfactory control, the dose should be titrated to the lowest dose at which effective control of asthma is maintained.

To be effective, inhaled Qvar must be used on a regular basis even when patients are asymptomatic.

THERAPY IN NEW PATIENTS SHOULD BE INITIATED AT THE FOLLOWING

Mild asthma:

100 to 200 micrograms per day in two divided doses.

Moderate asthma:

200 to 400 micrograms per day in two divided doses.

Severe asthma:

400 to 800 micrograms per day in two divided doses.

Patients on budesonide inhalers may be transferred to Qvar as described below

The general approach to switching patients to Qvar involves two steps as detailed below. Specific guidance on switching well-controlled and poorly-controlled (symptomatic) patients is given below the table.

Step 1: Consider the dose of budesonide-containing inhalers appropriate to the patient's current condition.

Step 2: Convert the budesonide inhaler dose to the Qvar dose according to the table below.

Total Daily Dose (mcg/day)

Budesonide inhaler

200-250

300

400-500

600-750

800-1000

1100

1200-1500

1600-2000

QVAR

100

150

200

300

400

500

600

800

Patients with well-controlled asthma using budesonide inhaler products should be switched to Qvar at a dose in accordance with the table above.

For example:

Patients on 2 puffs twice daily of budesonide 100 micrograms would change to 2 puffs twice daily of Qvar 50 micrograms.

Patients with poorly-controlled asthma may be switched from budesonide inhaler products to Qvar at the same microgram for microgram dose up to 800 micrograms daily.

Alternatively the patient's current budesonide inhaler dose can be doubled and this dose can be converted to the Qvar dose according to the table above.

Patients on fluticasone inhalers may be transferred to the same total daily dose of Qvar up to 800 micrograms daily.

Once transferred to Qvar the dose should be adjusted to meet the needs of the individual patient.

The maximum recommended dose is 800 micrograms per day in divided doses.

The same total daily dose in micrograms from either Qvar 50 (a lower strength) or Qvar 100 aerosol provides the same clinical effect.

Paediatric population

There are no data to date on Qvar in children under 12 years of age, hence no definitive dosage recommendation can be made.

Special patient groups

No special dosage recommendations are made for elderly or patients with hepatic or renal impairment.

Method of administration

Penbulin is a breath-actuated inhaler which automatically releases the metered dose of medication during a patient's inhalation through the mouthpiece and overcomes the need for patients to have good manual co-ordination.

The patient should read the instruction leaflet before use.

Before first use of the inhaler, or if the inhaler has not been used for two weeks or more, prime the inhaler by releasing two puffs into the air.

Qvar delivers a consistent dose

- whether or not the canister is shaken by the patient

- without the need for the patient to wait between individual actuations

- regardless of storage orientation or periods without use of up to 14 days

- at temperatures as low as -10°C.

Penbulin Aqueous Nasal Spray is for administration by the intranasal route only.

Adults and children over six years of age:

The recommended dosage is two sprays into each nostril twice daily (400 micrograms/day). Once control has been established it may be possible to maintain control with fewer sprays. A dosage regimen of one spray into each nostril morning and evening has been shown to be efficacious in some patients. However, should symptoms recur, patients should revert to the recommended dosage of two sprays into each nostril morning and evening. The minimum dose should be used at which effective control of symptoms is maintained. Total daily administration should not normally exceed eight sprays.

For full therapeutic benefit regular usage is essential. The co-operation of the patient should be sought to comply with the regular dosage schedule and it should be explained that maximum relief may not be obtained within the first few applications.

For children under six years old, there are insufficient clinical data to recommend use.

Contraindications

The information provided in Contraindications of Penbulin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Penbulin of the medicine (Beclometasone). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Penbulin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Aerosol Liquid; Aerosol Powder; Spray
Aerosol for inhalation dosed; Nasal dosing spray
Aerosol, Metered

QNASL Nasal Aerosol is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to beclomethasone dipropionate and/or any other QNASL Nasal Aerosol ingredients.

<(lactose monohydrate, which contains small amounts of milk proteins).

Special care is necessary in patients with active or quiescent pulmonary tuberculosis.

Special warnings and precautions for use

The information provided in Special warnings and precautions for use of Penbulin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Penbulin of the medicine (Beclometasone). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special warnings and precautions for use in the instructions to the drug Penbulin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close
Aerosol Liquid; Aerosol Powder; Spray
Aerosol for inhalation dosed; Nasal dosing spray
Pressurised inhalation, solution
Aerosol, Metered

WARNINGS

Included as part of the "PRECAUTIONS" Section

PRECAUTIONS

Local Nasal Effects

Nasal Discomfort, Epistaxis, And Nasal Ulceration

In clinical trials of 2 to 52 weeks duration, epistaxis and nasal ulcerations were observed more frequently and some epistaxis events were more severe in patients treated with QNASL Nasal Aerosol than those who received placebo. In the 52-week safety trial in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis, nasal erosions were identified in 4 of 415 patients and a nasal ulceration was identified in 1 of 415 patients treated with QNASL Nasal Aerosol. No nasal erosions or ulcerations were reported for patients who received placebo. In clinical trials conducted in pediatric patients ages 4 to 11 years, the local nasal effect was similar to those reported in patients 12 years of age and older. Patients using QNASL Nasal Aerosol over several months or longer should be examined periodically for possible changes in the nasal mucosa. If an adverse reaction (e.g., erosion, ulceration) is noted, discontinue QNASL Nasal Aerosol.

Candida Infection

In previous clinical trials with an aqueous formulation of beclomethasone dipropionate administered intranasally, localized infections of the nose and pharynx with Candida albicans had been reported. There were no instances of similar infections observed in clinical trials with QNASL Nasal Aerosol. If such an infection develops, it may require treatment with appropriate local therapy and discontinuation of QNASL Nasal Aerosol treatment. Thus, patients using QNASL Nasal Aerosol over several months or longer should be examined periodically for evidence of Candida infection.

Nasal Septal Perforation

Instances of nasal septal perforation have been reported in patients following the intranasal application of beclomethasone dipropionate. There were no nasal septal perforations reported during clinical trials in the indicated dose of QNASL 80 mcg Nasal Aerosol administered as 320 mcg once daily in adults and adolescents. There was one report of nasal septal perforation observed in the dose-ranging pediatric clinical trial.

Impaired Wound Healing

Because of the inhibitory effect of corticosteroids on wound healing, patients who have experienced recent nasal septal ulcers, nasal surgery, or nasal trauma should not use QNASL Nasal Aerosol until healing has occurred.

Eye Disorders

Use of intranasal and inhaled corticosteroids may result in the development of increased intraocular pressure, blurred vision, glaucoma and/or cataracts. Therefore, close monitoring is warranted in patients with a change in vision or with a history of increased intraocular pressure, blurred vision, glaucoma, and/or cataracts.

Glaucoma and cataract formation was evaluated with ocular assessments that included intraocular pressure measurements and slit lamp examinations in 245 adolescent and adult patients (12 years of age and older) with perennial allergic rhinitis who were treated with QNASL Nasal Aerosol 320 mcg daily (N=197) or placebo (N=48) for up to 52 weeks. In 94% of patients, intraocular pressure (IOP) remained within the normal range (<21 mmHg) during the treatment portion of the trial. There were 10 patients (5%) treated with QNASL Nasal Aerosol and 1 patient (2%) treated with placebo that had intraocular pressure that increased above normal levels (≥21 mmHg) and greater than baseline during the treatment portion of the trial. Two of these occurrences in patients treated with QNASL Nasal Aerosol were reported as adverse reactions, one serious. No instances of cataract formation or other clinically significant ocular incidents were reported in this 52-week safety trial.

Hypersensitivity Reactions Including Anaphylaxis

Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, angioedema, urticaria, and rash have been reported following administration of beclomethasone dipropionate nasally administered and inhalationally administered products. Angioedema, urticaria, and rash have been reported following administration of QNASL Nasal Aerosol. Discontinue QNASL Nasal Aerosol if any such reactions occur.

Immunosuppression

Persons who are using drugs that suppress the immune system (e.g., corticosteroids) are more susceptible to infections than healthy individuals. Chickenpox and measles, for example, can have a more serious or even fatal course in susceptible children or adults using corticosteroids. In children or adults who have not had these diseases or been properly immunized, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. How the dose, route, and duration of corticosteroid administration affect the risk of developing a disseminated infection is not known. The contribution of the underlying disease and/or prior corticosteroid treatment to the risk is also not known. If a patient is exposed to chickenpox, prophylaxis with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) may be indicated. If a patient is exposed to measles, prophylaxis with pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin (IG) may be indicated (see the respective package inserts for complete VZIG and IG prescribing information). If chickenpox or measles develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered.

Corticosteroids should be used with caution, if at all, in patients with active or quiescent tuberculous infections of the respiratory tract, untreated local or systemic fungal or bacterial infections, systemic viral or parasitic infections, or ocular herpes simplex because of the potential for worsening of these infections.

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Effect

When intranasal steroids are used at higher-than-recommended dosages or in susceptible individuals at recommended dosages, systemic corticosteroid effects such as hypercorticism and adrenal suppression may appear. If such changes occur, the dosage of QNASL Nasal Aerosol should be discontinued slowly, consistent with accepted procedures for discontinuing oral corticosteroid therapy.

The replacement of a systemic corticosteroid with a topical corticosteroid can be accompanied by signs of adrenal insufficiency. In addition, some patients may experience symptoms of corticosteroid withdrawal (e.g., joint and/or muscular pain, lassitude, and depression). Patients previously treated for prolonged periods with systemic corticosteroids and transferred to topical corticosteroids should be carefully monitored for acute adrenal insufficiency in response to stress. In patients who have asthma or other clinical conditions requiring long-term systemic corticosteroid treatment, rapid decreases in systemic corticosteroid dosages may cause a severe exacerbation of their symptoms.

Effect On Growth

Corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth velocity when administered to pediatric patients. Routinely monitor the growth of pediatric patients receiving QNASL Nasal Aerosol.

Patient Counseling Information

See FDA-Approved Patient Labeling accompanying the product.

Local Nasal Effects

Inform patients that treatment with QNASL Nasal Aerosol may lead to adverse reactions, including epistaxis, nasal ulceration, and nasal discomfort. Candida infection may also occur with treatment with QNASL Nasal Aerosol. In addition, nasal beclomethasone dipropionate products are known to be associated with nasal septal perforation and impaired wound healing. Patients who have experienced recent nasal ulcers, nasal surgery, or nasal trauma should not use QNASL Nasal Aerosol until healing has occurred.

Eye Disorders

Inform patients that blurred vision, glaucoma and cataracts are associated with nasal and inhaled corticosteroid use. Patients should inform their health care providers if a change in vision is noted while using QNASL Nasal Aerosol.

Hypersensitivity Reactions Including Anaphylaxis

Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, angioedema, urticaria, and rash have been reported following administration of beclomethasone dipropionate nasally administered and inhalationally administered products. Angioedema, urticaria, and rash have been reported following administration of QNASL Nasal Aerosol. If any such reactions occur, patients should discontinue use of QNASL Nasal Aerosol.

Immunosuppression

Patients who are on immunosuppressant doses of corticosteroids should be warned to avoid exposure to chickenpox or measles and, if exposed, to consult their physician without delay. Patients should be informed of potential worsening of existing tuberculosis; fungal, bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections; or ocular herpes simplex.

Use Daily For Best Effect

Patients should use QNASL Nasal Aerosol on a regular, once-daily basis since its effectiveness depends on its regular use. QNASL Nasal Aerosol may not have an immediate effect on rhinitis symptoms. The patient should not increase the prescribed dosage but should contact their physician if symptoms do not improve or if the condition worsens.

Keep Spray Out Of Eyes Or Mouth

Patients should be informed to avoid spraying QNASL Nasal Aerosol in their eyes or mouth.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

The carcinogenicity of beclomethasone dipropionate was evaluated in rats that were exposed for a total of 95 weeks: 13 weeks at inhalation doses up to 0.4 mg/kg and the remaining 82 weeks at combined oral and inhalation doses up to 2.4 mg/kg. In this trial, there was no evidence of carcinogenicity at the highest dose: approximately 70 and 120 times the maximum recommended human daily intranasal dose (MRHDID) in adults and children, respectively, on a mg/m2 basis.

Beclomethasone dipropionate did not induce gene mutation in bacterial cells or mammalian Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in vitro. No significant clastogenic effect was seen in cultured CHO cells in vitro or in the mouse micronucleus test in vivo.

In rats, beclomethasone dipropionate caused decreased conception rates at an oral dose of 16 mg/kg (approximately 490 times the MRHDID in adults on a mg/m2 basis). There was no significant effect of beclomethasone dipropionate on fertility in rats at oral doses of 1.6 mg/kg (approximately 50 times the MRHDID in adults on a mg/m2 basis). Inhibition of the estrous cycle in dogs was observed following oral doses of 0.5 mg/kg (approximately 50 times the MRHDID in adults on a mg/m2 basis). No inhibition of the estrous cycle in dogs was seen following 12 months of exposure at an estimated inhalation dose of 0.33 mg/kg (approximately 35 times the MRHDID in adults on a mg/m2 basis).

Use In Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category C

There are no adequate and well-controlled clinical trials in pregnant women treated with QNASL Nasal Aerosol. Beclomethasone dipropionate was teratogenic and embryocidal in the mouse and rabbit although these effects were not observed in rats. QNASL Nasal Aerosol should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Experience with oral corticosteroids since their introduction in pharmacologic, as opposed to physiologic, doses suggests that rodents are more prone to teratogenic effects from corticosteroids than humans.

Beclomethasone dipropionate administered subcutaneously was teratogenic and embryocidal in the mouse and rabbit at doses approximately twice the maximum recommended human daily intranasal dose (MRHDID) in adults (on a mg/m2 basis at maternal doses of 0.1 and 0.025 mg/kg/day in mice and rabbits, respectively). No teratogenicity or embryocidal effects were seen in rats at approximately 460 times MRHDID (in adults on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal inhalation dose of 15 mg/kg/day).

Non-Teratogenic Effects

Hypoadrenalism may occur in infants born of mothers receiving corticosteroids during pregnancy. Such infants should be carefully monitored.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether beclomethasone dipropionate is excreted in human breast milk. However, other corticosteroids have been detected in human breast milk and thus caution should be exercised when QNASL Nasal Aerosol is administered to a nursing mother.

Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of QNASL Nasal Aerosol in children 4 years and older have been established. The safety and effectiveness of QNASL Nasal Aerosol in children younger than 4 years of age have not been established. Controlled pediatric clinical trials with QNASL Nasal Aerosol included 909 children 4 to 11 years of age and 188 adolescent patients 12 to 17 years of age.

Controlled clinical trials have shown that intranasal corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth velocity in pediatric patients. This effect has been observed in the absence of laboratory evidence of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression, suggesting that growth velocity is a more sensitive indicator of systemic corticosteroid exposure in pediatric patients than some commonly used tests of HPA-axis function. The long-term effects of reduction in growth velocity associated with intranasal corticosteroids, including the impact on final adult height, are unknown. The potential for "catch-up" growth following discontinuation of treatment with intranasal corticosteroids has not been adequately studied. The growth of pediatric patients receiving intranasal corticosteroids, including QNASL Nasal Aerosol, should be monitored routinely (e.g., via stadiometry).

A 12-month, randomized, controlled clinical trial evaluated the effects of QVAR®, an orally inhaled HFA beclomethasone dipropionate product, without spacer versus chlorofluorocarbon-propelled (CFC) beclomethasone dipropionate with large volume spacer on growth in children with asthma ages 5 to 11 years. A total of 520 patients were enrolled, of whom 394 received HFA-beclomethasone dipropionate (100 to 400 mcg/day ex-valve) and 126 received CFC-beclomethasone dipropionate (200 to 800 mcg/day ex-valve). When comparing results at month 12 to baseline, the mean growth velocity in children treated with HFA-beclomethasone dipropionate was approximately 0.5 cm/year less than that noted with children treated with CFC-beclomethasone dipropionate via large volume spacer. The potential growth effects of prolonged treatment should be weighed against the clinical benefits obtained and the risks/benefits of treatment alternatives.

The potential for QNASL Nasal Aerosol to cause reduction in growth velocity in susceptible patients or when given at higher than recommended dosages cannot be ruled out.

Geriatric Use

Clinical trials of QNASL Nasal Aerosol did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 years and older to determine whether they responded differently than younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, administration to elderly patients should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Patients should be instructed in the proper use of the inhaler, and their technique checked, to ensure that the drug reaches the target areas within the lungs. They should also be made aware that Easyhaler® Penbulin 200 micrograms/dose has to be used regularly every day for optimum benefit. Patients should be made aware of the prophylactic nature of therapy with Easyhaler® Penbulin 200 micrograms/dose and that they should be used regularly, even when they are asymptomatic.

Easyhaler® Penbulin 200 micrograms/dose is not designed to relieve acute asthma symptoms for which an inhaled short-acting bronchodilator is required. Patients should be advised to have such rescue medication available.

Severe asthma requires regular medical assessment, including lung-function testing, as patients are at risk of severe attacks and even death.

Increasing use of bronchodilators, in particular short-acting inhaled beta2 agonists to relieve symptoms indicates deterioration of asthma control. If patients find that short acting relief bronchodilator treatment becomes less effective or they need more inhalations than usual, medical attention must be sought.

In this situation, patients should be reassessed and consideration given to the need for increased anti-inflammatory therapy (e.g. higher doses of inhaled corticosteroid or a course of oral corticosteroid) considered. Severe exacerbations of asthma must be treated in the normal way.

Systemic effects of inhaled corticosteroids may occur, particularly at high doses prescribed for prolonged periods. These effects are much less likely to occur than with oral corticosteroids. Possible systemic effects include Cushing's syndrome, Cushingoid features, adrenal suppression, growth retardation in children and adolescents, decrease in bone mineral density, cataract and glaucoma and more rarely, a range of psychological or behavioural effects including psychomotor hyperactivity, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression or aggression (particularly in children). It is important therefore that the dose of inhaled corticosteroid is titrated to the lowest dose at which effective control of asthma is maintained.

It is recommended that the height of children receiving prolonged treatment with inhaled corticosteroids is regularly monitored. If growth is slowed, therapy should be reviewed with the aim of reducing the dose of inhaled corticosteroid, if possible, to the lowest dose at which effective control of asthma is maintained. In addition, consideration should be given to referring the patient to a paediatric respiratory specialist.

Prolonged treatment with high doses of inhaled corticosteroids, particularly higher than recommended doses, may result in clinically significant adrenal suppression. Additional systemic corticosteroid cover should be considered during periods of stress or elective surgery.

Lack of response or severe exacerbations of asthma should be treated by increasing the dose of inhaled Penbulin dipropionate and, if necessary, by giving a systemic steroid and/or antibiotic if there is an infection, and by use of beta-agonist therapy.

For the transfer of patients being treated with oral corticosteroids:

The transfer of oral steroid-dependent patients to Easyhaler® Penbulin 200 micrograms/dose and their subsequent management needs special care as recovery from impaired adrenocortical function, caused by prolonged systemic steroid therapy, may take a considerable time.

Patients who have been treated with systemic steroids for long periods of time or at a high dose may have adrenocortical suppression. With these patients adrenocortical function should be monitored regularly and their dose of systemic steroid reduced cautiously.

After approximately a week, gradual withdrawal of the systemic steroid is commenced. Decrements in dosages should be appropriate to the level of maintenance systemic steroid, and introduced at not less than weekly intervals. For maintenance doses of prednisolone (or equivalent) of 10mg daily or less, the decrements in dose should not be greater than 1mg per day, at not less than weekly intervals. For maintenance doses of prednisolone in excess of 10mg daily, it may be appropriate to employ cautiously, larger decrements in dose at weekly intervals.

Some patients feel unwell in a non-specific way during the withdrawal phase despite maintenance or even improvement of the respiratory function. They should be encouraged to persevere with Easyhaler® Penbulin 200 micrograms/dose and withdrawal of systemic steroid continued, unless there are objective signs of adrenal insufficiency.

Patients weaned off oral steroids whose adrenocortical function is impaired should carry a steroid warning card indicating that they may need supplementary systemic steroid during periods of stress, e.g. worsening asthma attacks, chest infections, major intercurrent illness, surgery, trauma, etc.

Replacement of systemic steroid treatment with inhaled therapy sometimes unmasks allergies such as allergic rhinitis or eczema previously controlled by the systemic drug. These allergies should be symptomatically treated with antihistamine and/or topical preparations, including topical steroids.

Treatment with Easyhaler® Penbulin 200 micrograms/dose should not be stopped abruptly.

As with all inhaled corticosteroids, special care is necessary in patients with active or quiescent pulmonary tuberculosis.

Easyhaler® Penbulin contains approximately 7mg of lactose per dose. This amount does not normally cause problems in lactose intolerant people. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.

Patients should be properly instructed on the use of the inhaler to ensure that the drug reaches the target areas within the lungs.To be effective, Qvar must be used by patients on a regular basis, even when patients do not have asthma symptoms. When symptoms are controlled, maintenance Qvar therapy should be reduced in a stepwise manner to the minimum effective dose. Inhaled steroid treatment should not be stopped abruptly.

Patients with asthma are at risk of acute attacks and should have regular assessments of their asthma control including pulmonary function tests.

Qvar is not indicated for the immediate relief of asthma attacks. Patients therefore need to have relief medication (inhaled short-acting bronchodilator) available for such circumstances.

Severe asthma requires regular medical assessment, including lung-function testing, as there is a risk of severe attacks and even death. Patients should be instructed to seek medical attention if short-acting relief bronchodilator treatment becomes less effective, or more inhalations than usual are required as this may indicate deterioration of asthma control. If this occurs, patients should be assessed and the need for increased anti-inflammatory therapy considered (eg. higher doses of inhaled corticosteroid or a course of oral corticosteroid)

Severe asthma exacerbations should be managed in the usual way i.e. by increasing the dose of inhaled beclometasone dipropionate, giving a systemic steroid if necessary, and/or an appropriate antibiotic if there is an infection, together with β-agonist therapy.

Treatment with Qvar should not be stopped abruptly.

However, systemic effects of inhaled corticosteroids may occur, particularly at high doses prescribed for prolonged periods. These effects are much less likely to occur than with oral corticosteroids. Possible systemic effects include Cushing's syndrome, Cushingoid features, adrenal suppression, growth retardation in children and adolescents, decrease in bone mineral density, cataract, glaucoma, blurred vision, and more rarely, a range of psychological or behavioural effects including psychomotor hyperactivity, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression or aggression (particularly in children). It is important, therefore, that the dose of inhaled corticosteroid is titrated to the lowest dose at which effective control of asthma is maintained.

It is recommended that the height of children receiving prolonged treatment with inhaled corticosteroids is regularly monitored. If growth is slowed, therapy should be reviewed with the aim of reducing the dose of inhaled corticosteroid, if possible, to the lowest dose at which effective control of asthma is maintained. In addition, consideration should be given to referring the patient to a paediatric respiratory specialist.

Prolonged treatment with high doses of inhaled corticosteroids, particularly higher than the recommended doses, may result in clinically significant adrenal suppression.

Additional systemic corticosteroid cover should be considered during periods of stress or elective surgery.

Patients who have received systemic steroids for long periods of time or at high doses, or both, need special care and subsequent management when being transferred to inhaled steroid therapy. Patients should have stable asthma before being given inhaled steroids in addition to the usual maintenance dose of systemic steroid. Withdrawal of systemic steroids should be gradual, starting about seven days after the introduction of Qvar therapy. For daily oral doses of prednisolone of 10mg or less, dose reduction in 1mg steps, at intervals of not less than one week is recommended. For patients on daily maintenance doses of oral prednisolone greater than 10mg, larger weekly reductions in the dose might be acceptable. The dose reduction scheme should be chosen to correlate with the magnitude of the maintenance systemic steroid dose.

As recovery from impaired adrenocortical function, caused by prolonged systemic steroid therapy is slow, adrenocortical function should be monitored regularly.

Patients should be advised that they may feel unwell in a non-specific way during systemic steroid withdrawal despite maintenance of, or even improved respiratory function. Patients should be advised to persevere with their inhaled product and to continue withdrawal of systemic steroids, even if feeling unwell, unless there is evidence of HPA axis suppression.

Patients weaned off oral steroids whose adrenocortical function is impaired should carry a steroid warning card indicating that they may need supplementary systemic steroids during periods of stress, e.g. worsening asthma attacks, chest infections, major intercurrent illness, surgery, trauma, etc.

Discontinuation of systemic steroids may also cause exacerbation of allergic diseases such as atopic eczema and rhinitis. These should be treated as required with topical therapy, including corticosteroids and/or antihistamines.

Like other corticosteroids, caution is necessary in patients with active or latent pulmonary tuberculosis.

Patients should be advised to seek medical attention for review of maintenance Qvar therapy if peak flow falls, symptoms worsen or if the short-acting bronchodilator becomes less effective and increased inhalations are required. This may indicate worsening asthma.

Most patients can be successfully transferred to inhaled steroids with maintenance of good respiratory function, but special care is necessary for the first few months after the transfer, until the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system has sufficiently recovered to enable the patient to cope with stressful emergencies such as trauma, surgery or serious infections. Patients should, therefore, carry a steroid warning card to indicate the possible need to re-instate systemic steroid therapy rapidly during periods of stress or where airways obstruction or mucus significantly compromises the inhaled route of administration. In addition, it may be advisable to provide such patients with a supply of corticosteroid tablets to use in these circumstances. The dose of inhaled steroids should be increased at this time and then gradually reduced to the maintenance level after the systemic steroid has been discontinued.

Beclometasone dipropionate, like other inhaled steroids, is absorbed into the systemic circulation from the lungs. Beclometasone dipropionate and its metabolites may exert detectable suppression of adrenal function. Within the dose range 100-800 micrograms daily, clinical studies with Qvar have demonstrated mean values for adrenal function and responsiveness within the normal range.

Visual disturbance may be reported with systemic and topical corticosteroid use. If a patient presents with symptoms such as blurred vision or other visual disturbances, the patient should be considered for referral to an ophthalmologist for evaluation of possible causes which may include cataract, glaucoma or rare diseases such as central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) which have been reported after use of systemic and topical corticosteroids.

Patients should be advised that this product contains small amounts of ethanol. At the normal doses, the amounts of ethanol are negligible and do not pose a risk to patients.

Systemic effects of nasal corticosteroids may occur, particularly at high doses prescribed for prolonged periods. These effects are much less likely to occur than with oral corticosteroids and may vary in individual patients and between different corticosteroid preparations. Potential systemic effects may include Cushing's syndrome, Cushingoid features, adrenal suppression, growth retardation in children and adolescents, cataract, glaucoma and more rarely, a range of psychological or behavioural effects including psychomotor hyperactivity, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression or aggression (particularly in children).

Growth retardation has been reported in children receiving nasal corticosteroids at licensed doses. It is recommended that the height of children receiving prolonged treatment with nasal corticosteroids is regularly monitored. If growth is slowed, therapy should be reviewed with the aim of reducing the dose of nasal corticosteroid, if possible to the lowest dose at which effective control of symptoms is maintained. In addition, consideration should be given to referring the patient to a paediatric specialist.

Treatment with higher than recommended doses may result in clinically significant adrenal suppression. If there is evidence for higher than recommended doses being used then additional systemic corticosteroid cover should be considered during periods of stress or elective surgery.

Care must be taken while transferring patients from systemic steroid treatment to Penbulin Aqueous Nasal Spray if there is any reason to suppose that their adrenal function is impaired.

Infections of the nasal passages and paranasal sinuses should be appropriately treated but do not constitute a specific contra-indication to treatment with Penbulin Aqueous Nasal Spray.

Although Penbulin Aqueous Nasal Spray will control seasonal allergic rhinitis in most cases, an abnormally heavy challenge of summer allergens may in certain instances necessitate appropriate additional therapy particularly to control eye symptoms.

Penbulin Aqueous Nasal Spray contains Benzalkonium Chloride which may cause bronchospasm.

Visual Disturbance

Visual disturbance may be reported with systemic and topical corticosteroid use. If a patient presents with symptoms such as blurred vision or other visual disturbances, the patient should be considered for referral to an ophthalmologist for evaluation of possible causes, which may include cataract, glaucoma or rare diseases such as central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) which have been reported after use of systemic and topical corticosteroids.

Effects on ability to drive and use machines

The information provided in Effects on ability to drive and use machines of Penbulin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Penbulin of the medicine (Beclometasone). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Effects on ability to drive and use machines in the instructions to the drug Penbulin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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No adverse effect has been reported.

Not relevant.

Not relevant

Undesirable effects

The information provided in Undesirable effects of Penbulin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Penbulin of the medicine (Beclometasone). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Undesirable effects in the instructions to the drug Penbulin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Systemic and local corticosteroid use may result in the following:

  • Epistaxis, nasal discomfort, nasal ulcerations, Candida albicans infection, and impaired wound healing
  • Eye Disorders
  • Hypercorticism, adrenal suppression, and growth reduction
  • Immunosuppression

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared with rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Adults And Adolescents 12 Years Of Age And Older

The safety data described below for adults and adolescents 12 years of age and older with seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis are based on 4 placebo-controlled clinical trials of 2 to 6 weeks duration evaluating doses of beclomethasone nasal aerosol from 80 to 320 mcg once daily. These short-term trials included a total of 1394 patients with either seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis. Of these, 575 (378 female and 197 male) received at least one dose of QNASL Nasal Aerosol, 320 mcg once daily and 578 (360 female and 218 male) received placebo. Patient ages ranged from 12 to 82 years and the racial distribution of patients was 81% white, 16% black, and 4% other.

Short-Term (2–6 Weeks) Trials

Less than 2% of patients in the clinical trials discontinued treatment because of adverse reactions with the rate of withdrawal among patients who received QNASL Nasal Aerosol similar to or lower than the rate among patients who received placebo. Table 1 displays the common adverse reactions (≥ 1% and greater than placebo-treated patients).

Table 1. Adverse Events With ≥ 1% Incidence and Greater than Placebo in QNASL Nasal Aerosol-Treated Adult and Adolescent Patients with Seasonal or Perennial Allergic Rhinitis in Controlled Clinical Trials of 2 to 6 Weeks Duration (Safety Population)

  Adult and Adolescent Patients 12 Years of Age and Older
QNASL Nasal Aerosol 320 mcg
(N = 575)
n (%)
Placebo
(N = 578)
n (%)
Nasal Discomfort 30 (5.2) 28 (4.8)
Epistaxis 11 (1.9) 7 (1.2)
Headache 13 (2.3) 9 (1.6)

Nasal ulcerations occurred in 2 patients treated with placebo and in 1 patient treated with QNASL Nasal Aerosol. There were no differences in the incidence of adverse reactions based on gender or race. Clinical trials did not have sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 years and older to determine whether they respond differently than younger patients.

Long-Term 52-Week Safety Trial

In a 52-week placebo-controlled long-term safety trial in patients with PAR, 415 patients (128 males and 287 females, aged 12 to 74 years) were treated with QNASL Nasal Aerosol at a dose of 320 mcg once daily and 111 patients (44 males and 67 females, aged 12 to 67 years) were treated with placebo. Of the 415 patients treated with QNASL Nasal Aerosol, 219 patients were treated for 52 weeks and 196 patients were treated for 30 weeks. While most adverse events were similar in type and rate between the treatment groups, epistaxis occurred more frequently in patients who received QNASL Nasal Aerosol (45 out of 415, 11%) than in patients who received placebo (2 out of 111, 2%). Epistaxis also tended to be more severe in patients treated with QNASL Nasal Aerosol. In 45 reports of epistaxis in patients who received QNASL Nasal Aerosol, 27, 13, and 5 cases were of mild, moderate, and severe intensity, respectively, while the reports of epistaxis in patients who received placebo were of mild (1) and moderate (1) intensity. Seventeen patients treated with QNASL Nasal Aerosol experienced adverse reactions that led to withdrawal from the trial compared to 3 patients treated with placebo. There were 4 nasal erosions and 1 nasal septum ulceration which occurred in patients who received QNASL Nasal Aerosol, and no erosions or ulcerations noted in patients who received placebo. No patient experienced a nasal septum perforation during the trial.

Pediatric Patients Aged 4 to 11 Years

The safety data described below for pediatric patients 4 to 11 years of age with seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis are based on 3 placebo-controlled clinical trials. These trials were 2 to 12 weeks in duration, evaluated doses of beclomethasone nasal aerosol 80 mcg to 160 mcg once daily and included a total of 1360 patients with either seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis. Of these, 668 (312 female and 356 male) received at least one dose of QNASL Nasal Aerosol, 80 mcg once daily, 241 (116 female and 125 male) received QNASL Nasal Aerosol 160 mcg once daily, and 451 (203 female and 248 male) received placebo. The racial distribution of patients was 73% white, 20% black, and 6% other. Based on the results from the dose ranging trial, 80 mcg once daily was chosen as the dose in pediatric patients.

Less than 1.5% of patients in the clinical trials discontinued treatment because of adverse reactions with the rate of withdrawal among patients who received QNASL Nasal Aerosol 80 mcg once daily similar to or lower than the rate among patients who received placebo. Table 2 displays the common adverse reactions (≥ 2% and greater than placebo-treated patients). Additionally, epistaxis was reported at a rate of 4% for both QNASL Nasal Aerosol 80 mcg once daily and placebo treated patients.

Table 2. Adverse Events With ≥ 2% Incidence and Greater than Placebo in QNASL Nasal Aerosol-Treated Pediatric Patients with Seasonal or Perennial Allergic Rhinitis in Controlled Clinical Trials of 2 to 12 weeks Duration (Safety Population)

  Pediatric Patients 4 to 11 Years of Age
QNASL Nasal Aerosol 80 mcg
(N=668)
n (%)
Placebo
(N=451)
n (%)
Headache 23 (3.4) 15 (3.3)
Pyrexia 19 (2.8) 7 (1.6)
Upper respiratory tract infection 17 (2.5) 8 (1.8)
Nasopharyngitis 15 (2.2) 6 (1.3)

Postmarketing Experience

In addition to adverse reactions reported from clinical trials for QNASL Nasal Aerosol, the following adverse events have been reported during postmarketing use of QNASL Nasal Aerosol or other intranasal and inhaled formulations of beclomethasone dipropionate. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These events have been chosen for inclusion due to either their seriousness, frequency of reporting, or causal connection to beclomethasone dipropionate or a combination of these factors.

QNASL Nasal Aerosol: sneezing, burning sensation

Intranasal beclomethasone dipropionate: Nasal septal perforation, blurred vision, glaucoma, cataracts, central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), loss of taste and smell, and hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, angioedema, rash, and urticaria have been reported following intranasal administration of beclomethasone dipropionate.

Inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate: Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, angioedema, rash, urticaria, and bronchospasm have been reported following the oral inhalation of beclomethasone dipropionate.

Adverse events are listed below by system organ class and frequency. Frequencies are defined as: very common ( 1/10), common ( 1/100 and <1/10), uncommon ( 1/1000 and <1/100), rare ( 1/10,000 and <1/1000), very rare (<1/10,000) including isolated reports and not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). Very common, common and uncommon events were generally determined from clinical trial data. The incidence in placebo and comparator group has not been taken into account in estimation of these frequencies. Rare and very rare events were generally determined from spontaneous data.

System Organ Class

Adverse Event

Frequency

Infections & Infestations

Candidiasis of the mouth and throat.

Very Common

Immune System Disorders

Hypersensitivity reactions with the following manifestations:

Rashes, urticaria, pruritis, erythema.

Uncommon

Oedema of the eyes, face, lips and throat

Very Rare

Respiratory symptoms (dyspnoea and/or bronchospasm)

Very Rare

Anaphylactoid/anaphylactic reactions

Very Rare

Endocrine Disorders

Cushing's syndrome, Cushingoid features, adrenal suppression, growth retardation in children and adolescents, decrease in bone mineral density, cataract, glaucoma

Very Rare

Psychiatric Disorders

Psychomotor hyperactivity, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression, aggression, behavioural changes (predominantly in children)

Not known

Respiratory, Thoracic & Mediastinal Disorders

Hoarseness/throat irritation, cough

Common

Paradoxical bronchospasm

Very Rare

Eosinophilic pneumonia

Not Known

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Easy bruising, skin thinning

Not known

Candidiasis of the mouth and throat (thrush) occurs in some patients, the incidence increasing with doses greater than 400 micrograms of Penbulin dipropionate per day. Patients with high blood levels of Candida precipitins, indicating a previous infection, are most likely to develop this complication. Patients may find it helpful to rinse their mouth thoroughly with water after using the inhaler. Symptomatic candidiasis can be treated with topical anti-fungal therapy whilst still continuing with Easyhaler® Penbulin 200 micrograms/dose treatment.

Systemic effects of inhaled corticosteroids may occur, particularly at high doses prescribed for prolonged periods. Possible systemic effects include Cushing's syndrome, Cushingoid features, adrenal suppression, growth retardation in children and adolescents, decrease in bone mineral density, cataract, glaucoma (see 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use).

In some patients inhaled Penbulin dipropionate may cause hoarseness, cough, throat irritation and sore throat. It may be helpful to rinse the mouth out with water immediately after inhalation.

As with other inhalation therapy, paradoxical bronchospasm may occur with an immediate increase in wheezing after dosing. This should be treated immediately with a fast-acting inhaled bronchodilator. The Penbulin dipropionate preparation should be discontinued immediately, the patient assessed, and if necessary alternative therapy instituted.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.

A serious hypersensitivity reaction including oedema of the eye, face, lips and throat (angioedema) has been reported rarely.

As with other inhaled therapy, paradoxical bronchospasm may occur after dosing. Immediate treatment with a short-acting bronchodilator should be initiated, Qvar should be discontinued immediately and an alternate prophylactic treatment introduced.

Systemic effects of inhaled corticosteroids may occur, particularly with high doses prescribed for prolonged periods. These include adrenal suppression, growth retardation in children, decrease in bone mineral density and the occurrence of cataract and glaucoma.

Commonly, when taking Qvar, hoarseness and candidiasis of the throat and mouth may occur. To reduce the risk of hoarseness and candida infection, patients are advised to rinse their mouth after using their inhaler.

Based on the MedDra system organ class and frequencies, adverse events are listed in the table below according to the following frequency estimate: very common (> 1/10); common (>1/100 to <1/10); Uncommon (>1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (>1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

MedDra - system organ class

Frequency and Symptom

Infections and infestations

Common: Candidiasis in mouth and throat

Immune system disorders

Rare: Allergic reactions, angioedema in eyes, throat, lips and face

Endocrine disorders

Very rare: Adrenal suppression*, growth retardation* (in children and adolescents), bone density decreased*

Nervous system disorders

Uncommon: Headache, vertigo, tremor

Eye disorders

Uncommon: )

Very rare: Cataract*, glaucoma*

Not known: Central serous retinopathy

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Common: Hoarseness, pharyngitis

Uncommon: Cough, increased asthma symptoms

Rare: Paradoxical bronchospasm

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common: Taste disturbances

Uncommon: Nausea

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Uncommon: Urticaria, rash, pruritus, erythema, purpura

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Very rare: Decrease bone mineral density

Psychiatric Disorders

Unknown: Psychomotor hyperactivity, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression, aggression, behavioural changes (predominantly in children)

*).

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard

.

Adverse reactions are listed below by system organ class and frequency. Frequencies are defined as: very common (>1/10), common (>1/100 and <1/10), uncommon (>1/1000 and <1/100), rare (>1/10,000 and <1/1000) and very rare (<1/10,000) including isolated reports. Very common, common and uncommon reactions were generally determined from clinical trial data. Rare and very rare reactions were generally determined from spontaneous data. In assigning adverse reaction frequencies, the background rates in placebo groups were not taken into account, since these rates were generally comparable to those in the active treatment group.

System Organ Class

Adverse Event

Frequency

Immune system disorders

Hypersensitivity reactions including:

Rash, urticaria, pruritis, erythema.

Common

Angioedema

Very rare

Dyspnoea and/or bronchospasm

Very rare

Anaphylactoid/anaphylactic reactions

Very rare

Nervous system disorders

Unpleasant taste, unpleasant smell.

Common

Eye disorders

Glaucoma, raised intraocular pressure, cataract.

Very rare

<)

Not known

Respiratory, Thoracic & Mediastinal disorders

Epistaxis, nasal dryness, nasal irritation, throat dryness, throat irritation.

Common

Nasal septum perforation.

Very rare

Systemic effects of nasal corticosteroids may occur particularly when used at high doses for prolonged periods.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.

Overdose

The information provided in Overdose of Penbulin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Penbulin of the medicine (Beclometasone). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Overdose in the instructions to the drug Penbulin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Chronic overdosage may result in signs/symptoms of hypercorticism. There are no data available on the effects of acute or chronic overdosage with QNASL Nasal Aerosol.

Acute: Inhalation of the drug in doses in excess of those recommended may lead to temporary suppression of adrenal function. This does not require emergency action. In these patients treatment with Penbulin diproprionate by inhalation should be continued at a dose sufficient to control asthma; adrenal function recovers in a few days and can be verified by measuring plasma cortisol.

Chronic: Use of inhaled Penbulin dipropionate in daily doses in excess of 1,500 micrograms over prolonged periods may lead to some degree of adrenal suppression. Monitoring of adrenal reserve may be indicated. Treatment should be continued at a dose sufficient to control asthma.

Acute overdosage is unlikely to cause problems. The only harmful effect that follows inhalation of large amounts of the drug over a short time period is suppression of HPA function. Specific emergency action need not be taken. Treatment with Qvar should be continued at the recommended dose to control the asthma; HPA function recovers in a day or two.

If excessive doses of beclometasone dipropionate were taken over a prolonged period a degree of atrophy of the adrenal cortex could occur in addition to HPA suppression. In this event the patient should be treated as steroid dependent and transferred to a suitable maintenance dose of a systemic steroid such as prednisolone.

The only harmful effect that follows inhalation of large amounts of the drug over a short time period is suppression of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) function. No special emergency action need be taken. Treatment with Penbulin Aqueous Nasal Spray should be continued at the recommended dose. HPA function recovers in a day or two.

Further management should be as clinically indicated or as recommended by the national poisons centre, where available.

There is no specific treatment for an overdose of beclometasone dipropionate. If overdose occurs, the patient should be treated supportively with appropriate monitoring as necessary

Pharmacodynamic properties

The information provided in Pharmacodynamic properties of Penbulin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Penbulin of the medicine (Beclometasone). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacodynamic properties in the instructions to the drug Penbulin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Adrenal Function: The effects of QNASL Nasal Aerosol on the HPA axis were evaluated in two 6- week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group perennial allergic rhinitis trials – one in adult and adolescent patients 12 to 45 years of age and another in children 6 to 11 years of age. In the first study with adolescent and adult patients aged 12 to 45, QNASL Nasal Aerosol 320 mcg, once daily, was compared with both placebo nasal aerosol and a positive control (a placebo/prednisone group that received prednisone 10 mg orally once daily for the final 7 days of the treatment period). In the second study with pediatric patients aged 6 to 11, QNASL Nasal Aerosol 80 mcg once daily was compared to placebo nasal aerosol. HPA-axis function was assessed by 24-hour serial serum cortisol levels prior to the first dose and after 6 weeks of treatment. Patients were domiciled for the 24-hour serum cortisol assessments. The change from baseline in the 24-hour serum cortisol weighted mean for QNASL Nasal Aerosol and placebo after 6 weeks of treatment were compared.

In the HPA–axis study in patients 12 to 45 years of age, baseline geometric mean serum cortisol weighted mean values were similar in the QNASL Nasal Aerosol 320 mcg/day and placebo treatment groups (9.04 and 8.45 mcg/dL, respectively). After 6 weeks of treatment, the geometric mean values were 8.18 and 8.01 mcg/dL, respectively, with a change from baseline in 24-hour serum cortisol weighted mean for the QNASL Nasal Aerosol and placebo groups of 0.86 and 0.44, resulting in a difference of 0.42. The geometric mean ratio for QNASL Nasal Aerosol 320 mcg/day to placebo was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.06). For comparison, in the positive-control (prednisone) treatment group, the geometric mean ratio for placebo to placebo/prednisone 10 mg/day was 3.17 (95% CI: 2.68, 3.74).

In the HPA-axis study in patients 6 to 11 years of age, baseline geometric mean serum cortisol weighted mean values were similar in the QNASL Nasal Aerosol 80 mcg/day and placebo treatment groups (5.97 and 6.47 mcg/dL, respectively). After 6 weeks of treatment the geometric mean values were 6.19 and 7.13 mcg/dL, respectively with no decrease from baseline values in both treatment groups. The geometric mean ratio for QNASL Nasal Aerosol 80 mcg/day to placebo was 0.91 (95% CI; 0.81, 1.03).

Penbulin dipropionate (BDP) is a pro-drug with weak glucocorticoid receptor binding activity. It is hydrolysed via esterase enzymes to the active metabolite Penbulin-17-monopropionate (B-17-MP), which has high topical anti-inflammatory activity.

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Glucocorticoids, ATC Code: R03B A01

Qvar contains beclometasone dipropionate in solution in propellant HFA-134a resulting in an extrafine aerosol. The aerosol droplets are on average much smaller than the beclometasone dipropionate particles delivered by CFC-suspension formulations or dry powder formulations of beclometasone dipropionate. The extrafine particle fraction will be 60% ± 20% of the drug particles ≤ 3.3 microns per shot, ex-actuator.

Radio-labelled deposition studies in adults with mild asthma have demonstrated that the majority of drug (>55% ex-actuator) is deposited in the lung and a small amount (< 35% ex-actuator) is deposited in the oropharynx. These studies were performed with Qvar Aerosol. Qvar Aerosol is a 'press and breathe' inhaler, whereas Penbulin is a breath-activated inhaler.

Inhaled beclometasone dipropionate is now well established in the management of asthma. It is a synthetic glucocorticoid and exerts a topical, anti-inflammatory effect on the lungs, with fewer systemic effects than oral corticosteroids.

Comparative clinical studies have demonstrated that asthma patients achieve equivalent pulmonary function and control of symptoms with Qvar at lower total daily doses than CFC containing beclometasone dipropionate aerosol inhalers.

Pharmacodynamic studies in patients with mild asthma given Qvar for 14 days, have shown that there is a linear correlation among urinary free cortisol suppression, dose administered, and serum total-beclometasone levels obtained. At a daily dose of 800 micrograms Qvar, suppression of urinary free cortisol was comparable with that observed with the same daily dose of CFC containing beclometasone dipropionate, indicating a wider safety margin, as Qvar is administered at lower doses than the CFC product.

Following topical administration beclometasone 17,21-dipropionate (BDP) produces potent anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictor effects.

BDP is a pro-drug with weak corticosteroid receptor binding affinity. It is hydrolysed via esterase enzymes to the highly active metabolite beclometasone-17-monopropionate (B-17-MP), which has high topical anti-inflammatory activity.

Beclometasone dipropionate offers a preventative background treatment for hayfever when taken prior to allergen challenge. After which with regular use, BDP can continue to prevent allergy symptoms from reappearing.

Pharmacokinetic properties

The information provided in Pharmacokinetic properties of Penbulin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Penbulin of the medicine (Beclometasone). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacokinetic properties in the instructions to the drug Penbulin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Absorption

Following intranasal administration, most of the beclomethasone dipropionate undergoes extensive conversion to its active metabolite, beclomethasone-17-monopropionate, during absorption. Plasma concentrations of beclomethasone dipropionate and beclomethasone-17-monopropionate have been measured with QNASL Nasal Aerosol in 2 adult and/or adolescent clinical trials and 1 pediatric clinical trial.

The single-dose pharmacokinetics of QNASL Nasal Aerosol were evaluated in a randomized, openlabel, 3-period, crossover trial in healthy adult volunteers. Systemic levels of beclomethasone-17- monopropionate and beclomethasone dipropionate after single-dose intranasal administration of beclomethasone dipropionate at doses of 80 and 320 mcg were compared with the systemic levels of beclomethasone-17-monopropionate and beclomethasone dipropionate after administration of orally inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate HFA at a dose of 320 mcg (QVAR® Inhalation Aerosol). The results of this trial demonstrated that the systemic bioavailability of QNASL Nasal Aerosol 320 mcg was approximately 27.5% (approximately 4-fold lower) of that of orally inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate HFA 320 mcg/day based on the plasma concentrations of beclomethasone-17- monopropionate (AUClast: 1139.7 vs 4140.3 hr*pg/mL; GMR: 0.275; 90% CI for the GMR: 0.214, 0.354). The peak exposure to QNASL Nasal Aerosol 320 mcg/day was approximately 19.5% (approximately 5-fold lower) of that of orally inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate HFA 320 mcg/day as measured by beclomethasone-17-monopropionate (Cmax: 262.7 vs 1343.7 pg/mL; GMR: 0.195; 90% CI for the GMR: 0.158, 0.241).

Following repeated once-daily administration of QNASL Nasal Aerosol, there was no accumulation or increase in plasma exposure to beclomethasone-17-monopropionate or beclomethasone dipropionate, most likely due to the short plasma half-life relative to the dosing frequency.

Distribution

The in vitro protein binding for beclomethasone-17-monopropionate was reported to be 94% to 96% over the concentration range of 1000 to 5000 pg/mL. The volume of distribution at steady state for beclomethasone dipropionate is moderate (20 L) but more extensive for beclomethasone-17- monopropionate (424 L).

Metabolism

Beclomethasone dipropionate undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism, forming three metabolites via CYP3A4, beclomethasone-17-monopropionate, beclomethasone-21-monopropionate, and beclomethasone. Beclomethasone-17-monopropionate is the major and most active metabolite.

Elimination

The major route of elimination of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate appears to be via metabolism. More than 90% of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate is found as beclomethasone-17- monopropionate in the systemic circulation. The mean elimination half-life of beclomethasone-17- monopropionate is 2.8 hours. The terminal elimination half-lives of beclomethasone dipropionate and beclomethasone-17-monopropionate following intranasal dosing with QNASL Nasal Aerosol (320 mcg) were approximately 0.3 hours and 4.5 hours, respectively. Irrespective of the route of administration (injection, oral, or inhalation), beclomethasone dipropionate and its metabolites are mainly excreted in the feces. Less than 10% of the drug and its metabolites are excreted in the urine. It is likely that intranasal beclomethasone dipropionate follows a similar elimination pathway.

Absorption

When administered via inhalation (via metered dose inhaler) there is extensive conversion of BDP to the active metabolite B-17-MP within the lungs prior to systemic absorption. The systemic absorption of B-17-MP arises from both lung deposition and oral absorption of the swallowed dose. When administered orally, in healthy male volunteers, the bioavailability of BDP is negligible but pre-systemic conversion to B-17-MP results in 41% (95% CI 27- 62 %) of the dose being available as B-17-MP.

Metabolism

BDP is cleared very rapidly from the systemic circulation, owing to extensive first pass metabolism. The main product of metabolism is the active metabolite (B-17-MP). Minor inactive metabolites, Penbulin-21-monopropionate (B-21-MP) and Penbulin (BOH), are also formed but these contribute little to systemic exposure.

Distribution

The tissue distribution at steady state for BDP is moderate (20L) but more extensive for B-17-MP (424L). Plasma protein binding is moderately high (87%).

Elimination

The elimination of BDP and B-17-MP are characterised by high plasma clearance (150 and 120L/h) with corresponding terminal elimination half lives of 0.5h and 2.7h. Following oral administration of tritiated BDP, approximately 60% of the dose was excreted in the faeces within 96 hours mainly as free and conjugated polar metabolites. Approximately 12% of the dose was excreted as free and conjugated polar metabolites in the urine.

The pharmacokinetic profile of Qvar shows that the peak serum concentration for total- beclometasone (BOH) (total of any beclometasone OH and beclometasone dipropionate or monopropionate hydrolysed to beclometasone OH) after single and multiple doses is achieved after 30 minutes. The value at the peak is approximately 2 nanograms/ml after a total daily dose of 800 micrograms and the serum levels after 100, 200 and 400 micrograms are proportional. The principal route of elimination of beclometasone dipropionate and its several metabolites is in the faeces. Between 10% and 15% of an orally administered dose is excreted in the urine, as both conjugated and free metabolites of the drug.

In both single dose and multiple dose pharmacokinetic studies, a dose of 200 micrograms of Qvar achieved comparable total-BOH levels, as a dose of 400 micrograms of CFC containing beclometasone dipropionate aerosol. This provided the scientific rationale for investigating lower total daily doses of Qvar to achieve the same clinical effect.

Pharmacokinetic studies with Qvar have not been carried out in any special populations.

Absorption

Following intranasal administration of BDP in healthy males, the systemic absorption was assessed by measuring the plasma concentrations of its active metabolite B-17-MP, for which the absolute bioavailability following intranasal administration is 44% (95% CI 28%, 70%). After intranasal administration, <1% of the dose is absorbed by the nasal mucosa. The remainder after being cleared from the nose, either by drainage or mucocilary clearance, is available for absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Plasma B-17-MP is almost entirely due to conversion of BDP absorbed from the swallowed dose.

Following oral administration of BDP in healthy males, the systemic absorption was also assessed by measuring the plasma concentrations of its active metabolite B-17-MP, for which the absolute bioavailability following oral administration is 41% (95% CI 27%, 62%).

Following an oral dose, B-17-MP is absorbed slowly with peak plasma levels reached 3-5 hours after dosing.

Metabolism

BDP is cleared very rapidly from the circulation and plasma concentrations are undetectable (< 50pg/ml) following oral or intranasal dosing. There is rapid metabolism of the majority of the swallowed portion of BDP during its first passage through the liver. The main product of metabolism is the active metabolite (B-17-MP). Minor inactive metabolites, beclometasone-21-monopropionate (B-21-MP) and beclometasone (BOH), are also formed but these contribute little to systemic exposure.

Distribution

The tissue distribution at steady-state for BDP is moderate (20l) but more extensive for B-17-MP (424l). Plasma protein binding of BDP is moderately high (87%).

Elimination

The elimination of BDP and B-17-MP are characterised by high plasma clearance (150 and 120l/h) with corresponding terminal elimination half-lives of 0.5h and 2.7h. Following oral administration of tritiated BDP, approximately 60% of the dose was excreted in the faeces within 96 hours mainly as free and conjugated polar metabolites. Approximately 12% of the dose was excreted as free and conjugated polar metabolites in the urine.

Pharmacotherapeutic group

The information provided in Pharmacotherapeutic group of Penbulin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Penbulin of the medicine (Beclometasone). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacotherapeutic group in the instructions to the drug Penbulin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Glucocorticoids, ATC Code: R03B A01

Preclinical safety data

The information provided in Preclinical safety data of Penbulin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Penbulin of the medicine (Beclometasone). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Preclinical safety data in the instructions to the drug Penbulin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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In animal studies, propellant HFA-134a has been shown to have no significant pharmacological effects other than at very high exposure concentrations, then narcosis and a relatively weak cardiac sensitising effect were found. The potency of the cardiac sensitisation was less than that of CFC-11 (trichlorofluoromethane).

In studies to detect toxicity, repeated high dose levels of propellant HFA-134a indicated that safety margins based on systemic exposure would be of the order 2200, 1314 and 381 for mouse, rat and dog with respect to humans.

There are no reasons to consider propellant HFA-134a as a potential mutagen, clastogen or carcinogen judged from in vitro and in vivo studies including long-term administration by inhalation in rodents.

Studies of propellant HFA-134a administered to pregnant and lactating rats and rabbits have not revealed any special hazard.

In animals, systemic administration of relatively high doses can cause abnormalities of foetal development including growth retardation and cleft palate. There may therefore be a very small risk of such effects in the human foetus. However, inhalation of beclometasone dipropionate into the lungs avoids the high level of exposure that occurs with administration by systemic routes.

Safety studies with this product in rat and dog showed few, if any, adverse effects other than those normally associated with general steroid exposure including lymphoid tissue alterations such as reduction in thymus, adrenal and spleen weights. An inhalation reproductive study with Qvar Aerosol (an equivalent inhaler) in rats did not exhibit any teratogenic effects.

Incompatibilities

The information provided in Incompatibilities of Penbulin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Penbulin of the medicine (Beclometasone). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Incompatibilities in the instructions to the drug Penbulin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Aerosol for inhalation dosed; Nasal dosing spray
Pressurised inhalation, solution
Aerosol, Metered

None

Not applicable.

Not applicable

Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The information provided in Special precautions for disposal and other handling of Penbulin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Penbulin of the medicine (Beclometasone). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special precautions for disposal and other handling in the instructions to the drug Penbulin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Aerosol for inhalation dosed; Nasal dosing spray
Pressurised inhalation, solution
Aerosol, Metered

Patients have to be instructed to perform a rapid and forced inhalation through the Easyhaler device. Patients have to be instructed not to exhale into the device. Illustrated user's instructions for use accompany each package.

Not applicable.

Refer to Patient Information Leaflet.