Medically reviewed by Militian Inessa Mesropovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2020-03-13
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Reduction of intraocular pressure in chronic open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.
Adults (including the elderly)
The usual dose is one drop instilled in the affected eye(s) once or twice daily. Because of diurnal variations in intraocular pressure, satisfactory response is best determined by measuring the intraocular pressure at different times of the day.
Levobunolol Hydrochloride PF 0.5% Nitten is not recommended for use in children due to lack of safety and efficacy data.
Intraocular pressure should be measured approximately four weeks after starting treatment with Levobunolol Hydrochloride PF 0.5% Nitten as a return to normal ocular pressure can take a few weeks.
Method of administration: topical into the conjunctival sac.
When using nasolacrimal occlusion or closing the eyelids for 2 minutes, the systemic absorption is reduced. This may result in a decrease in systemic side effects and an increase in local activity.
Sinus bradycardia, sick sinus syndrome, sino-atrial block, second and third degree atrioventricular block not controlled with a pace maker; overt cardiac failure or cardiogenic shock.
Like other topically applied ophthalmic agents, levobunolol is absorbed systemically. Due to the beta-adrenergic component of Levobunolol Hydrochloride PF 0.5% Nitten (levobunolol), the same types of cardiovascular, pulmonary and other adverse reactions as seen with systemic beta-blockers may occur. Incidence of systemic ADRs after topical ophthalmic administration are lower than for systemic administration. To reduce the systemic absorption, see 4.2.
Cardiac disorders: In patients with cardiovascular diseases (e.g. coronary heart disease, Prinzmetal's angina and cardiac failure) and hypotension, therapy with beta-blockers should be critically assessed and therapy with other active substances should be considered. Patients with cardiovascular diseases should be watched for signs of deterioration of these diseases and of adverse reactions.
Due to their negative effect on conduction time, beta-blockers should only be given with caution to patients with first degree atrioventricular block.
Vascular disorders: Patients with severe peripheral circulatory disturbance disorders (i.e. severe forms of Raynaud's disease or Raynaud's syndrome) should be treated with caution.
Respiratory disorders: Respiratory reactions, including death due to bronchospasm in patients with asthma have been reported following administration of levobunolol.
Levobunolol Hydrochloride PF 0.5% Nitten should be used with caution in patients with mild/moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and only if the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk.
Hypoglycaemia/diabetes: Beta-blockers should be administered with caution in patients subject to spontaneous hypoglycaemia or to patients with labile diabetes as beta-blockers may mask the signs and symptoms of acute hypoglycaemia.
Beta-blockers may also mask the signs of hyperthyroidism.
Corneal diseases: Ophthalmic Î²-blockers may induce dryness of eyes. Patients with corneal diseases should be treated with caution.
Other beta-blocking agents: The effect on intra-ocular pressure or the known effects of systemic beta-blockade may be exaggerated when levobunolol is given to patients already receiving a systemic beta blocking agent. The response of these patients should be closely observed. The use of two topical beta-adrenergic blocking agents is not recommended.
Anaphylactic Reactions: While taking beta-blockers, patients with a history of atopy or a history of severe anaphylactic reaction to a variety of allergens may be more reactive to repeated challenge with such allergens and unresponsive to the usual dose of adrenaline used to treat anaphylactic reactions.
Choroidal detachment: Choroidal detachment has been reported with administration of aqueous suppressant therapy (e.g. timolol, acetazolamide) after filtration procedures.
Surgical anaesthesia: Î²-blocking ophthalmological preparations may block systemic Î²-agonist effects e.g. of adrenaline. The anaesthetist must be informed when the patient is receiving levobunolol.
The preservative in Levobunolol Hydrochloride PF 0.5% Nitten, benzalkonium chloride, may cause eye irritation. Remove contact lenses prior to application and wait at least 15 minutes before reinsertion. Benzalkonium chloride is known to discolour soft contact lenses. Avoid contact with soft contact lenses.
Levobunolol Hydrochloride PF 0.5% Nitten contains sodium metabisulfite which may rarely cause severe hypersensitivity reactions and bronchospasm.
Levobunolol Hydrochloride PF 0.5% Nitten has minor influence on the ability to drive and use machines. Levobunolol Hydrochloride PF 0.5% Nitten may cause transient blurring of vision, fatigue and/or drowsiness which may impair the ability to drive or operate machines. The patient should wait until these symptoms have cleared before driving or using machinery.
Like other topically applied ophthalmic drugs, levobunolol is absorbed into the systemic circulation. This may cause similar undesirable effects as seen with systemic beta-blocking agents. Incidence of systemic ADRs after topical ophthalmic administration of beta-blocking agents is lower than for systemic administration.
Within each frequency grouping, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness. The following terminologies have been used in order to classify the occurrence of undesirable effects: Very Common (>1/10); Common (>1/100 to <1/10); Uncommon (>1/1,000 to <1/100); Rare (>1/10,000 to <1/1,000); Very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).
The following adverse reactions have been reported with levobunolol:
Not known: Depression
Nervous System Disorders
Not known: Confusion, Dizziness, Somnolence, Lethargy, Headache, Insomnia
Very Common: Eye irritation, , Eye pain
Common: Blepharitis, Conjunctivitis
Not known: Conjunctival/Ocular hyperemia, Conjuctivitis allergic, Corneal reflex decreased, Iridocyclitis, Keratitis, Vision blurred, Punctate keratitis, Eye/Eyelids pruritus, Eye/Eyelid oedema, Eye discharge, Lacrimation increased, Dry eye, Foreign body sensation in eyes
Not known: Syncope, Bradycardia, Atrioventricular block, Palpitations
Not known: Hypotension, Raynaud's phenomenon
Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders
Not known: Asthma, Dyspnoea, Throat irritation, Nasal discomfort
Not known: Nausea
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders
Not known: Urticaria, Dermatitis contact (including allergic contact dermatitis), Rash, Erythema of eyelid, Eyelid eczema, Skin exfoliation, Lichenoid keratosis, Pruritus, Alopecia
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions
Not known: Face oedema, Fatigue/asthenia
Immune System Disorders
Not known: Hypersensitivity reaction including symptoms or signs of eye allergy and skin allergy
Additional adverse reactions have been seen with other ophthalmic beta-blockers and may potentially occur with Levobunolol Hydrochloride PF 0.5% Nitten:
Eye Disorders: Choroidal detachment following filtration surgery, Corneal erosion, Diplopia, Ptosis
Immune System Disorders: Anaphylactic reaction, Systemic allergic reactions including angioedema
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders: Hypoglycaemia
Psychiatric disorders: Memory loss, Nightmares
Nervous System Disorders: Cerebral ischemia, Cerebrovascular accident, Increases in signs and symptoms of myasthenia gravis, Paraesthesia
Cardiac Disorders: Arrhythmia, Cardiac arrest, Cardiac failure, Chest pain, Congestive heart failure, Oedema
Vascular disorders: Cold hands and feet
Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders: Bronchospasm (predominantly in patients with pre-existing bronchospastic disease), Cough
Gastrointestinal Disorders: Abdominal pain, Diarrhoea, Dysgeusia, Dry mouth, Dyspepsia, vomiting
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders:, Psoriasiform rash or exacerbation of psoriasis
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: Myalgia
Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: Decreased libido, Sexual dysfunction
Adverse reactions reported in eye drops containing phosphates:
Cases of corneal calcification have been reported very rarely in association with the use of phosphate containing eye drops in some patients with significantly damaged corneas.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via Yellow Card Scheme, Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.
There are no data available on human overdosage with Levobunolol Hydrochloride PF 0.5% Nitten, which is unlikely to occur via the ocular route. Should accidental ocular overdosage occur, flush the eye(s) with water or normal saline. If accidentally ingested, systemic symptoms may result and efforts to decrease further absorption may be appropriate. The symptoms associated with systemic overdosage are most likely to be bradycardia, hypotension, bronchospasm and cardiac failure. Therapy for overdosage of a beta-adrenergic agent should be instituted, such as intravenous administration of atropine sulfate 0.25 to 2 mg to induce vagal blockade. Conventional therapy for hypotension, bronchospasm, heart block and cardiac failure may be necessary.
Levobunolol is a non-cardioselective beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent, equipotent at both beta-1 and beta-2 receptors. Levobunolol does not have significant local anaesthetic (membrane-stabilizing) or intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. Levobunolol Hydrochloride PF 0.5% Nitten has shown to be as effective as Timolol in lowering intraocular pressure.
Because of levobunolol's affinity for beta-1 receptors there exists the theoretical possibility of a negative inotropic effect.
Levobunolol Hydrochloride PF 0.5% Nitten when instilled in the eye will lower elevated intraocular pressure as well as normal intraocular pressure, whether or not accompanied by glaucoma. Elevated intraocular pressure presents a major risk factor in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous field loss. The higher the level of intraocular pressure, the likelihood of optic nerve damage and visual field loss.
The primary mechanism of the ocular hypotensive activity of levobunolol hydrochloride is likely to be a decrease in aqueous humour production. There is little effect on pupil size or accommodation.
The blurred vision and night blindness often associated with miotics would not be expected with the use of Levobunolol Hydrochloride PF 0.5% Nitten. Patients with cataracts avoid the inability to see around lenticular opacities caused by pupil constriction.
The onset of action of one drop of Levobunolol Hydrochloride PF 0.5% Nitten can be detected one hour after instillation with the maximum effect seen between 2 and 6 hours. A significant decrease can be maintained for up to 24 hours following a single dose. The half lives of orally ingested levobunolol and of its active metabolite dihydrolevobunolol are between 6 and 7 hours.
No special instructions.
However, we will provide data for each active ingredient