Latanoprost (mw 432.58) is an isopropyl ester prodrug which per se is inactive, but after hydrolysis to the acid of latanoprost becomes biologically active.
The prodrug is well absorbed through the cornea and all drug that enters the aqueous humour is hydrolysed during the passage through the cornea.
Studies in man indicate that the peak concentration in the aqueous humour is reached about two hours after topical administration. After topical application in monkeys, latanoprost is distributed primarily in the anterior segment, the conjunctivae and the eyelids. Only minute quantities of the drug reach the posterior segment.
There is practically no metabolism of the acid of latanoprost in the eye. The main metabolism occurs in the liver. The half life in plasma is 17 minutes in man. The main metabolites, the 1, 2-dinor and 1,2,3,4-tetranor metabolites, exert no or only weak biological activity in animal studies and are excreted primarily in the urine.
An open-label pharmacokinetic study of plasma latanoprost acid concentrations was undertaken in 22 adults and 25 paediatric patients (from birth to < 18 years of age) with ocular hypertension and glaucoma. All age groups were treated with latanoprost 50 mcg/ml, one drop daily in each eye for a minimum of 2 weeks. Latanoprost acid systemic exposure was approximately 2-fold higher in 3 to < 12 year olds and 6-fold higher in children < 3 years old compared with adults, but a wide safety margin for systemic adverse effects was maintained. Median time to reach peak plasma concentration was 5 minutes post-dose across all age groups. The median plasma elimination half-life was short (< 20 minutes), similar for paediatric and adult patients, and resulted in no accumulation of latanoprost acid in the systemic circulation under steady-state conditions.
The ocular as well as systemic toxicity of latanoprost has been investigated in several animal species. Generally, latanoprost is well tolerated with a safety margin between clinical ocular dose and systemic toxicity of at least 1000 times. High doses of latanoprost, approximately 100 times the clinical dose/kg body weight, administered intravenously to unanaesthetised monkeys have been shown to increase the respiration rate probably reflecting bronchoconstriction of short duration. In animal studies, latanoprost has not been found to have sensitising properties.
In the eye, no toxic effects have been detected with doses of up to 100 micrograms/eye/day in rabbits or monkeys (clinical dose is approximately 1.5 micrograms/eye/day). In monkeys, however, latanoprost has been shown to induce increased pigmentation of the iris.
The mechanism of increased pigmentation seems to be stimulation of melanin production in melanocytes of the iris with no proliferative changes observed. The change in iris colour may be permanent.
In chronic ocular toxicity studies, administration of latanoprost 6 micrograms/eye/day has also been shown to induce increased palpebral fissure. This effect is reversible and occurs at doses above the clinical dose level. The effect has not been seen in humans.
Latanoprost was found negative in reverse mutation tests in bacteria, gene mutation in mouse lymphoma and mouse micronucleus test. Chromosome aberrations were observed in vitro with human lymphocytes. Similar effects were observed with prostaglandin F2Î±, a naturally occurring prostaglandin, and indicates that this is a class effect.
Additional mutagenicity studies on in vitro/in vivo unscheduled DNA synthesis in rats were negative and indicate that latanoprost does not have mutagenic potency. Carcinogenicity studies in mice and rats were negative.
Latanoprost has not been found to have any effect on male or female fertility in animal studies. In the embryotoxicity study in rats, no embryotoxicity was observed at intravenous doses (5, 50 and 250 micrograms/kg/day) of latanoprost. However, latanoprost induced embryolethal effects in rabbits at doses of 5 micrograms/kg/day and above.
The dose of 5 micrograms/kg/day (approximately 100 times the clinical dose) caused significant embryofoetal toxicity characterised by increased incidence of late resorption and abortion and by reduced foetal weight.
No teratogenic potential has been detected.
Sodium dihydrogen phosphate monohydrate (E339a)
Anhydrous disodium phosphate (E339b)
Water for injections
In vitro studies have shown that precipitation occurs when eye drops containing thiomersal are mixed with Xalatan. If such medicinal products are used, the eye drops should be administered with an interval of at least five minutes.
Before first opening:
After first opening of container:
Keep the bottle in the outer carton in order to protect from light.
Do not store above 25°C and use within 4 weeks.
Dropper container (5 ml) of polyethylene with a screw cap and tamper evident overcap of polyethylene.
Each dropper container contains 2.5 ml eye drops, solution corresponding to approximately 80 drops of solution.
Pack sizes: 1 x 2.5 ml, 3 x 2.5 ml, 6 x 2.5 ml.
Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
No special requirements.