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Components:
Ciprofloxacin, Dexamethasone
Method of action:
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Medically reviewed by Oliinyk Elizabeth Ivanovna, Pharmacy. Last updated on 2019.12.09

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Ciprofloxacin; Dexamethasone

Therapeutic indications

The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Kycort is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kycort of the medicine (Ciprofloxacin, Dexamethasone). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Therapeutic indications in the instructions to the drug Kycort directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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CIPRODEX is indicated for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible isolates of the designated microorganisms in the specific conditions listed below:

  • Acute Otitis Media in pediatric patients (age 6 months and older) with tympanostomy tubes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
  • Acute Otitis Externa in pediatric (age 6 months and older), adult and elderly patients due to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administration of Kycort is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kycort of the medicine (Ciprofloxacin, Dexamethasone). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Kycort directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Important Administration Instructions

  • CIPRODEX is for otic use only, and not for ophthalmic use, or for injection.
  • Shake well immediately before use.

Dosage

For The Treatment Of Acute Otitis Media In Pediatric Patients (Age 6 Months And Older) With Tympanostomy Tubes

The recommended dosage regimen through tympanostomy tubes is as follows:

  • Four drops (equivalent to 0.14 mL of CIPRODEX, (consisting of 0.42 mg of ciprofloxacin and 0.14 mg of dexamethasone)) instilled into the affected ear twice daily for seven days.
  • The suspension should be warmed by holding the bottle in the hand for one or two minutes to avoid dizziness, which may result from the instillation of a cold suspension.
  • The patient should lie with the affected ear upward, and then the drops should be instilled.
  • The tragus should then be pumped 5 times by pushing inward to facilitate penetration of the drops into the middle ear.
  • This position should be maintained for 60 seconds. Repeat, if necessary, for the opposite ear.
  • Discard unused portion after therapy is completed.
For The Treatment Of Acute Otitis Externa (Age 6 Months And Older)

The recommended dosage regimen is as follows:

  • Four drops (equivalent to 0.14 mL of CIPRODEX, (consisting of 0.42 mg ciprofloxacin and 0.14 mg dexamethasone)) instilled into the affected ear twice daily for seven days.
  • The suspension should be warmed by holding the bottle in the hand for one or two minutes to avoid dizziness, which may result from the instillation of a cold suspension.
  • The patient should lie with the affected ear upward, and then the drops should be instilled.
  • This position should be maintained for 60 seconds to facilitate penetration of the drops into the ear canal. Repeat, if necessary, for the opposite ear.
  • Discard unused portion after therapy is completed.

Contraindications

The information provided in Contraindications of Kycort is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kycort of the medicine (Ciprofloxacin, Dexamethasone). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Kycort directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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  • CIPRODEX is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to ciprofloxacin, to other quinolones, or to any of the components in this medication.
  • Use of this product is contraindicated in viral infections of the external canal including herpes simplex infections and fungal otic infections.

Special warnings and precautions for use

The information provided in Special warnings and precautions for use of Kycort is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kycort of the medicine (Ciprofloxacin, Dexamethasone). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special warnings and precautions for use in the instructions to the drug Kycort directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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WARNINGS

Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.

PRECAUTIONS

Hypersensitivity Reactions

CIPRODEX should be discontinued at the first appearance of a skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity. Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions, some following the first dose, have been reported in patients receiving systemic quinolones. Some reactions were accompanied by cardiovascular collapse, loss of consciousness, angioedema (including laryngeal, pharyngeal or facial edema), airway obstruction, dyspnea, urticaria and itching.

Potential For Microbial Overgrowth With Prolonged Use

Prolonged use of CIPRODEX may result in overgrowth of non-susceptible, bacteria and fungi. If the infection is not improved after one week of treatment, cultures should be obtained to guide further treatment. If such infections occur, discontinue use and institute alternative therapy.

Continued Or Recurrent Otorrhea

If otorrhea persists after a full course of therapy, or if two or more episodes of otorrhea occur within six months, further evaluation is recommended to exclude an underlying condition such as cholesteatoma, foreign body, or a tumor.

Patient Counseling Information

Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION and Instructions for Use)

  • For Otic Use Only
    Advise patients that CIPRODEX is for otic use only. This product is not approved for use in the eye.
  • Administration Instructions
    Patients should be instructed to warm the bottle in their hand for one to two minutes prior to use and shake well immediately before using.
  • Allergic Reactions
    Advise patients to discontinue use immediately and contact their physician, if rash or allergic reaction occurs.
  • Avoid Contamination of the Product
    Advise patients to avoid contaminating the tip with material from the ear, fingers, or other sources.
  • Duration of Use
    Advise patients that it is very important to use the ear drops for as long as their doctor has instructed, even if the symptoms improve.
  • Protect from Light
    Advise patients to protect the product from light.
  • Unused Product
    Advise patients to discard unused portion after therapy is completed.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Long-term carcinogenicity studies in mice and rats have been completed for ciprofloxacin. After daily oral doses of 750 mg/kg (mice) and 250 mg/kg (rats) were administered for up to 2 years, there was no evidence that ciprofloxacin had any carcinogenic or tumorigenic effects in these species. No long term studies of CIPRODEX have been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential.

Eight in vitro mutagenicity tests have been conducted with ciprofloxacin, and the test results are listed below:

  • Salmonella/Microsome Test (Negative)
  • E. coli DNA Repair Assay (Negative)
  • Mouse Lymphoma Cell Forward Mutation Assay (Positive)
  • Chinese Hamster V79 Cell HGPRT Test (Negative)
  • Syrian Hamster Embryo Cell Transformation Assay (Negative)
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Point Mutation Assay (Negative)
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitotic Crossover and Gene Conversion Assay (Negative)
  • Rat Hepatocyte DNA Repair Assay (Positive)

Thus, 2 of the 8 tests were positive, but results of the following 3 in vivo test systems gave negative results:

  • Rat Hepatocyte DNA Repair Assay
  • Micronucleus Test (Mice)
  • Dominant Lethal Test (Mice)

Fertility studies performed in rats at oral doses of ciprofloxacin up to 100 mg/kg/day revealed no evidence of impairment. This would be over 100 times the maximum recommended clinical dose of ototopical ciprofloxacin based upon body surface area, assuming total absorption of ciprofloxacin from the ear of a patient treated with CIPRODEX twice per day according to label directions.

Long term studies have not been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of topical otic dexamethasone. Dexamethasone has been tested for in vitro and in vivo genotoxic potential and shown to be positive in the following assays: chromosomal aberrations, sister-chromatid exchange in human lymphocytes, and micronuclei and sister-chromatid exchanges in mouse bone marrow. However, the Ames/Salmonella assay, both with and without S9 mix, did not show any increase in His+ revertants.

The effect of dexamethasone on fertility has not been investigated following topical otic application. However, the lowest toxic dose of dexamethasone identified following topical dermal application was 1.802 mg/kg in a 26-week study in male rats and resulted in changes to the testes, epididymis, sperm duct, prostate, seminal vessicle, Cowper's gland and accessory glands. The relevance of this study for short-term topical otic use is unknown.

Use In Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category C

No adequate and well controlled studies with CIPRODEX have been performed in pregnant women. Caution should be exercised when CIPRODEX is used by a pregnant woman.

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with CIPRODEX.

Reproduction studies with ciprofloxacin have been performed in rats and mice using oral doses of up to 100 mg/kg and IV doses up to 30 mg/kg and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus. In rabbits, ciprofloxacin (30 and 100 mg/kg orally) produced gastrointestinal disturbances resulting in maternal weight loss and an increased incidence of abortion, but no teratogenicity was observed at either dose. After intravenous administration of doses up to 20 mg/kg, no maternal toxicity was produced in therabbit, and no embryotoxicity or teratogenicity was observed.

Corticosteroids are generally teratogenic in laboratory animals when administered systemically at relatively low dosage levels. The more potent corticosteroids have been shown to be teratogenic after dermal application in laboratory animals.

Nursing Mothers

Ciprofloxacin and corticosteroids, as a class, appear in milk following oral administration. Dexamethasone in breast milk could suppress growth, interfere with endogenous corticosteroid production, or cause other untoward effects. It is not known whether topical otic administration of ciprofloxacin or dexamethasone could result in sufficient systemic absorption to produce detectable quantities in human milk. Because of the potential for unwanted effects in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

The safety and efficacy of CIPRODEX have been established in pediatric patients 6 months and older (937 patients) in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.

No clinically relevant changes in hearing function were observed in 69 pediatric patients (age 4 to 12 years) treated with CIPRODEX and tested for audiometric parameters.

Undesirable effects

The information provided in Undesirable effects of Kycort is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kycort of the medicine (Ciprofloxacin, Dexamethasone). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Undesirable effects in the instructions to the drug Kycort directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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The following serious adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling:

  • Hypersensitivity Reactions
  • Potential for Microbial Overgrowth with Prolonged Use

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to the rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

In Phases II and III clinical trials, a total of 937 patients were treated with CIPRODEX. This included 400 patients with acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes and 537 patients with acute otitis externa. The reported adverse reactions are listed below:

Acute Otitis Media In Pediatric Patients With Tympanostomy Tubes

The following adverse reactions occurred in 0.5% or more of the patients with non-intact tympanic membranes.

Adverse Reactions Incidence
(N=400)
Ear discomfort 3.0%
Ear pain 2.3%
Ear precipitate (residue) 0.5%
Irritability 0.5%
Taste Perversion 0.5%

The following adverse reactions were each reported in a single patient: tympanostomy tube blockage; ear pruritus; tinnitus; oral moniliasis; crying; dizziness; and erythema.

Acute Otitis Externa

The following adverse reactions occurred in 0.4% or more of the patients with intact tympanic Membranes

Adverse Reactions Incidence
(N=537)
Ear pruritus 1.5%
Ear debris 0.6%
Superimposed ear infection 0.6%
Ear congestion 0.4%
Ear pain 0.4%
Erythema 0.4%

The following adverse reactions were each reported in a single patient: ear discomfort; decreased hearing; and ear disorder (tingling).

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of CIPRODEX. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These reactions include: auricular swelling, headache, hypersensitivity, otorrhea, skin exfoliation, rash erythematous, and vomiting.

Overdose

The information provided in Overdose of Kycort is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kycort of the medicine (Ciprofloxacin, Dexamethasone). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Overdose in the instructions to the drug Kycort directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Due to the characteristics of this preparation, no toxic effects are to be expected with an otic overdose of this product.

Pharmacokinetic properties

The information provided in Pharmacokinetic properties of Kycort is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kycort of the medicine (Ciprofloxacin, Dexamethasone). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacokinetic properties in the instructions to the drug Kycort directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Following a single bilateral 4-drop (total dose = 0.28 mL, 0.84 mg ciprofloxacin, 0.28 mg dexamethasone) topical otic dose of CIPRODEX to pediatric patients after tympanostomy tube insertion, measurable plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone were observed at 6 hours following administration in 2 of 9 patients and 5 of 9 patients, respectively.

Mean ± SD peak plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin were 1.39 ± 0.880 ng/mL (n=9). Peak plasma concentrations ranged from 0.543 ng/mL to 3.45 ng/mL and were on average approximately 0.1% of peak plasma concentrations achieved with an oral dose of 250-mg. Peak plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin were observed within 15 minutes to 2 hours post dose application.

Mean ± SD peak plasma concentrations of dexamethasone were 1.14 ± 1.54 ng/mL (n=9). Peak plasma concentrations ranged from 0.135 ng/mL to 5.10 ng/mL and were on average approximately 14% of peak concentrations reported in the literature following an oral 0.5-mg tablet dose. Peak plasma concentrations of dexamethasone were observed within 15 minutes to 2 hours post dose application.

Dexamethasone has been added to aid in the resolution of the inflammatory response accompanying bacterial infection (such as otorrhea in pediatric patients with acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes).

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