Actapril is indicated for the treatment of hypertension. It may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive medication such as hydrochlorothiazide.
Actapril is indicated in stable patients who have evidence of left-ventricular systolic dysfunction (identified by wall motion abnormalities) or who are symptomatic from congestive heart failure within the first few days after sustaining acute myocardial infarction. Administration of trandolapril to Caucasian patients has been shown to decrease the risk of death (principally cardiovascular death) and to decrease the risk of heart failure-related hospitalization (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY -Heart Failure or Left-Ventricular Dysfunction Post Myocardial Infarction for details of the survival trial).
The recommended initial dosage of Actapril for patients not receiving a diuretic is 1 mg once daily in non-black patients and 2 mg in black patients. Dosage should be adjusted according to the blood pressure response. Generally, dosage adjustments should be made at intervals of at least 1 week. Most patients have required dosages of 2 to 4 mg once daily. There is little clinical experience with doses above 8 mg.
Patients inadequately treated with once-daily dosing at 4 mg may be treated with twice-daily dosing. If blood pressure is not adequately controlled with Actapril monotherapy, a diuretic may be added.
In patients who are currently being treated with a diuretic, symptomatic hypotension occasionally can occur following the initial dose of Actapril. To reduce the likelihood of hypotension, the diuretic should, if possible, be discontinued two to three days prior to beginning therapy with Actapril. (see WARNINGS.) Then, if blood pressure is not controlled with Actapril alone, diuretic therapy should be resumed. If the diuretic cannot be discontinued, an initial dose of 0.5 mg Actapril should be used with careful medical supervision for several hours until blood pressure has stabilized. The dosage should subsequently be titrated (as described above) to the optimal response. (see WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS.)
Concomitant administration of Actapril with potassium supplements, potassium salt substitutes, or potassium sparing diuretics can lead to increases of serum potassium. (see PRECAUTIONS.)
The recommended starting dose is 1 mg, once daily. Following the initial dose, all patients should be titrated (as tolerated) toward a target dose of 4 mg, once daily. If a 4 mg dose is not tolerated, patients can continue therapy with the greatest tolerated dose.
For patients with a creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min. or with hepatic cirrhosis, the recommended starting dose, based on clinical and pharmacokinetic data, is 0.5 mg daily. Patients should subsequently have their dosage titrated (as described above) to the optimal response.
Actapril is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to this product, in patients with hereditary/idiopathic angioedema and in patients with a history of angioedema related to previous treatment with an ACE inhibitor.
Do not co-administer aliskiren with Actapril in patients with diabetes (see DRUG INTERACTIONS).
Actapril is contraindicated in combination with a neprilysin inhibitor (e.g., sacubitril). Do not administer Actapril within 36 hours of switching to or from sacubitril/valsartan, a neprilysin inhibitor (see WARNINGS).
Presumably because angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors affect the metabolism of eicosanoids and polypeptides, including endogenous bradykinin, patients receiving ACE inhibitors, including Actapril, may be subject to a variety of adverse reactions, some of them serious.
Two patients undergoing desensitizing treatment with hymenoptera venom while receiving ACE inhibitors sustained life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions. In the same patients, these reactions did not occur when ACE inhibitors were temporarily withheld, but they reappeared when the ACE inhibitors were inadvertently readministered.
Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients dialyzed with high-flux membranes and treated concomitantly with an ACE inhibitor. Anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported in patients undergoing low-density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate absorption.
In controlled trials ACE inhibitors (for which adequate data are available) cause a higher rate of angioedema in black than in non-black patients.
Angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis, and larynx has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors including Actapril. Symptoms suggestive of angioedema or facial edema occurred in 0.13% of Actapril-treated patients. Two of the four cases were life-threatening and resolved without treatment or with medication (corticosteroids). Angioedema associated with laryngeal edema can be fatal. If laryngeal stridor or angioedema of the face, tongue or glottis occurs, treatment with Actapril should be discontinued immediately, the patient treated in accordance with accepted medical care and carefully observed until the swelling disappears. In instances where swelling is confined to the face and lips, the condition generally resolves without treatment; antihistamines may be useful in relieving symptoms. Where there is involvement of the tongue, glottis, or larynx, likely to cause airway obstruction, emergency therapy, including but not limited to subcutaneous epinephrine solution 1:1,000 (0.3 to 0.5 mL) should be promptly administered. (see PATIENT INFORMATION and ADVERSE REACTIONS.)
Patients receiving coadministration of an ACE inhibitor with an mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor (e.g., temsirolimus, sirolimus, everolimus) or a neprilysin inhibitor (e.g., sacubitril) may be at increased risk for angioedema.
Intestinal angioedema has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. These patients presented with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); in some cases there was no prior history of facial angioedema and C-1 esterase levels were normal. The angioedema was diagnosed by procedures including abdominal CT scan or ultrasound, or at surgery, and symptoms resolved after stopping the ACE inhibitor. Intestinal angioedema should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients on ACE inhibitors presenting with abdominal pain.
Actapril can cause symptomatic hypotension. Like other ACE inhibitors, Actapril has only rarely been associated with symptomatic hypotension in uncomplicated hypertensive patients. Symptomatic hypotension is most likely to occur in patients who have been salt-or volume-depleted as a result of prolonged treatment with diuretics, dietary salt restriction, dialysis, diarrhea, or vomiting. Volume and/or salt depletion should be corrected before initiating treatment with Actapril. (see DRUG INTERACTIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS.) In controlled and uncontrolled studies, hypotension was reported as an adverse event in 0.6% of patients and led to discontinuations in 0.1% of patients.
In patients with concomitant congestive heart failure, with or without associated renal insufficiency, ACE inhibitor therapy may cause excessive hypotension, which may be associated with oliguria or azotemia, and rarely, with acute renal failure and death. In such patients, Actapril therapy should be started at the recommended dose under close medical supervision. These patients should be followed closely during the first 2 weeks of treatment and, thereafter, whenever the dosage of Actapril or diuretic is increased. (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.) Care in avoiding hypotension should also be taken in patients with ischemic heart disease, aortic stenosis, or cerebrovascular disease.
If symptomatic hypotension occurs, the patient should be placed in the supine position and, if necessary, normal saline may be administered intravenously. A transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication to further doses; however, lower doses of Actapril or reduced concomitant diuretic therapy should be considered.
Another ACE inhibitor, captopril, has been shown to cause agranulocytosis and bone marrow depression rarely in patients with uncomplicated hypertension, but more frequently in patients with renal impairment, especially if they also have a collagen-vascular disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus or scleroderma. Available data from clinical trials of trandolapril are insufficient to show that trandolapril does not cause agranulocytosis at similar rates. As with other ACE inhibitors, periodic monitoring of white blood cell counts in patients with collagen-vascular disease and/or renal disease should be considered.
ACE inhibitors rarely have been associated with a syndrome of cholestatic jaundice, fulminant hepatic necrosis, and death. The mechanism of this syndrome is not understood. Patients receiving ACE inhibitors who develop jaundice should discontinue the ACE inhibitor and receive appropriate medical follow-up.
Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Actapril as soon as possible. These adverse outcomes are usually associated with use of these drugs in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the reninangiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. Appropriate management of maternal hypertension during pregnancy is important to optimize outcomes for both mother and fetus.
In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus. Perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue Actapril, unless it is considered lifesaving for the mother. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of pregnancy. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to Actapril for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia (See PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use).
Doses of 0.8 mg/kg/day (9.4 mg/m²/day) in rabbits, 1000 mg/kg/day (7000 mg/m²/day) in rats, and 25 mg/kg/day (295 mg/m²/day) in cynomolgus monkeys did not produce teratogenic effects. These doses represent 10 and 3 times (rabbits), 1250 and 2564 times (rats), and 312 and 108 times (monkeys) the maximum projected human dose of 4 mg based on body-weight and bodysurface-area, respectively assuming a 50 kg woman.
As a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, changes in renal function may be anticipated in susceptible individuals. In patients with severe heart failure whose renal function may depend on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, treatment with ACE inhibitors, including Actapril (trandolapril), may be associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotemia and rarely with acute renal failure and/or death.
In hypertensive patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine have been observed in some patients following ACE inhibitor therapy. These increases were almost always reversible upon discontinuation of the ACE inhibitor and/or diuretic therapy. In such patients, renal function should be monitored during the first few weeks of therapy.
Some hypertensive patients with no apparent preexisting renal vascular disease have developed increases in blood urea and serum creatinine, usually minor and transient, especially when ACE inhibitors have been given concomitantly with a diuretic. This is more likely to occur in patients with preexisting renal impairment. Dosage reduction and/or discontinuation of any diuretic and/or the ACE inhibitor may be required. Evaluation of hypertensive patients should always include assessment of renal function. (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
In clinical trials, hyperkalemia (serum potassium > 6.00 mEq/L) occurred in approximately 0.4% of hypertensive patients receiving Actapril. In most cases, elevated serum potassium levels were isolated values, which resolved despite continued therapy. None of these patients were discontinued from the trials because of hyperkalemia. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia include renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, and the concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, and/or potassium-containing salt substitutes, which should be used cautiously, if at all, with Actapril. (see DRUG INTERACTIONS.)
Presumably due to the inhibition of the degradation of endogenous bradykinin, persistent nonproductive cough has been reported with all ACE inhibitors, always resolving after discontinuation of therapy. ACE inhibitor-induced cough should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cough. In controlled trials of trandolapril, cough was present in 2% of trandolapril patients and 0% of patients given placebo. There was no evidence of a relationship to dose.
In patients undergoing major surgery or during anesthesia with agents that produce hypotension, Actapril will block angiotensin II formation secondary to compensatory renin release. If hypotension occurs and is considered to be due to this mechanism, it can be corrected by volume expansion.
The safety experience in U.S. placebo-controlled trials included 1069 hypertensive patients, of whom 832 received Actapril. Nearly 200 hypertensive patients received Actapril for over one year in open-label trials. In controlled trials, withdrawals for adverse events were 2.1% on placebo and 1.4% on Actapril. Adverse events considered at least possibly related to treatment occurring in 1% of Actapril-treated patients and more common on Actapril than placebo, pooled for all doses, are shown below, together with the frequency of discontinuation of treatment because of these events.
ADVERSE EVENTS IN PLACEBO-CONTROLLED HYPERTENSION TRIALS
|Occurring at 1% or greater|
(N=832) % Incidence (% Discontinuance)
(N=237) % Incidence (% Discontinuance)
|Cough||1.9 (0.1)||0.4 (0.4)|
|Dizziness||1.3 (0.2)||0.4 (0.4)|
|Diarrhea||1.0 (0.0)||0.4 (0.0)|
Headache and fatigue were all seen in more than 1% of Actapril-treated patients but were more frequently seen on placebo. Adverse events were not usually persistent or difficult to manage.
Adverse reactions related to Actapril occurring at a rate greater than that observed in placebo-treated patients with left ventricular dysfunction, are shown below. The incidences represent the experiences from the TRACE study. The follow-up time was between 24 and 50 months for this study.
Percentage of Patients with Adverse Events Greater Than Placebo
|Placebo-Controlled (TRACE) Mortality Study|
|Adverse Event||Trandolapril |
|Elevated serum uric acid||15||13|
|PICA or CABG||7.3||6.1|
|Cardiogenic shock||3.8||< 2|
|Intermittent claudication||3.8||< 2|
Clinical adverse experiences possibly or probably related or of uncertain relationship to therapy occurring in 0.3% to 1.0% (except as noted) of the patients treated with Actapril (with or without concomitant calcium ion antagonist or diuretic) in controlled or uncontrolled trials (N=1134) and less frequent, clinically significant events seen in clinical trials or post-marketing experience include (listed by body system):
AV first degree block, bradycardia, edema, flushing, and palpitations.
Drowsiness, insomnia, paresthesia, vertigo.
Pruritus, rash, pemphigus.
Epistaxis, throat inflammation, upper respiratory tract infection.
Anxiety, impotence, decreased libido.
Abdominal distention, abdominal pain/cramps, constipation, dyspepsia, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea.
Decreased leukocytes, decreased neutrophils.
Increased liver enzymes including SGPT (ALT).
Extremity pain, muscle cramps, gout.
The following adverse reactions were identified during post approval use of Actapril. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, angina pectoris, cardiac failure, ventricular tachycardia, tachycardia, transient ischemic attack, arrhythmia.
Alopecia, sweating, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis.
Dry mouth, pancreatitis, jaundice and hepatitis.
Increased SGOT (AST).
Increases in creatinine levels occurred in 1.1% of patients receiving Actapril alone and 7.3% of patients treated with Actapril, a calcium ion antagonist and a diuretic. Increases in blood urea nitrogen levels occurred in 0.6% of patients receiving Actapril alone and 1.4% of patients receiving Actapril, a calcium ion antagonist, and a diuretic. None of these increases required discontinuation of treatment. Increases in these laboratory values are more likely to occur in patients with renal insufficiency or those pretreated with a diuretic and, based on experience with other ACE inhibitors, would be expected to be especially likely in patients with renal artery stenosis. (see PRECAUTIONS and WARNINGS.)
Occasional elevation of transaminases at the rate of 3X upper normals occurred in 0.8% of patients and persistent increase in bilirubin occurred in 0.2% of patients. Discontinuation for elevated liver enzymes occurred in 0.2% of patients.
Another potentially important adverse experience, eosinophilic pneumonitis, has been attributed to other ACE inhibitors.
No data are available with respect to overdosage in humans. The oral LD50 of trandolapril in mice was 4875 mg/Kg in males and 3990 mg/Kg in females. In rats, an oral dose of 5000 mg/Kg caused low mortality (1 male out of 5; 0 females). In dogs, an oral dose of 1000 mg/Kg did not cause mortality and abnormal clinical signs were not observed. In humans, the most likely clinical manifestation would be symptoms attributable to severe hypotension. Symptoms also expected with ACE inhibitors are hypotension, hyperkalemia, and renal failure.
Laboratory determinations of serum levels of trandolapril and its metabolites are not widely available, and such determinations have, in any event, no established role in the management of trandolapril overdose. No data are available to suggest that physiological maneuvers (e.g., maneuvers to change the pH of the urine) might accelerate elimination of trandolapril and its metabolites. Trandolaprilat is removed by hemodialysis. Angiotensin II could presumably serve as a specific antagonist antidote in the setting of trandolapril overdose, but angiotensin II is essentially unavailable outside of scattered research facilities. Because the hypotensive effect of trandolapril is achieved through vasodilation and effective hypovolemia, it is reasonable to treat trandolapril overdose by infusion of normal saline solution.