Medically reviewed by Militian Inessa Mesropovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2020-04-04
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Zikan® is indicated as an adjunct to rest, physical therapy, and other measures for the relief of discomfort associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions. The mode of action of this drug has not been clearly identified, but may be related to its sedative properties. Chlorzoxazone does not directly relax tense skeletal muscles in man.
Usual Adult Dosage
Zikan® Tablets (chlorzoxazone USP) 375 mg
One tablet three or four times daily. If adequate response is not obtained with this dose, the 375 mg tablets may be increased to two tablets (750 mg) three or four times daily. As improvement occurs dosage can usually be reduced.
Zikan® Tablets (chlorzoxazone USP) 750 mg
1/3 tablet (250 mg) three or four times daily. Initial dosage for painful musculoskeletal condition should be 2/3 tablet (500 mg) three to four times daily. If adequate response is not obtained with this dose, it may be increased to one tablet (750 mg) three or four times daily. As improvement occurs dosage can usually be reduced.
Zikan® is contraindicated in patients with known intolerance to the drug.
Serious (including fatal) hepatocellular toxicity has been reported rarely in patients receiving chlorzoxazone. The mechanism is unknown but appears to be idiosyncratic and unpredictable. Factors predisposing patients to this rare event are not known. Patients should be instructed to report early signs and/ or symptoms of hepatoxicity such as fever, rash, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, right upper quadrant pain, dark urine, or jaundice. Zikan® should be discontinued immediately and a physician consulted if any of these signs or symptoms develop. Zikan® use should also be discontinued if a patient develops abnormal liver enzymes (e.g., AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin).
The concomitant use of alcohol or other central nervous system depressants may have an additive effect.
Usage in Pregnancy: The safe use of Zikan® has not been established with respect to the possible adverse effects upon fetal development. Therefore, it should be used in women of childbearing potential only when, in the judgement of the physician, the potential benefits outweigh the possible risks.
Zikan® should be used with caution in patients with known allergies or with a history of allergic reactions to drugs. If sensitivity reaction occurs such as urticaria, redness, or itching of the skin, the drug should be stopped.
If any symptoms suggestive of liver dysfunction are observed, the drug should be discontinued.
Chlorzoxazone-containing products are usually well tolerated. It is possible in rare instances that chlorzoxazone may have been associated with gastrointestinal bleeding. Drowsiness, dizziness, light-headedness, malaise, or overstimulation may be noted by an occasional patient. Rarely, allergic-type skin rashes, petechiae, or ecchymoses may develop during treatment. Angioneurotic edema or anaphylactic reactions are extremely rare. There is no evidence that the drug will cause renal damage. Rarely, a patient may note discoloration of the urine resulting from a phenolic metabolite of chlorzoxazone. This finding is of no known clinical significance.
Initially, gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea together with drowsiness, dizziness, lightheadedness or headache may occur. Early in the course there may be malaise or sluggishness followed by marked loss of muscle tone, making voluntary movement impossible. The deep tendon reflexes may be decreased or absent. The sensorium remains intact, and there is no peripheral loss of sensation. Respiratory depression may occur with rapid, irregular respiration and intercostals and substernal retraction. The blood pressure is lowered, but shock has not been observed.
Gastric lavage or induction of emesis should be carried out, followed by administration of activated charcoal. Thereafter, treatment is entirely supportive. If respirations are depressed, oxygen and artificial respiration should be employed and a patent airway assured by use of an oropharyngeal airway or endotracheal tube. Hypotension may be counteracted by use of dextran, plasma, concentrated albumin or a vasopressor agent such as norepinephrine. Cholinergic drugs or analeptic drugs are of no value and should not be used.