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Components:
Acetaminophen
Method of action:
Analgesic, Antipyretic
Available in countries
Medically reviewed by Kovalenko Svetlana Olegovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2019.09.20

Name of the medicinal product

Эффералган

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Acetaminophen

Pharmaceutical form

Effervescent tablet; Rectal suppositories

Therapeutic indications

The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Эффералган is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Эффералган of the medicine (Acetaminophen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Therapeutic indications in the instructions to the drug Эффералган directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Effervescent tablet
Rectal suppositories

Эффералган ActiFast is a mild analgesic and antipyretic, and is recommended for the treatment of most painful and febrile conditions, for example, headache including migraine and tension headaches, toothache, backache, rheumatic and muscle pains, dysmenorrhoea, sore throat, and for relieving the fever, aches and pains of colds and flu.

For the treatment of mild to moderate pain including headache, migraine, neuralgia, toothache, sore throat, period pains, aches and pains, symptomatic relief of rheumatic aches and pains and of influenza, feverishness and feverish colds.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administration of Эффералган is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Эффералган of the medicine (Acetaminophen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Эффералган directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Effervescent tablet
Rectal suppositories

For oral administration.

Adults, including the elderly and children 16 years and over:

Two tablets to be taken with half a tumbler of water (100 ml).

To ensure fast onset of pain relief no less than two tablets must be taken with 100 ml of water. For maximum speed of action this should be on an empty stomach.

Two tablets up to four times daily as required. The dose should not be repeated more frequently than every four hours nor should more than four doses be taken in any 24 hour period.

Children aged 12-15 years:

One tablet to be taken with half a tumbler of water (100ml), up to four times daily as required. The dose should not be repeated more frequently than every four hours nor should more than 4 doses be given in any 24 hour period.

Children under 12 years of age:

Эффералган ActiFast is not recommended for children under 12 years of age.

Adults, the elderly and young persons 16 years and over:

2 tablets every 4 hours to a maximum of 8 tablets in 24 hours.

Children 6 - 9 years:

½ tablet every 4 hours to a maximum of 4 doses in 24 hours.

Children 10 - 11 years:

1 tablet every 4 hours to a maximum of 4 doses in 24 hours

Adolescents 12 - 15 years:

1 to 1 ½ tablets every 4 hours to a maximum of 4 doses in 24 hours

Do not give to children aged under 6 years of age.

Contraindications

The information provided in Contraindications of Эффералган is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Эффералган of the medicine (Acetaminophen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Эффералган directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Effervescent tablet
Rectal suppositories

Hypersensitivity to paracetamol or any of the other constituents.

Hypersensitivity to Эффералган or any of the constituents.

Special warnings and precautions for use

The information provided in Special warnings and precautions for use of Эффералган is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Эффералган of the medicine (Acetaminophen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special warnings and precautions for use in the instructions to the drug Эффералган directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Effervescent tablet
Rectal suppositories

Care is advised in the administration of paracetamol to patients with renal or hepatic impairment. The hazard of overdose is greater in those with non-cirrhotic alcoholic liver disease.

Do not exceed the stated dose.

Patients should be advised not to take other paracetamol-containing products concurrently.

Each Эффералган ActiFast tablet contains 173 mg of sodium and should not be taken by patients on a low sodium diet.

Patients should be advised to consult their doctor if their headaches become persistent.

If symptoms persist consult your doctor.

Keep out of the reach and sight of children.

Pack Label:

Immediate medical advice should be sought in the event of an overdose, even if you feel well.

Do not take with any other paracetamol-containing products.

Patient Information Leaflet:

Immediate medical advice should be sought in the event of an overdose, even if you feel well, because of the risk of delayed, serious liver damage.

Care is advised in the administration of Эффералган to patients with severe renal or severe hepatic impairment. The hazards of overdose are greater in those with non-cirrhotic alcoholic liver disease.

Do not take more medicine than the label tells you to. If you do not get better, talk to your doctor.

Contains Эффералган.

Do not take anything else containing Эффералган while taking this medicine.

Talk to your doctor at once if you take too much of this medicine, even if you feel well. This is because too much Эффералган can cause delayed, serious liver damage.

Patients should be advised that Эффералган may cause severe skin reactions. If a skin reaction such as skin reddening, blisters, or rash occurs, they should stop use and seek medical assistance right away.

Effects on ability to drive and use machines

The information provided in Effects on ability to drive and use machines of Эффералган is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Эффералган of the medicine (Acetaminophen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Effects on ability to drive and use machines in the instructions to the drug Эффералган directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Effervescent tablet
Rectal suppositories

None.

None known.

Undesirable effects

The information provided in Undesirable effects of Эффералган is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Эффералган of the medicine (Acetaminophen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Undesirable effects in the instructions to the drug Эффералган directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Effervescent tablet
Rectal suppositories

Adverse events of paracetamol from historical clinical trial data are both infrequent and from small patient exposure. Accordingly, events reported from extensive post-marketing experience at therapeutic/labelled dose and considered attributable are tabulated below by system class. Due to limited clinical trial data, the frequency of these adverse events is not known (cannot be estimated from available data), but post-marketing experience indicates that adverse reactions to paracetamol are rare and serious reactions are very rare.

Post marketing data

Body System

Undesirable effect

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Thrombocytopenia

Agranulocytosis

Immune system disorders

Anaphylaxis

Cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions including skin rashes, angiodema and Stevens Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Bronchospasm*

Hepatobiliary disorders

Hepatic dysfunction

* There have been cases of bronchospasm with paracetamol, but these are more likely in asthmatics sensitive to aspirin or other NSAIDs.

Adverse effects of Эффералган are rare. Very rare cases of serious skin reactions have been reported. There have been reports of blood dyscrasias including thrombocytopenia purpura, methaemoglobenaemia and agranulocytosis, but these were not necessarily causality related to Эффералган.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.

Overdose

The information provided in Overdose of Эффералган is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Эффералган of the medicine (Acetaminophen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Overdose in the instructions to the drug Эффералган directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Effervescent tablet
Rectal suppositories

Liver damage is possible in adults who have taken 10g or more of paracetamol. Ingestion of 5g or more of paracetamol may lead to liver damage if the patient has risk factors (see below).

Risk factors

If the patient

a, Is on long term treatment with carbamazepine, phenobarbitone, phenytoin, primidone, rifampicin, St John's Wort or other drugs that induce liver enzymes.

Or

b, Regularly consumes ethanol in excess of recommended amounts.

Or

c, Is likely to be glutathione deplete e.g. eating disorders, cystic fibrosis, HIV infection, starvation, cachexia.

Symptoms

Symptoms of paracetamol overdosage in the first 24 hours are pallor, nausea, vomiting, anorexia and abdominal pain. Liver damage may become apparent 12 to 48 hours after ingestion. Abnormalities of glucose metabolism and metabolic acidosis may occur. In severe poisoning, hepatic failure may progress to encephalopathy, haemorrhage, hypoglycaemia, cerebral oedema, and death. Acute renal failure with acute tubular necrosis, strongly suggested by loin pain, haematuria and proteinuria, may develop even in the absence of severe liver damage. Cardiac arrhythmias and pancreatitis have been reported.

Management

Immediate treatment is essential in the management of paracetamol overdose. Despite a lack of significant early symptoms, patients should be referred to hospital urgently for immediate medical attention. Symptoms may be limited to nausea or vomiting and may not reflect the severity of overdose or the risk of organ damage. Management should be in accordance with established treatment guidelines, see BNF overdose section.

Treatment with activated charcoal should be considered if the overdose has been taken within 1 hour. Plasma paracetamol concentration should be measured at 4 hours or later after ingestion (earlier concentrations are unreliable). Treatment with N-acetylcysteine may be used up to 24 hours after ingestion of paracetamol, however, the maximum protective effect is obtained up to 8 hours post-ingestion. The effectiveness of the antidote declines sharply after this time. If required the patient should be given intravenous N-acetylcysteine, in line with the established dosage schedule. If vomiting is not a problem, oral methionine may be a suitable alternative for remote areas, outside hospital. Management of patients who present with serious hepatic dysfunction beyond 24h from ingestion should be discussed with the NPIS or a liver unit.

High doses of sodium bicarbonate may be expected to induce gastrointestinal symptoms including belching and nausea. In addition, high doses of sodium bicarbonate may cause hypernatraemia; electrolytes should be monitored and patients managed accordingly.

Liver damage is possible in adults who have taken 10g or more of Эффералган. Ingestion of 5g or more of Эффералган may lead to liver damage if the patient has risk factors (see below).

Risk Factors

If the patient

a) Is on long term treatment with carbamazepine, phenobarbitone, phenytoin, primidone, rifampicin, St John's Wort or other drugs that induce liver enzymes.

Or

b) Regularly consumes ethanol in excess of recommended amounts.

Or

c) Is likely to be glutathione deplete e.g. eating disorders, cystic fibrosis, HIV infection, starvation, cachexia.

Symptoms

Symptoms of Эффералган overdosage in the first 24 hours are pallor, nausea, vomiting, anorexia and abdominal pain. Liver damage may become apparent 12 to 48 hours after ingestion. Abnormalities of glucose metabolism and metabolic acidosis may occur. In severe poisoning, hepatic failure may progress to encephalopathy, haemorrhage, hypoglycaemia, cerebral oedema, and death. Acute renal failure with acute tubular necrosis, strongly suggested by loin pain, haematuria and proteinuria, may develop even in the absence of severe liver damage. Cardiac arrhythmias and pancreatitis have been reported.

Management

Immediate treatment is essential in the management of Эффералган overdose. Despite a lack of significant early symptoms, patients should be referred to hospital urgently for immediate medical attention. Symptoms may be limited to nausea or vomiting and may not reflect the severity of overdose or the risk of organ damage. Management should be in accordance with established treatment guidelines, see BNF overdose section.

Treatment with activated charcoal should be considered if the overdose has been taken within 1 hour. Plasma Эффералган concentration should be measured at 4 hours or later after ingestion (earlier concentrations are unreliable).

Treatment with N-acetylcysteine may be used up to 24 hours after ingestion of Эффералган however, the maximum protective effect is obtained up to 8 hours post ingestion.

If required the patient should be given intravenous-N-acetylcysteine, in line with the established dosage schedule. If vomiting is not a problem, oral methionine may be a suitable alternative for remote areas, outside hospital.

Management of patients who present with serious hepatic dysfunction beyond 24 hours from ingestion should be discussed with the NPIS or a liver unit.

Pharmacodynamic properties

The information provided in Pharmacodynamic properties of Эффералган is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Эффералган of the medicine (Acetaminophen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacodynamic properties in the instructions to the drug Эффералган directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Effervescent tablet
Rectal suppositories

ATC Code N02B E01

Paracetamol has analgesic and antipyretic actions. The mechanism of action is based on the inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis.

Paracetamol is poorly absorbed in the stomach but well absorbed in the small intestine due to the greater surface area and hence adsorptive capacity.

Sodium bicarbonate is an excipient in the formulation which has a role in increasing the rates of gastric emptying and of paracetamol dissolution and hence the speed of absorption of paracetamol to provide faster onset of relief.

The amount of sodium bicarbonate contained in 2 tablets of Эффералган ActiFast are required per dose to have such effects. Sodium bicarbonate influences the rate of gastric emptying in a concentration dependant manner with the maximal effect achieved at near isotonic concentrations (150 mmol/litre)(i.e. 150 millimolar) - equivalent to 2 Эффералган ActiFast tablets in 100 ml water.

Hypertonic solutions (500-1,000 mmol/litre)(i.e. 500 to 1,000 millimolar - equivalent to the amount of sodium bicarbonate in 6-12 Эффералган ActiFast tablets given with 100 ml water) appear to inhibit gastric emptying. The therapeutic application of enhanced gastric emptying has previously been demonstrated with significantly faster rate of absorption of paracetamol and significantly faster onset of pain relief from soluble tablets containing sodium bicarbonate compared to conventional tablets. Эффералган ActiFast has been formulated with 630 mg sodium bicarbonate per tablet that results in near isotonicity at a 2-tablet dose in gastric fluid.

The role of the dissolution rate of Эффералган ActiFast Tablets in vivo at gastric pH is unknown. Therefore the role of tablet dissolution in the speed of action of Эффералган ActiFast Tablets is unclear.

It is likely that no single mode of action is responsible for the pharmacokinetic profile observed with Эффералган ActiFast. The relative contributions of the different factors will vary depending on the circumstances under which the product is taken.

Mechanisms of Action/Effect

Analgesic - the mechanism of analgesic action has not been fully determined. Эффералган may act predominantly by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis in the central nervous system (CNS) and to a lesser extent, through a peripheral action by blocking pain-impulse generation.

The peripheral action may also be due to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis or to inhibition of the synthesis or actions of other substances that sensitise pain receptors to mechanical or chemical stimulation.

Antipyretic - Эффералган probably produces antipyresis by acting centrally on the hypothalamic heat-regulation centre to produce peripheral vasodilation resulting in increased blood flow through the skin, sweating and heat loss. The central action probably involves inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis in the hypothalamus.

Pharmacokinetic properties

The information provided in Pharmacokinetic properties of Эффералган is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Эффералган of the medicine (Acetaminophen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacokinetic properties in the instructions to the drug Эффералган directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Effervescent tablet
Rectal suppositories

Paracetamol is rapidly and almost completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. It is metabolised in the liver and excreted in the urine as the glucuronide and sulphate conjugates, - less than 5% is excreted unchanged in the urine as unmodified paracetamol. Binding to plasma proteins is minimal.

The mean elimination half-life of paracetamol following administration of Эффералган ActiFast is 2 to 3 hours and is similar to that achieved following administration of standard paracetamol tablets in fasted and fed states.

Following administration of Эффералган ActiFast, paracetamol has a median time to peak plasma concentrations (tmax) of 25 minutes in fasted subjects and 45 minutes in the fed subjects. Maximum plasma concentrations were reached at least twice as fast for Эффералган ActiFast as for standard paracetamol tablets in both the fed and fasted state (p= 0.0002). Following administration of Эффералган ActiFast, paracetamol is generally measurable in plasma within 10 minutes in both the fed and fasted state.

Two tablets of Эффералган ActiFast are required to be taken with 100 ml of water to obtain this fast rate of absorption of paracetamol. The maximum rate of absorption is obtained on an empty stomach. When one tablet is taken the rate of absorption of paracetamol for Эффералган ActiFast is the same as for standard paracetamol tablets. This is thought to be due to insufficient sodium bicarbonate present in the single tablet dose to increase the rate of paracetamol absorption. In addition, tablets taken with insufficient (<100 mls) water are unlikely to have increased speed of action. (See 5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties).

The extent of absorption of paracetamol from Эффералган ActiFast tablets is equivalent to that of standard paracetamol tablets as shown by AUC in both fed and fasted states.

Absorption and Fate

Эффералган is readily absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract with peak plasma concentrations occurring about 30 minutes to 2 hours after ingestion. It is metabolised in the liver and excreted in the urine mainly as the glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. Less than 5% is excreted as unchanged Эффералган. The elimination half-life varies from about 1 to 4 hours. Plasma-protein binding is negligible at usual therapeutic concentrations but increases with increasing concentrations.

A minor hydroxylated metabolite which is usually produced in very small amounts by mixed-function oxidases in the liver and which is usually detoxified by conjugation with liver glutathione may accumulate following Эффералган overdosage and cause liver damage.

Preclinical safety data

The information provided in Preclinical safety data of Эффералган is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Эффералган of the medicine (Acetaminophen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Preclinical safety data in the instructions to the drug Эффералган directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Effervescent tablet
Rectal suppositories

Preclinical safety data on paracetamol in the literature have not revealed any findings which are of relevance to the recommended dosage and use of the product and which have not been mentioned in other sections of the SmPC.

None stated

Incompatibilities

The information provided in Incompatibilities of Эффералган is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Эффералган of the medicine (Acetaminophen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Incompatibilities in the instructions to the drug Эффералган directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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None known.

Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The information provided in Special precautions for disposal and other handling of Эффералган is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Эффералган of the medicine (Acetaminophen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special precautions for disposal and other handling in the instructions to the drug Эффералган directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Not applicable.