Medically reviewed by Militian Inessa Mesropovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2022-04-05
Attention! Information on this page is intended only for medical professionals! Information is collected in open sources and may contain significant errors! Be careful and double-check all the information on this page!
Top 20 medicines with the same components:
Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) is indicated for the treatment of hypertension, alone or with other antihypertensive agents, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including amlodipine. There are no controlled trials demonstrating risk reduction with Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine).
Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than 1 drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC).
Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality have also been seen regularly.
Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (e.g., patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal.
Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy.
Data from the high-dose multifactorial study provide estimates of the probability of reaching a target blood pressure with Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) compared to aliskiren or amlodipine monotherapy. Figures 1–4 provide estimates of the likelihood of achieving systolic or diastolic blood pressure control with Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) 300 mg/10 mg, based upon baseline systolic or diastolic blood pressure. The curve of each treatment group was estimated by logistic regression modeling. The estimated likelihood at the right tail of each curve is less reliable because of a small number of subjects with high baseline blood pressures.
Figure 1: Probability of Achieving Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) Less Than 140 mmHg
Figure 2: Probability of Achieving Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) Less Than 90 mmHg
Figure 3: Probability of Achieving Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) Less Than 130 mmHg
Figure 4: Probability of Achieving Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) Less Than 80 mmHg
Figures 1 and 3 provide an approximation of the likelihood of reaching a targeted blood pressure goal (e.g., SBP less than 140 mmHg or less than 130 mmHg) for the high dose groups evaluated in the study. At all levels of baseline blood pressure, the probability of achieving any given diastolic or systolic goal is greater with the combination than for either monotherapy. For example, the mean baseline SBP/DBP for patients participating in this multifactorial study was 157/100 mmHg. A patient with a baseline blood pressure of 157/100 mmHg has about a 49% likelihood of achieving a goal of less than 140 mmHg (systolic) and 50% likelihood of achieving less than 90 mmHg (diastolic) on aliskiren alone, and the likelihood of achieving these goals on amlodipine alone is about 62% (systolic) and 69% (diastolic). The likelihood of achieving these goals on Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) rises to about 74% (systolic) and 83% (diastolic). The likelihood of achieving these goals on placebo is about 25% (systolic) and 27% (diastolic).
The recommended initial once-daily dose of Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) is 150 mg/5 mg. Titrate as needed to a maximum of 300 mg/10 mg.
The blood pressure lowering effects are largely attained within 1 to 2 weeks. If blood pressure remains uncontrolled after 2 to 4 weeks of therapy, titrate the dose to a maximum of Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) 300 mg/10 mg once daily.
Use Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) for patients not adequately controlled with aliskiren alone or amlodipine besylate (or another dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker) alone.
Switch a patient who experiences dose-limiting adverse reactions on either component alone to Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) containing a lower dose of that component in combination with the other to achieve similar blood pressure reductions.
Switch patients receiving aliskiren and amlodipine besylate from separate tablets to a single tablet of Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) containing the same component doses. When substituting for individual components, increase the dose of one or both of the components if blood pressure control has not been satisfactory.
Relationship To Meals
Patients should establish a routine pattern for taking Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine), either with or without a meal. High-fat meals decrease absorption substantially.
Do not use aliskiren with ARBs or ACEIs in patients with diabetes.
Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to any of the components.
Included as part of the "PRECAUTIONS" Section
Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) as soon as possible.
Renal Impairment/Hyperkalemia/Hypotension When Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) Is Given In Combination With ARBs Or ACEIs
Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) is contraindicated in patients with diabetes who are receiving ARBs or ACEIs because of the increased risk of renal impairment, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In general, avoid combined use of aliskiren with ACE inhibitors or ARBs, particularly in patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) less than 60 mL/min.
Anaphylactic Reactions And Head And Neck Angioedema
Hypersensitivity reactions such as anaphylactic reactions and angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis and/or larynx have been reported in patients treated with aliskiren and has necessitated hospitalization and intubation. This may occur at any time during treatment and has occurred in patients with and without a history of angioedema with ACEIs or angiotensin receptor antagonists. Anaphylactic reactions have been reported from postmarketing experience with unknown frequency. If angioedema involves the throat, tongue, glottis or larynx, or if the patient has a history of upper respiratory surgery, airway obstruction may occur and be fatal. Patients who experience these effects, even without respiratory distress, require prolonged observation and appropriate monitoring measures since treatment with antihistamines and corticosteroids may not be sufficient to prevent respiratory involvement. Prompt administration of subcutaneous epinephrine solution 1:1000 (0.3 mL to 0.5 mL) and measures to ensure a patent airway may be necessary.
Discontinue Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) immediately in patients who develop anaphylactic reactions or angioedema and do not readminister.
Symptomatic hypotension may occur after initiation of treatment with Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) in patients with marked volume depletion, patients with salt depletion, or with combined use of aliskiren and other agents acting on the reninangiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). The volume or salt depletion should be corrected prior to administration of Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine), or the treatment should start under close medical supervision.
A transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication to further treatment, which usually can be continued without difficulty once the blood pressure has stabilized.
Symptomatic hypotension is possible, particularly in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Because of the gradual onset of action, acute hypotension is unlikely.
Risk Of Myocardial Infarction Or Increased Angina
Worsening angina and acute myocardial infarction can develop after starting or increasing the dose of amlodipine, particularly with severe obstructive coronary artery disease.
Impaired Renal Function
Monitor renal function periodically in patients treated with Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine). Changes in renal function, including acute renal failure, can be caused by drugs that affect the RAAS. Patients whose renal function may depend in part on the activity of the RAAS (e.g., patients with renal artery stenosis, severe heart failure, post-myocardial infarction or volume depletion) or patients receiving ARB, ACEI or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, including selective Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (COX-2 inhibitors), therapy may be at particular risk for developing acute renal failure on Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine). Consider withholding or discontinuing therapy in patients who develop a clinically significant decrease in renal function.
Cyclosporine Or Itraconazole
When aliskiren was given with cyclosporine or itraconazole, the blood concentrations of aliskiren were significantly increased. Avoid concomitant use of aliskiren with cyclosporine or itraconazole.
Monitor serum potassium periodically in patients receiving aliskiren. Drugs that affect the RAAS can cause hyperkalemia. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia include renal insufficiency, diabetes, combination use with ARBs or ACEI , NSAIDs, including selective Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (COX-2 inhibitors), or potassium supplements or potassium-sparing diuretics.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION)
Inform female patients of childbearing age about the consequences of exposure to Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) during pregnancy. Discuss treatment options with women planning to become pregnant. Advise patients to report pregnancies to their physician as soon as possible.
Advise nursing women that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine).
Caution patients receiving Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) that lightheadedness can occur, especially during the first days of therapy, and that it should be reported to the prescribing physician. Tell patients that if syncope occurs, discontinue Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) until the physician has been consulted.
Caution all patients that inadequate fluid intake, excessive perspiration, diarrhea, or vomiting can lead to an excessive fall in blood pressure, with the same consequences of lightheadedness and possible syncope.
Anaphylactic Reactions And Angioedema
Advise patients to immediately report any signs or symptoms suggesting a severe allergic reaction (difficulty breathing or swallowing, tightness of the chest, hives, general rash, swelling, itching, dizziness, vomiting, or abdominal pain) or angioedema (swelling of face, extremities, eyes, lips, tongue, difficulty in swallowing or breathing) and to take no more drug until they have consulted with the prescribing physician. Angioedema, including laryngeal edema, may occur at any time during treatment with Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine).
Tell patients receiving Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) not to use potassium supplements or salt substitutes containing potassium without consulting the prescribing physician.
Relationship To Meals
Advise patients to establish a routine pattern for taking Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) with regard to meals. High-fat meals decrease absorption substantially.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Studies With Aliskiren Hemifumarate And Amlodipine Besylate
No carcinogenicity, mutagenicity or fertility studies have been conducted with the combination of aliskiren hemifumarate and amlodipine besylate. However, these studies have been conducted for aliskiren hemifumarate and amlodipine besylate alone.
Studies With Aliskiren Hemifumarate
Carcinogenic potential was assessed in a 2-year rat study and a 6-month transgenic (rasH2) mouse study with aliskiren hemifumarate at oral doses of up to 1500 mg aliskiren/kg/day. Although there were no statistically significant increases in tumor incidence associated with exposure to aliskiren, mucosal epithelial hyperplasia (with or without erosion/ulceration) was observed in the lower gastrointestinal tract at doses of 750 or more mg/kg/day in both species, with a colonic adenoma identified in 1 rat and a cecal adenocarcinoma identified in another, rare tumors in the strain of rat studied. On a systemic exposure (AUC0-24hr) basis, 1500 mg/kg/day in the rat is about 4 times and in the mouse about 1.5 times the MRHD (300 mg aliskiren/day). Mucosal hyperplasia in the cecum or colon of rats was also observed at doses of 250 mg/kg/day (the lowest tested dose) as well as at higher doses in 4-and 13-week studies.
Aliskiren hemifumarate was devoid of genotoxic potential in the Ames reverse mutation assay with S. typhimurium and E. coli, the in vitro Chinese hamster ovary cell chromosomal aberration assay, the in vitro Chinese hamster V79 cell gene mutation test and the in vivo rat bone marrow micronucleus assay.
Fertility of male and female rats was unaffected at doses of up to aliskiren 250 mg/kg/day (8 times the MRHD of aliskiren 300 mg/60 kg on a mg/m2 basis).
Studies With Amlodipine Besylate
Rats and mice treated with amlodipine maleate in the diet for up to 2 years, at concentrations calculated to provide daily dosage levels of 0.5, 1.25, and 2.5 mg amlodipine/kg/day, showed no evidence of a carcinogenic effect of the drug. For the mouse, the highest dose was, on mg/m2 basis, similar to the MRHD of 10 mg amlodipine/day. For the rat, the highest dose was, on a mg/m2 basis, about twice the MRHD.
Mutagenicity studies conducted with amlodipine maleate revealed no drug-related effects at either the gene or chromosome level.
There was no effect on the fertility of rats treated orally with amlodipine maleate (males for 64 days and females for 14 days prior to mating) at doses of up to 10 mg amlodipine/kg/day (about 10 times the MRHD of 10 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis).
Use In Specific Populations
Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Use of drugs that act on the reninangiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the reninangiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) as soon as possible.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major malformations and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4%, and 15-20%, respectively.
Disease-associated Maternal And/Or Embryo/Fetal Risk
Hypertension in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, premature delivery, and delivery complications (e.g., need for cesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage). Hypertension increases the fetal risk for intrauterine growth restriction and intrauterine death. Pregnant women with hypertension should be carefully monitored and managed accordingly.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy can result in the following: reduced fetal renal function leading to anuria and renal failure, oligohydramnios, fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations, including skull hypoplasia, hypotension, and death. In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus.
In patients taking Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) during pregnancy, perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of gestation. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia. If oliguria or hypotension occur in neonates with a history of in utero exposure to Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine), support blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and substituting for disordered renal function.
No reproductive toxicity studies have been conducted with the combination of aliskiren and amlodipine besylateHowever, these studies have been conducted for aliskiren and amlodipine besylate alone.
In developmental toxicity studies, pregnant rats and rabbits received oral aliskiren hemifumarate during organogenesis at doses up to 20 and 7 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) based on body surface area (mg/m2), respectively, in rats and rabbits. (Actual animal doses were up to 600 mg/kg/day in rats and up to 100 mg/kg/day in rabbits.) No teratogenicity was observed; however, fetal birth weight was decreased in rabbits at doses 3.2 times the MRHD based on body surface area (mg/m2). Aliskiren was present in placentas, amniotic fluid and fetuses of pregnant rabbits.
No evidence of teratogenicity or embryo/fetal toxicity was found when pregnant rats and rabbits were treated orally with amlodipine maleate at doses up to 10 mg amlodipine/kg/day (approximately 10 and 20 times the MRHD based on body surface area, respectively) during their respective periods of major organogenesis. However for rats, litter size was significantly decreased (by about 50%) and the number of intrauterine deaths was significantly increased (about 5-fold). Amlodipine has been shown to prolong both the gestation period and the duration of labor in rats at this dose.
These animal studies were conducted according to the standards of the time.
There is no information regarding the presence of Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) or aliskiren in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Limited published studies report that amlodipine is present in human milk. However, there is insufficient information to determine the effects of amlodipine on the breastfed infant. There is no available information on the effects of amlodipine on milk production. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions, including hypotension, hyperkalemia and renal impairment in nursing infants, advise a nursing woman that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine).
Safety and effectiveness of Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) in pediatric patients have not been established.
Preclinical studies indicate a potential for substantial increase in exposure to aliskiren in pediatric patients.
Neonates With A History Of In Utero Exposure To Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine)
If oliguria or hypotension occurs, direct attention toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function.
Exposure to aliskiren and amlodipine is increased in patients age 65 years and older. Consider starting with the lowest available dose of amlodipine. The lowest strength of Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) contains 5 mg of amlodipine.
In the short-term controlled clinical trials of Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine), 17% of patients treated with Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) were 65 years and older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Exposure to amlodipine is increased in patients with hepatic insufficiency, thus consider using lower doses of Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine).
There is no impact of renal function on the pharmacokinetics of aliskiren and amlodipine. However, safety and effectiveness of Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance (CrCl) less than 30 mL/min) have not been established as these patients were excluded in clinical trials.
Clinical Studies Experience
The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the label:
- Fetal Toxicity
- Anaphylactic Reactions and Head and Neck Angioedema
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) has been evaluated for safety in more than 2800 patients, including 372 patients for 1 year or longer.
In a placebo-controlled study, there were 51% males, 62% Caucasians, 20% blacks, 18% Hispanics, and 17% who were over 65 years of age. In this study, the overall incidence of adverse events on therapy with Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) was similar to the individual components. Discontinuation of therapy due to a clinical adverse event in this study occurred in 1.7% of patients treated with Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) (2.2% in the highest dose group) versus 1.5% of patients given placebo.
Peripheral edema is a known, dose-dependent adverse effect of amlodipine. The incidence of peripheral edema for Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) in short-term double-blind placebo-controlled studies was lower than or equal to that of the corresponding amlodipine doses.
The adverse event in a placebo-controlled trial that occurred in at least 2% of patients treated with Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) and at a higher incidence than placebo was peripheral edema (6.2% versus 1.0%). The incidence rate of peripheral edema at high dose was 8.9%.
In a long-term safety trial, the safety profile of adverse events was similar to that seen in the short-term controlled trials.
Aliskiren has been evaluated for safety in 6460 patients, including 1740 treated for longer than 6 months, and 1250 for longer than 1 year. In placebo-controlled clinical trials, discontinuation of therapy because of a clinical adverse event, including uncontrolled hypertension, occurred in 2.2% of patients treated with aliskiren versus 3.5% of patients given placebo. These data do not include information from the ALTITUDE study which evaluated the use of aliskiren in combination with ARBs or ACEIs.
Two cases of angioedema with respiratory symptoms were reported with aliskiren use in the clinical studies. Two other cases of periorbital edema without respiratory symptoms were reported as possible angioedema and resulted in discontinuation. The rate of these angioedema cases in the completed studies was 0.06%.
In addition, 26 other cases of edema involving the face, hands, or whole body were reported with aliskiren use, including 4 leading to discontinuation.
In the placebo-controlled studies, however, the incidence of edema involving the face, hands, or whole body was 0.4% with aliskiren compared with 0.5% with placebo. In a long-term active-controlled study with aliskiren and HCTZ arms, the incidence of edema involving the face, hands, or whole body was 0.4% in both treatment arms.
Aliskiren produces dose-related gastrointestinal (GI) adverse reactions. Diarrhea was reported by 2.3% of patients at 300 mg, compared to 1.2% in placebo patients. In women and the elderly (age 65 years and older) increases in diarrhea rates were evident starting at a dose of 150 mg daily, with rates for these subgroups at 150 mg similar to those seen at 300 mg for men or younger patients (all rates about 2%). Other GI symptoms included abdominal pain, dyspepsia, and gastroesophageal reflux, although increased rates for abdominal pain and dyspepsia were distinguished from placebo only at 600 mg daily. Diarrhea and other GI symptoms were typically mild and rarely led to discontinuation.
Aliskiren was associated with a slight increase in cough in the placebo-controlled studies (1.1% for any aliskiren use versus 0.6% for placebo). In active-controlled trials with ACE inhibitor (ramipril, lisinopril) arms, the rates of cough for the aliskiren arms were about one-third to one-half the rates in the ACE inhibitor arms.
Other adverse reactions with increased rates for aliskiren compared to placebo included rash (1% versus 0.3%), elevated uric acid (0.4% versus 0.1%), gout (0.2% versus 0.1%), and renal stones (0.2% versus 0%).
Single episodes of tonic-clonic seizures with loss of consciousness were reported in 2 patients treated with aliskiren in the clinical trials. One patient had predisposing causes for seizures and had a negative electroencephalogram (EEG) and cerebral imaging following the seizures; for the other patient, EEG and imaging results were not reported. Aliskiren was discontinued and there was no rechallenge in either case.
No clinically meaningful changes in vital signs or in ECG (including QTc interval) were observed in patients treated with aliskiren.
Amlodipine (Norvasc®) has been evaluated for safety in more than 11,000 patients in U.S. and foreign clinical trials. Other adverse events that have been reported less than 1% but greater than 0.1% of patients in controlled clinical trials or under conditions of open trials or marketing experience where a causal relationship is uncertain were:
Cardiovascular: arrhythmia (including ventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation), bradycardia, chest pain, peripheral ischemia, syncope, tachycardia, vasculitis
Central and Peripheral Nervous System: hypoesthesia, neuropathy peripheral, paresthesia, tremor, vertigo
Gastrointestinal: anorexia, constipation, dysphagia, diarrhea, flatulence, pancreatitis, vomiting, gingival hyperplasia
General: allergic reaction, asthenia,** back pain, hot flushes, malaise, pain, rigors, weight gain, weight decrease
Musculoskeletal System: arthralgia, arthrosis, muscle cramps,** myalgia
Psychiatric: sexual dysfunction (male** and female), insomnia, nervousness, depression, abnormal dreams, anxiety, depersonalization
Respiratory System: dyspnea,** epistaxis
Skin and Appendages: angioedema, erythema multiforme, pruritus,** rash,** rash erythematous, rash maculopapular
**These events occurred in less than 1% in placebo-controlled trials, but the incidence of these side effects was between 1% and 2% in all multiple dose studies.
Special Senses: abnormal vision, conjunctivitis, diplopia, eye pain, tinnitus
Urinary System: micturition frequency, micturition disorder, nocturia
Autonomic Nervous System: dry mouth, sweating increased
Metabolic and Nutritional: hyperglycemia, thirst
Hemopoietic: leukopenia, purpura, thrombocytopenia
Other events reported with amlodipine at a frequency of less than or equal to 0.1% of patients include: cardiac failure, pulse irregularity, extrasystoles, skin discoloration, urticaria, skin dryness, alopecia, dermatitis, muscle weakness, twitching, ataxia, hypertonia, migraine, cold and clammy skin, apathy, agitation, amnesia, gastritis, increased appetite, loose stools, rhinitis, dysuria, polyuria, parosmia, taste perversion, abnormal visual accommodation, and xerophthalmia. Other reactions occurred sporadically and cannot be distinguished from medications or concurrent disease states such as myocardial infarction and angina.
Clinical Laboratory Test Abnormalities
RBC count, hemoglobin and hematocrit:
Small mean changes from baseline were seen in RBC count, hemoglobin and hematocrit in patients treated with both Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) and aliskiren monotherapy. This effect is also seen with other agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system. In aliskiren monotherapy trials these decreases led to slight increases in rates of anemia compared to placebo (0.1% for any aliskiren use, 0.3% for aliskiren 600 mg daily, versus 0% for placebo). No patients discontinued due to anemia.
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)/Creatinine:
In patients with hypertension not concomitantly treated with an ARB or ACEI, elevations in BUN (greater than 40 mg/dL) and creatinine (greater than 2.0 mg/dL) in patients treated with Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) were less than 1.0%.
In patients with hypertension not concomitantly treated with an ARB or ACEI, increases in serum potassium greater than 5.5 mEq/L were infrequent (0.9% compared to 0.6% with placebo).
The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of either aliskiren or amlodipine. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure:
Peripheral edema, severe cutaneous adverse reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, urticaria, hepatic enzyme increase with clinical symptoms of hepatic dysfunction, pruritus, erythema, hyponatremia, nausea, vomiting
anaphylactic reactions and angioedema requiring airway management and hospitalization
The following postmarketing event has been reported infrequently where a causal relationship is uncertain: gynecomastia. In postmarketing experience, jaundice and hepatic enzyme elevations (mostly consistent with cholestasis or hepatitis), in some cases severe enough to require hospitalization, have been reported in association with use of amlodipine.
Limited data are available related to overdosage in humans. The most likely manifestation of overdosage would be hypotension. If symptomatic hypotension should occur, provide supportive treatment.
Aliskiren is poorly dialyzed. Therefore, hemodialysis is not adequate to treat aliskiren overexposure.
Overdosage might be expected to cause excessive peripheral vasodilation with marked hypotension and possibly a reflex tachycardia. Marked and potentially prolonged systemic hypotension up to and including shock with fatal outcome have been reported. In humans, experience with intentional overdosage of amlodipine is limited.
Single oral doses of amlodipine maleate equivalent to 40 mg amlodipine/kg and 100 mg amlodipine/kg in mice and rats, respectively, caused deaths. Single oral amlodipine maleate doses equivalent to 4 or more mg amlodipine/kg or higher in dogs (11 or more times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) caused a marked peripheral vasodilation and hypotension.
If massive overdose should occur, initiate active cardiac and respiratory monitoring. Frequent blood pressure measurements are essential. Should hypotension occur, provide cardiovascular support including elevation of the extremities and the judicious administration of fluids. If hypotension remains unresponsive to these conservative measures, consider administration of vasopressors (such as phenylephrine) with attention to circulating volume and urine output. As amlodipine is highly protein bound, hemodialysis is not likely to be of benefit. Administration of activated charcoal to healthy volunteers immediately or up to 2 hours after ingestion of amlodipine has been shown to significantly decrease amlodipine absorption.
PRA reductions in clinical trials ranged from approximately 50% to 80%, were not dose-related and did not correlate with blood pressure reductions. The clinical implications of the differences in effect on PRA are not known.
Following administration of therapeutic doses to patients with hypertension, amlodipine produces vasodilation resulting in a reduction of supine and standing blood pressures. These decreases in blood pressure are not accompanied by a significant change in heart rate or plasma catecholamine levels with chronic dosing. Although the acute intravenous administration of amlodipine decreases arterial blood pressure and increases heart rate in hemodynamic studies of patients with chronic stable angina, chronic oral administration of amlodipine in clinical trials did not lead to clinically significant changes in heart rate or blood pressures in normotensive patients with angina.
With chronic once daily administration, antihypertensive effectiveness is maintained for at least 24 hours. Plasma concentrations correlate with effect in both young and elderly patients. The magnitude of reduction in blood pressure with amlodipine is also correlated with the height of pretreatment elevation; thus, individuals with moderate hypertension (diastolic pressure 105 mmHg to 114 mmHg) had about 50% greater response than patients with mild hypertension (diastolic pressure 90 mmHg to 104 mmHg). Normotensive subjects experienced no clinically significant change in blood pressure (+1/-2 mmHg).
In hypertensive patients with normal renal function, therapeutic doses of amlodipine resulted in a decrease in renal vascular resistance and an increase in glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow without change in filtration fraction or proteinuria.
As with other calcium channel blockers, hemodynamic measurements of cardiac function at rest and during exercise (or pacing) in patients with normal ventricular function treated with amlodipine have generally demonstrated a small increase in cardiac index without significant influence on dP/dt or on left ventricular end diastolic pressure or volume. In hemodynamic studies, amlodipine has not been associated with a negative inotropic effect when administered in therapeutic dose range to intact animals and man, even when co-administered with beta-blockers to man. Similar findings, however, have been observed in normal or well-compensated patients with heart failure with agents possessing significant negative inotropic effects.
Amlodipine does not change sinoatrial nodal function or atrioventricular conduction in intact animals or man. In patients with chronic stable angina, intravenous administration of 10 mg did not significantly alter A-H and HV conduction and sinus node recovery time after pacing. Similar results were obtained in patients receiving amlodipine and concomitant beta-blockers. In clinical studies in which amlodipine was administered in combination with beta-blockers to patients with either hypertension or angina, no adverse effects of electrocardiographic parameters were observed. In clinical trials with angina patients alone, amlodipine therapy did not alter electrocardiographic intervals or produce higher degrees of AV blocks.
Amlodipine has indications other than hypertension which can be found in the Norvasc® package insert.
In a placebo-controlled study in hypertensive patients, amlodipine was associated with an increase in PRA (59% to 73% increase) whereas aliskiren monotherapy was associated with a 61% to 68% reduction in PRA. Aliskiren in combination with amlodipine reduced PRA (55% to 68% reduction).
Absorption And Distribution
Following oral administration of the aliskiren/amlodipine combination tablets, the median peak plasma concentration times are within 3 hours for aliskiren and 8 hours for amlodipine. The rate and extent of absorption of aliskiren and amlodipine from Rasilamlo (Aliskiren_Amlodipine) are the same as when administered as individual tablets. When taken with food, mean AUC and Cmax of aliskiren are decreased by 79% and 90%, respectively, while there is no impact of food on the AUC and Cmax of amlodipine.
Aliskiren is poorly absorbed (bioavailability about 2.5%) with an accumulation half-life of about 24 hours. Steady state blood levels are reached in about 7 to 8 days. Following oral administration, peak plasma concentrations of aliskiren are reached within 1 to 3 hours. When taken with a high fat meal, mean AUC and Cmax of aliskiren are decreased by 71% and 85% respectively. In the clinical trials, aliskiren was administered without a fixed relation to meals.
Peak plasma concentrations of amlodipine are reached 6 to 12 hours after an oral administration of amlodipine. Absolute bioavailability has been estimated to be between 64% and 90%. The bioavailability of amlodipine is not altered by the presence of food.
The apparent volume of distribution of amlodipine is about 21 L/kg. Approximately 93% of circulating amlodipine is bound to plasma proteins in hypertensive patients.
Metabolism And Elimination
About one-fourth of the absorbed dose appears in the urine as parent drug. How much of the absorbed dose is metabolized is unknown. Based on the in vitro studies, the major enzyme responsible for aliskiren metabolism appears to be CYP3A4. Aliskiren does not inhibit the CYP450 isoenzymes (CYP 1A2, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A) or induce CYP3A4.
Pgp (MDR1/Mdr1a/1b) was found to be the major efflux system involved in intestinal absorption and elimination via biliary excretion of aliskiren in preclinical studies. The potential for drug interactions at the Pgp site will likely depend on the degree of inhibition of this transporter.
The effect of coadministered drugs on the pharmacokinetics of aliskiren and vice versa, were studied in several single and multiple dose studies. Pharmacokinetic measures indicating the magnitude of these interactions are presented in Figure 5 (impact of coadministered drugs on aliskiren) and Figure 6 (impact of aliskiren on coadministered drugs).
Figure 5: The Impact of Coadministered Drugs on the Pharmacokinetics of Aliskiren
*Ketoconazole : A 400 mg once daily dose was not studied, but would be expected to increase aliskiren blood levels further.
**Ramipril, valsartan, irbesartan: In general, avoid combined use of aliskiren with ACE inhibitors or ARBs, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/min. Warfarin: There was no clinically significant effect of a single dose of warfarin 25 mg on the pharmacokinetics of aliskiren.
Figure 6: The Impact of Aliskiren on the Pharmacokinetics of Coadministered Drugs
*Furosemide: Patients receiving furosemide may find its effects diminished after starting aliskiren. In patients with heart failure, coadministration of aliskiren (300 mg/day) reduced plasma AUC and Cmax of oral furosemide (60 mg/day) by 17% and 27%, respectively, and reduced 24 hour urinary furosemide excretion by 29%. This change in exposure did not result in statistically significant difference in total urine volume and urinary sodium excretion over 24 hours. However, a transient decrease in urinary sodium excretion and urine volume effects up to 12 hours were observed when furosemide was coadministered with aliskiren 300 mg/day. **Ramipril, valsartan, irbesartan: In general, avoid combined use of aliskiren with ACE inhibitors or ARBs, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/min.
Amlodipine is extensively (about 90%) converted to inactive metabolites via hepatic metabolism with 10% of the parent compound and 60% of the metabolites excreted in the urine.
Elimination of amlodipine from the plasma is biphasic with a terminal elimination half-life of about 30 to 50 hours. Steady state plasma levels are reached after once-daily dosing for 7 to 8 days.