×
Components:
Olanzapine
Method of action:
Antipsychotic, Psychoanaleptics, Psycholeptics
Available in countries
Medically reviewed by Kovalenko Svetlana Olegovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2019.12.12

Name of the medicinal product

Kozylex

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Olanzapine

Therapeutic indications

The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Kozylex is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kozylex of the medicine (Olanzapine). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Therapeutic indications in the instructions to the drug Kozylex directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Coated tablet; Film-coated tablet; Powder and solvent for prolonged-release suspension for injection; Powder for solution for injection
Pills; Substance; Substance-powder
Oral drops, solution
Orodispersible tablet

Adults

Olanzapine is indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia.

Olanzapine is effective in maintaining the clinical improvement during continuation therapy in patients who have shown an initial treatment response.

Olanzapine is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe manic episode.

In patients whose manic episode has responded to olanzapine treatment, olanzapine is indicated for the prevention of recurrence in patients with bipolar disorder.

Adults

Kozylex Accord is indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia.

Kozylex Accord is effective in maintaining the clinical improvement during continuation therapy in patients who have shown an initial treatment response.

Kozylex Accord is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe manic episode.

In patients whose manic episode has responded to Kozylex Accord treatment, Kozylex Accord is indicated for the prevention of recurrence in patients with bipolar disorder.

Maintenance treatment of adult patients with schizophrenia sufficiently stabilised during acute treatment with oral olanzapine.

Adults

Olanzapine is indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia.

Olanzapine is effective in maintaining the clinical improvement during continuation therapy in patients who have shown an initial treatment response.

Olanzapine is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe manic episode.

In patients whose manic episode has responded to olanzapine treatment, olanzapine is indicated for the prevention of recurrence in patients with bipolar disorder.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administration of Kozylex is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kozylex of the medicine (Olanzapine). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Kozylex directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close
Coated tablet; Film-coated tablet; Powder and solvent for prolonged-release suspension for injection; Powder for solution for injection
Pills; Substance; Substance-powder
Oral drops, solution
Orodispersible tablet

Adults

Schizophrenia: The recommended starting dose for olanzapine is 10 mg/day.

Manic episode: The starting dose is 15 mg as a single daily dose in monotherapy or 10 mg daily in combination therapy.

Preventing recurrence in bipolar disorder: The recommended starting dose is 10 mg/day. For patients who have been receiving olanzapine for treatment of manic episode, continue therapy for preventing recurrence at the same dose. If a new manic, mixed, or depressive episode occurs, olanzapine treatment should be continued (with dose optimisation as needed), with supplementary therapy to treat mood symptoms, as clinically indicated.

During treatment for schizophrenia, manic episode, and recurrence prevention in bipolar disorder, daily dosage may subsequently be adjusted on the basis of individual clinical status within the range 5-20 mg/day. An increase to a dose greater than the recommended starting dose is advised only after appropriate clinical reassessment and should generally occur at intervals of not less than 24 hours.

Olanzapine can be given without regard for meals, as absorption is not affected by food. Gradual tapering of the dose should be considered when discontinuing olanzapine.

Kozylex VELOTAB orodispersible tablet should be placed in the mouth, where it will rapidly disperse in saliva, so it can be easily swallowed. Removal of the intact orodispersible tablet from the mouth is difficult. Since the orodispersible tablet is fragile, it should be taken immediately on opening the blister. Alternatively, it may be dispersed in a full glass of water or other suitable beverage (orange juice, apple juice, milk, or coffee) immediately before administration.

Olanzapine orodispersible tablet is bioequivalent to olanzapine coated tablets, with a similar rate and extent of absorption. It has the same dosage and frequency of administration as olanzapine coated tablets. Olanzapine orodispersible tablets may be used as an alternative to olanzapine coated tablets.

Special populations

Elderly

A lower starting dose (5 mg/day) is not routinely indicated but should be considered for those 65 and over when clinical factors warrant.

Renal and/or hepatic impairment

A lower starting dose (5 mg) should be considered for such patients. In cases of moderate hepatic insufficiency (cirrhosis, Child-Pugh class A or B), the starting dose should be 5 mg and only increased with caution.

Smokers

The starting dose and dose range need not be routinely altered for non-smokers relative to smokers. The metabolism of olanzapine may be induced by smoking. Clinical monitoring is recommended and an increase of olanzapine dose may be considered if necessary.

When more than one factor is present which might result in slower metabolism (female gender, geriatric age, non-smoking status), consideration should be given to decreasing the starting dose. Dose escalation, when indicated, should be conservative in such patients.

In cases where dose increments of 2.5 mg are considered necessary, Kozylex coated tablets should be used.

Paediatric population

Olanzapine is not recommended for use in children and adolescents below 18 years of age due to a lack of data on safety and efficacy. A greater magnitude of weight gain, lipid and prolactin alterations has been reported in short-term studies of adolescent patients than in studies of adult patients.

Adults

Schizophrenia

The recommended starting dose for Kozylex Accord is 10mg/day.

Manic episode

The starting dose is 15mg as a single daily dose in monotherapy or 10mg daily in combination therapy.

Preventing recurrence in bipolar disorder

The recommended starting dose is 10mg/day. For patients who have been receiving Kozylex Accord for treatment of manic episode, continue therapy for preventing recurrence at the same dose. If a new manic, mixed, or depressive episode occurs, Kozylex Accord treatment should be continued (with dose optimization as needed), with supplementary therapy to treat mood symptoms, as clinically indicated.

During treatment for schizophrenia, manic episode, and recurrence prevention in bipolar disorder, daily dosage may subsequently be adjusted on the basis of individual clinical status within the range 5-20mg/day. An increase to a dose greater than the recommended starting dose is advised only after appropriate clinical reassessment and should generally occur at intervals of not less than 24 hours.

Kozylex Accord can be given without regard for meals as absorption is not affected by food. Gradual tapering of the dose should be considered when discontinuing Kozylex.

Special populations

Elderly patients

A lower starting dose (5mg/day) is not routinely indicated but should be considered for those 65 and over when clinical factors warrant.

Patients with renal and/or hepatic impairment

A lower starting dose (5mg) should be considered for such patients. In cases of moderate hepatic insufficiency (cirrhosis, Child-Pugh class A or B), the starting dose should be 5mg and only increased with caution.

Smokers

The starting dose and dose range need not be routinely altered for non- smokers relative to smokers.The metabolism of Kozylex may be induced by smoking. Clinical monitoring is recommended and an increase of Kozylex dose may be considered if necessary.

When more than one factor is present which might result in slower metabolism (female gender, geriatric age, non-smoking status), consideration should be given to decreasing the starting dose. Dose escalation, when indicated, should be conservative in such patients.

.

Paediatric population

Kozylex is not recommended for use in children and adolescents below 18 years of age due to a lack of data on safety and efficacy. A greater magnitude of weight gain, lipid and prolactin alterations has been reported in short-term studies of adolescent patients than in studies of adult patients.

Kozylex 210 mg, 300 mg, and 405 mg, powder and solvent for prolonged release suspension for injection must not be confused with olanzapine 10 mg powder for solution for injection.

Posology

Patients should be treated initially with oral olanzapine before administering Kozylex, to establish tolerability and response.

In order to identify the first Kozylex dose for all patients, the scheme in Table 1 should be considered.

Table 1 Recommended dose scheme between oral olanzapine and Kozylex

Target oral olanzapine dose

Recommended starting dose of Kozylex

Maintenance dose after 2 months of Kozylex treatment

10 mg/day

210 mg/2 weeks or 405 mg/4 weeks

150 mg/2 weeks or 300 mg/4 weeks

15 mg/day

300 mg/2 weeks

210 mg/2 weeks or 405 mg/4 weeks

20 mg/day

300 mg/2 weeks

300 mg/2 weeks

Dose adjustment

Patients should be monitored carefully for signs of relapse during the first one to two months of treatment. During antipsychotic treatment, improvement in the patient's clinical condition may take several days to some weeks. Patients should be closely monitored during this period. During treatment, dose may subsequently be adjusted on the basis of individual clinical status. After clinical reassessment, dose may be adjusted within the range 150 mg to 300 mg every 2 weeks or 300 to 405 mg every 4 weeks (Table 1).

Supplementation

Supplementation with oral olanzapine was not authorised in double-blind clinical studies. If oral olanzapine supplementation is clinically indicated, then the combined total dose of olanzapine from both formulations should not exceed the corresponding maximum oral olanzapine dose of 20 mg/day.

Switching to other antipsychotic medicinal products

There are no systematically collected data to specifically address switching patients from Kozylex to other antipsychotic medicinal products. Due to the slow dissolution of the olanzapine pamoate salt which provides a slow continuous release of olanzapine that is complete approximately six to eight months after the last injection, supervision by a clinician, especially during the first 2 months after discontinuation of Kozylex, is needed when switching to another antipsychotic product and is considered medically appropriate.

Special populations

Elderly

Kozylex has not been systematically studied in elderly patients (> 65 years). Kozylex is not recommended for treatment in the elderly population unless a well-tolerated and effective dose regimen using oral olanzapine has been established. A lower starting dose (150 mg/4 weeks) is not routinely indicated, but should be considered for those 65 and over when clinical factors warrant. Kozylex is not recommended to be started in patients >75 years.

Renal and/or hepatic impairment

Unless a well-tolerated and effective dose regimen using oral olanzapine has been established in such patients, Kozylex should not be used. A lower starting dose (150 mg every 4 weeks) should be considered for such patients. In cases of moderate hepatic insufficiency (cirrhosis, Child-Pugh class A or B), the starting dose should be 150 mg every 4 weeks and only increased with caution.

Smokers

The starting dose and dose range need not be routinely altered for non-smokers relative to smokers. The metabolism of olanzapine may be induced by smoking. Clinical monitoring is recommended and an increase of olanzapine dose may be considered if necessary.

When more than one factor is present which might result in slower metabolism (female gender, geriatric age, non-smoking status), consideration should be given to decreasing the dose. When indicated, dose escalation should be performed with caution in these patients.

Paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of Kozylex in children and adolescents below 18 years has not been established.1 but no recommendation on a posology can be made.

Method of administration

FOR INTRAMUSCULAR USE ONLY. DO NOT ADMINISTER INTRAVENOUSLY OR SUBCUTANEOUSLY

Kozylex should only be administered by deep intramuscular gluteal injection by a healthcare professional trained in the appropriate injection technique and in locations where post-injection observation and access to appropriate medical care in the case of overdose can be assured.

After each injection, patients should be observed in a healthcare facility by appropriately qualified personnel for at least 3 hours for signs and symptoms consistent with olanzapine overdose. Immediately prior to leaving the healthcare facility, it should be confirmed that the patient is alert, oriented, and absent of any signs and symptoms of overdose. If an overdose is suspected, close medical supervision and monitoring should continue until examination indicates that signs and symptoms have resolved. The 3-hour observation period should be extended as clinically appropriate for patients who exhibit any signs or symptoms consistent with olanzapine overdose.

Adults

Schizophrenia: The recommended starting dose for olanzapine is 10 mg/day.

Manic episode: The starting dose is 15 mg as a single daily dose in monotherapy or 10 mg daily in combination therapy.

Preventing recurrence in bipolar disorder: The recommended starting dose is 10 mg/day. For patients who have been receiving olanzapine for treatment of manic episode, continue therapy for preventing recurrence at the same dose. If a new manic, mixed, or depressive episode occurs, olanzapine treatment should be continued (with dose optimisation as needed), with supplementary therapy to treat mood symptoms, as clinically indicated.

During treatment for schizophrenia, manic episode and recurrence prevention in bipolar disorder, daily dosage may subsequently be adjusted on the basis of individual clinical status within the range 5-20 mg/day. An increase to a dose greater than the recommended starting dose is advised only after appropriate clinical reassessment and should generally occur at intervals of not less than 24 hours.

Olanzapine can be given without regards for meals as absorption is not affected by food. Gradual tapering of the dose should be considered when discontinuing olanzapine.

Kozylex orodispersible tablet should be placed in the mouth, where it will rapidly disperse in saliva, so it can be easily swallowed. Removal of the intact orodispersible tablet from the mouth is difficult. Since the orodispersible tablet is fragile, it should be taken immediately on opening the blister. Alternatively, it may be dispersed in a full glass of water immediately before administration.

Olanzapine orodispersible tablet is bioequivalent to olanzapine tablets, with a similar rate and extent of absorption. It has the same dosage and frequency of administration as olanzapine tablets. Olanzapine orodispersible tablets may be used as an alternative to olanzapine tablets.

Special populations

Elderly patients

Patients with renal and/or hepatic impairment

A lower starting dose (5 mg) should be considered for such patients. In cases of moderate hepatic insufficiency (cirrhosis, Child-Pugh Class A or B), the starting dose should be 5 mg and only increased with caution.

Smokers

The starting dose and dose range need not be routinely altered for non-smokers relative to smokers. The metabolism of olanzapine may be induced by smoking. Clinical monitoring is recommended and an increase of olanzapine dose may be considered if necessary.

When more than one factor is present which might result in slower metabolism (female gender, geriatric age, non-smoking status), consideration should be given to decreasing the starting dose. Dose escalation, when indicated, should be conservative in such patients.

Paediatric population

Olanzapine is not recommended for use in children and adolescents below 18 years of age due to a lack of data on safety and efficacy. A greater magnitude of weight gain, lipid and prolactin alterations has been reported in short term studies of adolescent patients than in studies of adult patients.

Contraindications

The information provided in Contraindications of Kozylex is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kozylex of the medicine (Olanzapine). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Kozylex directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Patients with known risk for narrow-angle glaucoma.

Special warnings and precautions for use

The information provided in Special warnings and precautions for use of Kozylex is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kozylex of the medicine (Olanzapine). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special warnings and precautions for use in the instructions to the drug Kozylex directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close
Coated tablet; Film-coated tablet; Powder and solvent for prolonged-release suspension for injection; Powder for solution for injection
Pills; Substance; Substance-powder
Oral drops, solution
Orodispersible tablet

During antipsychotic treatment, improvement in the patient's clinical condition may take several days to some weeks. Patients should be closely monitored during this period.

Dementia-related psychosis and/or behavioural disturbances

Olanzapine is not recommended for use in patients with dementia-related psychosis and/or behavioural disturbances because of an increase in mortality and the risk of cerebrovascular accident. In placebo-controlled clinical trials (6-12 weeks duration) of elderly patients (mean age 78 years) with dementia-related psychosis and/or disturbed behaviours, there was a 2-fold increase in the incidence of death in olanzapine-treated patients compared to patients treated with placebo (3.5% vs. 1.5%, respectively). The higher incidence of death was not associated with olanzapine dose (mean daily dose 4.4 mg) or duration of treatment. Risk factors that may predispose this patient population to increased mortality include age > 65 years, dysphagia, sedation, malnutrition and dehydration, pulmonary conditions (e.g., pneumonia, with or without aspiration), or concomitant use of benzodiazepines. However, the incidence of death was higher in olanzapine-treated than in placebo-treated patients independent of these risk factors.

In the same clinical trials, cerebrovascular adverse events (CVAE e.g., stroke, transient ischaemic attack), including fatalities, were reported. There was a 3-fold increase in CVAE in patients treated with olanzapine compared to patients treated with placebo (1.3% vs. 0.4%, respectively). All olanzapine- and placebo-treated patients who experienced a cerebrovascular event had pre-existing risk factors. Age > 75 years and vascular/mixed type dementia were identified as risk factors for CVAE in association with olanzapine treatment. The efficacy of olanzapine was not established in these trials.

Parkinson's disease

The use of olanzapine in the treatment of dopamine agonist associated psychosis in patients with Parkinson's disease is not recommended. In clinical trials, worsening of Parkinsonian symptomatology and hallucinations were reported very commonly and more frequently than with placebo , and olanzapine was not more effective than placebo in the treatment of psychotic symptoms. In these trials, patients were initially required to be stable on the lowest effective dose of anti-Parkinsonian medicinal products (dopamine agonist) and to remain on the same anti-Parkinsonian medicinal products and dosages throughout the study. Olanzapine was started at 2.5 mg/day and titrated to a maximum of 15 mg/day based on investigator judgement.

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)

NMS is a potentially life-threatening condition associated with antipsychotic medicinal products. Rare cases reported as NMS have also been received in association with olanzapine. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmia). Additional signs may include elevated creatine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis), and acute renal failure. If a patient develops signs and symptoms indicative of NMS, or presents with unexplained high fever without additional clinical manifestations of NMS, all antipsychotic medicines, including olanzapine must be discontinued.

Hyperglycaemia and diabetes

Hyperglycaemia and/or development or exacerbation of diabetes, occasionally associated with ketoacidosis or coma, has been reported uncommonly, including some fatal cases. In some cases, a prior increase in body weight has been reported, which may be a predisposing factor. Appropriate clinical monitoring is advisable in accordance with utilised antipsychotic guidelines, e.g., measuring of blood glucose at baseline, 12 weeks after starting olanzapine treatment and annually thereafter. Patients treated with any antipsychotic medicines, including Kozylex/Kozylex VELOTAB, should be observed for signs and symptoms of hyperglycaemia (such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weakness) and patients with diabetes mellitus or with risk factors for diabetes mellitus should be monitored regularly for worsening of glucose control. Weight should be monitored regularly, e.g., at baseline, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after starting olanzapine treatment and quarterly thereafter.

Lipid alterations

Undesirable alterations in lipids have been observed in olanzapine-treated patients in placebo-controlled clinical trials. Lipid alterations should be managed as clinically appropriate, particularly in dyslipidemic patients and in patients with risk factors for the development of lipids disorders. Patients treated with any antipsychotic medicines, including Kozylex/Kozylex VELOTAB, should be monitored regularly for lipids in accordance with utilised antipsychotic guidelines, e.g., at baseline, 12 weeks after starting olanzapine treatment and every 5 years thereafter.

Anticholinergic activity

While olanzapine demonstrated anticholinergic activity in vitro, experience during the clinical trials revealed a low incidence of related events. However, as clinical experience with olanzapine in patients with concomitant illness is limited, caution is advised when prescribing for patients with prostatic hypertrophy, or paralytic ileus and related conditions.

Hepatic function

Transient, asymptomatic elevations of hepatic aminotransferases, ALT, AST have been seen commonly, especially in early treatment. Caution should be exercised and follow-up organised in patients with elevated ALT and/or AST, in patients with signs and symptoms of hepatic impairment, in patients with pre-existing conditions associated with limited hepatic functional reserve, and in patients who are being treated with potentially hepatotoxic medicines. In cases where hepatitis (including hepatocellular, cholestatic or mixed liver injury) has been diagnosed, olanzapine treatment should be discontinued.

Neutropenia

Caution should be exercised in patients with low leukocyte and/or neutrophil counts for any reason, in patients receiving medicines known to cause neutropenia, in patients with a history of drug-induced bone marrow depression/toxicity, in patients with bone marrow depression caused by concomitant illness, radiation therapy or chemotherapy and in patients with hypereosinophilic conditions or with myeloproliferative disease. Neutropenia has been reported commonly when olanzapine and valproate are used concomitantly.

Discontinuation of treatment

Acute symptoms such as sweating, insomnia, tremor, anxiety, nausea, or vomiting have been reported rarely (> 0.01% and < 0.1%) when olanzapine is stopped abruptly.

QT interval

In clinical trials, clinically meaningful QTc prolongations (Fridericia QT correction [QTcF] > 500 milliseconds [msec] at any time post-baseline in patients with baseline QTcF < 500 msec) were uncommon (0.1% to 1%) in patients treated with olanzapine, with no significant differences in associated cardiac events compared to placebo. However, caution should be exercised when olanzapine is prescribed with medicines known to increase QTc interval, especially in the elderly, in patients with congenital long QT syndrome, congestive heart failure, heart hypertrophy, hypokalaemia or hypomagnesaemia.

Thromboembolism

Temporal association of olanzapine treatment and venous thromboembolism has been reported uncommonly (> 0.1% and < 1%). A causal relationship between the occurrence of venous thromboembolism and treatment with olanzapine has not been established. However, since patients with schizophrenia often present with acquired risk factors for venous thromboembolism, all possible risk factors of VTE e.g., immobilisation of patients, should be identified and preventive measures undertaken.

General CNS activity

Given the primary CNS effects of olanzapine, caution should be used when it is taken in combination with other centrally acting medicines and alcohol. As it exhibits in vitro dopamine antagonism, olanzapine may antagonise the effects of direct and indirect dopamine agonists.

Seizures

Olanzapine should be used cautiously in patients who have a history of seizures or are subject to factors which may lower the seizure threshold. Seizures have been reported to occur uncommonly in patients when treated with olanzapine. In most of these cases, a history of seizures or risk factors for seizures were reported.

Tardive dyskinesia

In comparator studies of one year or less duration, olanzapine was associated with a statistically significant lower incidence of treatment-emergent dyskinesia. However, the risk of tardive dyskinesia increases with long-term exposure, and therefore if signs or symptoms of tardive dyskinesia appear in a patient on olanzapine, a dose reduction or discontinuation should be considered. These symptoms can temporally deteriorate or even arise after discontinuation of treatment.

Postural hypotension

Postural hypotension was infrequently observed in the elderly in olanzapine clinical trials. It is recommended that blood pressure is measured periodically in patients over 65 years.

Sudden cardiac death

In postmarketing reports with olanzapine, the event of sudden cardiac death has been reported in patients with olanzapine. In a retrospective observational cohort study, the risk of presumed sudden cardiac death in patients treated with olanzapine was approximately twice the risk in patients not using antipsychotics. In the study, the risk of olanzapine was comparable to the risk of atypical antipsychotics included in a pooled analysis.

Paediatric population

Olanzapine is not indicated for use in the treatment of children and adolescents. Studies in patients aged 13-17 years showed various adverse reactions, including weight gain, changes in metabolic parameters and increases in prolactin levels.

Lactose

Kozylex tablets contain lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.

Phenylalanine

Kozylex VELOTAB orodispersible tablet contains aspartame, which is a source of phenylalanine. May be harmful for people with phenylketonuria.

Mannitol

Kozylex VELOTAB orodispersible tablet contains mannitol.

Sodium methyl parahydroxybenzoate and sodium propyl parahydroxybenzoate

Olanzapine orodispersible tablet contains sodium methyl parahydroxybenzoate and sodium propyl parahydroxybenzoate. These preservatives are known to cause urticaria. Generally, delayed type reactions such as contact dermatitis may occur, but rarely, immediate reactions with bronchospasm may occur.

During antipsychotic treatment, improvement in the patient's clinical condition may take several days to some weeks. Patients should be closely monitored during this period.

Dementia-related psychosis and/or behavioural disturbances

Kozylex is not recommended for use in patients with dementia-related psychosis and/or behavioural disturbances because of an increase in mortality and the risk of cerebrovascular accident. In placebo-controlled clinical trials (6-12 weeks duration) of elderly patients (mean age 78 years) with dementia-related psychosis and/or disturbed behaviours, there was a 2-fold increase in the incidence of death in Kozylex treated patients compared to patients treated with placebo (3.5% vs. 1.5%, respectively). The higher incidence of death was not associated with Kozylex dose (mean daily dose 4.4 mg) or duration of treatment. Risk factors that may predispose this patient population to increased mortality include age > 65 years, dysphagia, sedation, malnutrition and dehydration, pulmonary conditions (e.g., pneumonia, with or without aspiration), or concomitant use of benzodiazepines. However, the incidence of death was higher in Kozylex- treated than in placebo-treated patients independent of these risk factors.

In the same clinical trials, cerebrovascular adverse events (CVAE e.g., stroke, transient ischaemic attack), including fatalities, were reported. There was a 3-fold increase in CVAE in patients treated with Kozylex compared to patients treated with placebo (1.3% vs. 0.4%, respectively). All Kozylex- and placebo-treated patients who experienced a cerebrovascular event had pre-existing risk factors. Age >75 years and vascular/mixed type dementia were identified as risk factors for CVAE in association with Kozylex treatment. The efficacy of Kozylex was not established in these trials.

Parkinson's disease

The use of Kozylex in the treatment of dopamine agonist associated psychosis in patients with Parkinson's disease is not recommended. In clinical trials, worsening of Parkinsonian symptomatology and hallucinations were reported very commonly and more frequently than with placebo , and Kozylex was not more effective than placebo in the treatment of psychotic symptoms. In these trials, patients were initially required to be stable on the lowest effective dose of anti-Parkinsonian medicinal products (dopamine agonist) and to remain on the same anti-Parkinsonian medicinal products and dosages throughout the study. Kozylex was started at 2.5 mg/day and titrated to a maximum of 15 mg/day based on investigator judgement.

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)

NMS is a potentially life-threatening condition associated with antipsychotic medicinal products. Rare cases reported as NMS have also been received in association with Kozylex. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmia). Additional signs may include elevated creatinine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis), and acute renal failure. If a patient develops signs and symptoms indicative of NMS, or presents with unexplained high fever without additional clinical manifestations of NMS, all antipsychotic medicines, including Kozylex must be discontinued.

Hyperglycaemia and diabetes

Hyperglycaemia and/or development or exacerbation of diabetes, occasionally associated with ketoacidosis or coma, has been reported uncommonly, including some fatal cases. In some cases, a prior increase in body weight has been reported, which may be a predisposing factor.

Appropriate clinical monitoring is advisable in accordance with utilised antipsychotic guidelines, e.g. measuring of blood glucose at baseline, 12 weeks after starting Kozylex treatment and annually thereafter.

Patients treated with any antipsychotic medicines, including Kozylex Accord, should be observed for signs and symptoms of hyperglycaemia (such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weakness) and patients with diabetes mellitus or with risk factors for diabetes mellitus should be monitored regularly for worsening of glucose control. Weight should be monitored regularly, e.g. at baseline, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after starting Kozylex treatment and quarterly thereafter.

Lipid alterations

Undesirable alterations in lipids have been observed in Kozylex-treated patients in placebo-controlled clinical trials (see section 4.8). Lipid alterations should be managed as clinically appropriate, particularly in dyslipidemic patients and in patients with risk factors for the development of lipids disorders. Patients treated with any antipsychotic medicines, including Kozylex Accord, should be monitored regularly for lipids in accordance with utilised antipsychotic guidelines, e.g. at baseline, 12 weeks after starting Kozylex treatment and every 5 years thereafter.

Anticholinergic activity

While Kozylex demonstrated anticholinergic activity in vitro, experience during the clinical trials revealed a low incidence of related events. However, as clinical experience with Kozylex in patients with concomitant illness is limited, caution is advised when prescribing for patients with prostatic hypertrophy, or paralytic ileus and related conditions.

Hepatic function

Transient, asymptomatic elevations of hepatic aminotransferases, ALT, AST have been seen commonly, especially in early treatment. Caution should be exercised and follow-up organized in patients with elevated ALT and/or AST, in patients with signs and symptoms of hepatic impairment, in patients with pre-existing conditions associated with limited hepatic functional reserve, and in patients who are being treated with potentially hepatotoxic medicines. In cases where hepatitis (including hepatocellular, cholestatic or mixed liver injury) has been diagnosed, Kozylex treatment should be discontinued.

Neutropenia

Caution should be exercised in patients with low leukocyte and/or neutrophil counts for any reason, in patients receiving medicines known to cause neutropenia, in patients with a history of drug-induced bone marrow depression/toxicity, in patients with bone marrow depression caused by concomitant illness, radiation therapy or chemotherapy and in patients with hypereosinophilic conditions or with myeloproliferative disease. Neutropenia has been reported commonly when Kozylex and valproate are used concomitantly.

Discontinuation of treatment

Acute symptoms such as sweating, insomnia, tremor, anxiety, nausea, or vomiting have been reported rarely (> 0.01% and < 0.1%) when Kozylex is stopped abruptly.

QT interval

In clinical trials, clinically meaningful QTc prolongations (Fridericia QT correction [QTcF] >500 milliseconds [msec] at any time post baseline in patients with baseline QTcF < 500 msec) were uncommon (0.1% to 1%) in patients treated with Kozylex, with no significant differences in associated cardiac events compared to placebo. However, caution should be exercised when Kozylex is prescribed with medicines known to increase QTc interval, especially in the elderly, in patients with congenital long QT syndrome, congestive heart failure, heart hypertrophy, hypokalaemia or hypomagnesaemia.

Thromboembolism

Temporal association of Kozylex treatment and venous thromboembolism has been reported uncommonly (> 0.1% and < 1%). A causal relationship between the occurrence of venous thromboembolism and treatment with Kozylex has not been established. However, since patients with schizophrenia often present with acquired risk factors for venous thromboembolism all possible risk factors of VTE e.g., immobilisation of patients, should be identified and preventive measures undertaken.

General CNS activity

Given the primary CNS effects of Kozylex, caution should be used when it is taken in combination with other centrally acting medicines and alcohol. As it exhibits in vitro dopamine antagonism, Kozylex may antagonise the effects of direct and indirect dopamine agonists.

Seizures

Kozylex should be used cautiously in patients who have a history of seizures or are subject to factors which may lower the seizure threshold. Seizures have been reported to occur uncommonly in patients when treated with Kozylex. In most of these cases, a history of seizures or risk factors for seizures were reported.

Tardive dyskinesia

In comparator studies of one year or less duration, Kozylex was associated with a statistically significant lower incidence of treatment emergent dyskinesia. However; the risk of tardive dyskinesia increases with long-term exposure, and therefore if signs or symptoms of tardive dyskinesia appear in a patient on Kozylex, a dose reduction or discontinuation should be considered. These symptoms can temporally deteriorate or even arise after discontinuation of treatment.

Postural hypotension

Postural hypotension was infrequently observed in the elderly in Kozylex clinicaltrials. It is recommended that blood pressure is measured periodically in patients over 65 years.

Sudden cardiac death

In postmarketing reports with Kozylex, the event of sudden cardiac death has been reported in patients with Kozylex. In a retrospective observational cohort study, the risk of presumed sudden cardiac death in patients treated with Kozylex was approximately twice the risk in patients not using antipsychotics. In the study, the risk of Kozylex was comparable to the risk of atypical antipsychotics included in a pooled analysis.

Paediatric population

Kozylex is not indicated for use in the treatment of children and adolescents.

Studies in patients aged 13-17 years showed various adverse reactions, including weight gain, changes in metabolic parameters and increases in prolactin levels..

Lactose

Kozylex Accord film-coated tablets contain lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency, or glucose- galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.

Special care must be taken to apply appropriate injection technique to avoid inadvertent intravascular or subcutaneous injection.

Use in patients who are in an acutely agitated or severely psychotic state

Kozylex should not be used to treat patients with schizophrenia who are in an acutely agitated or severely psychotic state such that immediate symptom control is warranted.

Post-injection syndrome

During pre-marketing clinical studies, reactions that presented with signs and symptoms consistent with olanzapine overdose were reported in patients following an injection of Kozylex. These reactions occurred in <0.1% of injections and approximately 2% of patients. Most of these patients have developed symptoms of sedation (ranging from mild in severity up to coma) and/or delirium (including confusion, disorientation, agitation, anxiety and other cognitive impairment). Other symptoms noted include extrapyramidal symptoms, dysarthria, ataxia, aggression, dizziness, weakness, hypertension and convulsion. In most cases, initial signs and symptoms related to this reaction have appeared within 1 hour following injection, and in all cases full recovery was reported to have occurred within 24 - 72 hours after injection. Reactions occurred rarely (<1 in 1,000 injections) between 1 and 3 hours, and very rarely (<1 in 10,000 injections) after 3 hours. Patients should be advised about this potential risk and the need to be observed for 3 hours in a healthcare facility each time Kozylex is administered. Post-marketing reports of post-injection syndrome since the marketing authorization of Kozylex are generally consistent with the experience seen in clinical studies.

After each injection, patients should be observed in a healthcare facility by appropriately qualified personnel for at least 3 hours for signs and symptoms consistent with olanzapine overdose.

Immediately prior to leaving the healthcare facility, it should be confirmed that the patient is alert, oriented, and absent of any signs and symptoms of overdose. If an overdose is suspected, close medical supervision and monitoring should continue until examination indicates that signs and symptoms have resolved. The 3-hour observation period should be extended as clinically appropriate for patients who exhibit any signs or symptoms consistent with olanzapine overdose.

For the remainder of the day after injection, patients should be advised to be vigilant for signs and symptoms of overdose secondary to post-injection adverse reactions, be able to obtain assistance if needed, and should not drive or operate machinery.

If parenteral benzodiazepines are essential for management of post-injection adverse reactions, careful evaluation of clinical status for excessive sedation and cardiorespiratory depression is recommended.

Injection site-related adverse events

The most commonly reported injection site-related adverse reaction was pain. The majority of these reactions were reported to be of “mild” to “moderate” severity. In the event of an injection site-related adverse reaction occuring, appropriate measures to manage these events should be taken.

Dementia-related psychosis and/or behavioural disturbances

Olanzapine is not recommended for use in patients with dementia-related psychosis and/or behavioural disturbances because of an increase in mortality and the risk of cerebrovascular accident. In placebo-controlled clinical trials (6-12 weeks duration) of elderly patients (mean age 78 years) with dementia-related psychosis and/or disturbed behaviours, there was a 2-fold increase in the incidence of death in oral olanzapine-treated patients compared to patients treated with placebo (3.5% vs. 1.5%, respectively). The higher incidence of death was not associated with olanzapine dose (mean daily dose 4.4 mg) or duration of treatment. Risk factors that may predispose this patient population to increased mortality include age > 65 years, dysphagia, sedation, malnutrition and dehydration, pulmonary conditions (e.g., pneumonia, with or without aspiration), or concomitant use of benzodiazepines. However, the incidence of death was higher in oral olanzapine-treated than in placebo-treated patients independent of these risk factors.

In the same clinical trials, cerebrovascular adverse reactions (CVAEvents e.g., stroke, transient ischaemic attack), including fatalities, were reported. There was a 3-fold increase in CVAE in patients treated with oral olanzapine compared to patients treated with placebo (1.3% vs. 0.4%, respectively). All oral olanzapine- and placebo-treated patients who experienced a cerebrovascular event had pre-existing risk factors. Age > 75 years and vascular/mixed type dementia were identified as risk factors for CVAE in association with olanzapine treatment. The efficacy of olanzapine was not established in these trials.

Parkinson's disease

The use of olanzapine in the treatment of dopamine agonist associated psychosis in patients with Parkinson's disease is not recommended. In clinical trials, worsening of Parkinsonian symptomatology and hallucinations were reported very commonly and more frequently than with placebo , and oral olanzapine was not more effective than placebo in the treatment of psychotic symptoms. In these trials, patients were initially required to be stable on the lowest effective dose of anti-Parkinsonian medicinal products (dopamine agonist) and to remain on the same anti-Parkinsonian medicinal products and dosages throughout the study. Oral olanzapine was started at 2.5 mg/day and titrated to a maximum of 15 mg/day based on investigator judgement.

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)

NMS is a potentially life-threatening condition associated with antipsychotic medicinal products. Rare cases reported as NMS have also been received in association with oral olanzapine. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmia). Additional signs may include elevated creatine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis), and acute renal failure. If a patient develops signs and symptoms indicative of NMS, or presents with unexplained high fever without additional clinical manifestations of NMS, all antipsychotic medicines, including olanzapine must be discontinued.

Hyperglycaemia and diabetes

Hyperglycaemia and/or development or exacerbation of diabetes occasionally associated with ketoacidosis or coma has been reported uncommonly, including some fatal cases. In some cases, a prior increase in body weight has been reported which may be a predisposing factor. Appropriate clinical monitoring is advisable in accordance with utilised antipsychotic guidelines, e.g., measuring of blood glucose at baseline, 12 weeks after starting olanzapine treatment and annually thereafter. Patients treated with any antipsychotic medicines, including Kozylex, should be observed for signs and symptoms of hyperglycaemia (such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weakness) and patients with diabetes mellitus or with risk factors for diabetes mellitus should be monitored regularly for worsening of glucose control. Weight should be monitored regularly, e.g., at baseline, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after starting olanzapine treatment and quarterly thereafter.

Lipid alterations

Undesirable alterations in lipids have been observed in olanzapine-treated patients in placebo-controlled clinical trials. Lipid alterations should be managed as clinically appropriate, particularly in dyslipidemic patients and in patients with risk factors for the development of lipids disorders. Patients treated with any antipsychotic medicines, including Kozylex, should be monitored regularly for lipids in accordance with utilised antipsychotic guidelines, e.g., at baseline, 12 weeks after starting olanzapine treatment and every 5 years thereafter.

Anticholinergic activity

While olanzapine demonstrated anticholinergic activity in vitro, experience during the clinical trials revealed a low incidence of related events. However, as clinical experience with olanzapine in patients with concomitant illness is limited, caution is advised when prescribing for patients with prostatic hypertrophy, or paralytic ileus and related conditions.

Hepatic function

Transient, asymptomatic elevations of hepatic aminotransferases, ALT, AST have been seen commonly, especially in early treatment. Caution should be exercised and follow-up organised in patients with elevated ALT and/or AST, in patients with signs and symptoms of hepatic impairment, in patients with pre-existing conditions associated with limited hepatic functional reserve, and in patients who are being treated with potentially hepatotoxic medicines. In cases where hepatitis (including hepatocellular, cholestatic or mixed liver injury) has been diagnosed, olanzapine treatment should be discontinued.

Neutropenia

Caution should be exercised in patients with low leukocyte and/or neutrophil counts for any reason, in patients receiving medicines known to cause neutropenia, in patients with a history of drug-induced bone marrow depression/toxicity, in patients with bone marrow depression caused by concomitant illness, radiation therapy or chemotherapy and in patients with hypereosinophilic conditions or with myeloproliferative disease. Neutropenia has been reported commonly when olanzapine and valproate are used concomitantly.

Discontinuation of treatment

Acute symptoms such as sweating, insomnia, tremor, anxiety, nausea, or vomiting have been reported rarely (>0.01% and <0.1%) when oral olanzapine is stopped abruptly.

QT interval

In clinical trials with oral olanzapine, clinically meaningful QTc prolongations (Fridericia QT correction [QTcF] > 500 milliseconds [msec] at any time post-baseline in patients with baseline QTcF<500 msec) were uncommon (0.1% to 1%) in patients treated with olanzapine, with no significant differences in associated cardiac events compared to placebo. In clinical trials with olanzapine powder for solution for injection or Kozylex, olanzapine was not associated with a persistent increase in absolute QT or in QTc intervals. However, caution should be exercised when olanzapine is prescribed with medicines known to increase QTc interval, especially in the elderly, in patients with congenital long QT syndrome, congestive heart failure, heart hypertrophy, hypokalaemia or hypomagnesaemia.

Thromboembolism

Temporal association of olanzapine treatment and venous thromboembolism has been reported uncommonly (> 0.1% and < 1%). A causal relationship between the occurrence of venous thromboembolism and treatment with olanzapine has not been established. However, since patients with schizophrenia often present with acquired risk factors for venous thromboembolism all possible risk factors of VTE e.g., immobilisation of patients, should be identified and preventive measures undertaken.

General CNS activity

Given the primary CNS effects of olanzapine, caution should be used when it is taken in combination with other centrally acting medicines and alcohol. As it exhibits in vitro dopamine antagonism, olanzapine may antagonise the effects of direct and indirect dopamine agonists.

Seizures

Olanzapine should be used cautiously in patients who have a history of seizures or are subject to factors which may lower the seizure threshold. Seizures have been reported to occur uncommonly in patients when treated with olanzapine. In most of these cases, a history of seizures or risk factors for seizures were reported.

Tardive dyskinesia

In comparator studies of one year or less duration, olanzapine was associated with a statistically significant lower incidence of treatment emergent dyskinesia. However, the risk of tardive dyskinesia increases with long-term exposure, and therefore if signs or symptoms of tardive dyskinesia appear in a patient on olanzapine, a dose reduction or discontinuation should be considered. These symptoms can temporally deteriorate or even arise after discontinuation of treatment.

Postural hypotension

Postural hypotension was infrequently observed in the elderly in olanzapine clinical trials. It is recommended that blood pressure is measured periodically in patients over 65 years.

Sudden cardiac death

In postmarketing reports with olanzapine, the event of sudden cardiac death has been reported in patients with olanzapine. In a retrospective observational cohort study, the risk of presumed sudden cardiac death in patients treated with olanzapine was approximately twice the risk in patients not using antipsychotics. In the study, the risk of olanzapine was comparable to the risk of atypical antipsychotics included in a pooled analysis.

Paediatric population

Olanzapine is not indicated for use in the treatment of children and adolescents. Studies in patients aged 13-17 years showed various adverse reactions, including weight gain, changes in metabolic parameters and increases in prolactin levels.

Use in elderly (>75 years)

No information on the use of Kozylex in patients > 75 years is available. Due to biochemical and physiological modification and reduction of muscular mass, this formulation is not recommended to be started in this sub-group of patients.

During antipsychotic treatment, improvement in the patient's clinical condition may take several days to some weeks. Patients should be closely monitored during this period.

Dementia-related psychosis and/or behavioural disturbances

Olanzapine is not recommended for use in patients with dementia-related psychosis and/or behavioural disturbances because of an increase in mortality and the risk of cerebrovascular accident. In placebo-controlled clinical trials (6-12 weeks duration) of elderly patients (mean age 78 years) with dementia-related psychosis and/or disturbed behaviours, there was a 2-fold increase in the incidence of death in olanzapine-treated patients compared to patients treated with placebo (3.5% vs. 1.5%, respectively). The higher incidence of death was not associated with olanzapine dose (mean daily dose 4.4 mg) or duration of treatment. Risk factors that may predispose this patient population to increased mortality include age > 65 years, dysphagia, sedation, malnutrition and dehydration, pulmonary conditions (e.g., pneumonia, with or without aspiration), or concomitant use of benzodiazepines. However, the incidence of death was higher in olanzapine-treated than in placebo-treated patients independent of these risk factors.

In the same clinical trials, cerebrovascular adverse events (CVAE e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack), including fatalities, were reported. There was a 3-fold increase in CVAE in patients treated with olanzapine compared to patients treated with placebo (1.3% vs. 0.4%, respectively). All olanzapine- and placebo-treated patients who experienced a cerebrovascular event had pre-existing risk factors. Age > 75 years and vascular/mixed type dementia were identified as risk factors for CVAE in association with olanzapine treatment. The efficacy of olanzapine was not established in these trials.

Parkinson's disease

The use of olanzapine in the treatment of dopamine agonist associated psychosis in patients with Parkinson's disease is not recommended. In clinical trials, worsening of Parkinsonian symptomatology and hallucinations were reported very commonly and more frequently than with placebo , and olanzapine was not more effective than placebo in the treatment of psychotic symptoms. In these trials, patients were initially required to be stable on the lowest effective dose of anti-Parkinsonian medicinal products (dopamine agonist) and to remain on the same anti-Parkinsonian medicinal products and dosages throughout the study. Olanzapine was started at 2.5 mg/day and titrated to a maximum of 15 mg/day based on investigator judgement.

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)

NMS is a potentially life-threatening condition associated with antipsychotic medicinal products. Rare cases reported as NMS have also been received in association with olanzapine. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmia). Additional signs may include elevated creatine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis), and acute renal failure. If a patient develops signs and symptoms indicative of NMS, or presents with unexplained high fever without additional clinical manifestations of NMS, all antipsychotic medicines, including olanzapine must be discontinued.

Hyperglycaemia and diabetes

Hyperglycaemia and/or development or exacerbation of diabetes occasionally associated with ketoacidosis or coma has been reported uncommonly, including some fatal cases. In some cases, a prior increase in body weight has been reported which may be a predisposing factor. Appropriate clinical monitoring is advisable in accordance with utilised antipsychotic guidelines, e.g. measuring of blood glucose at baseline, 12 weeks after starting olanzapine treatment and annually thereafter. Patients treated with any antipsychotic medicines, including Kozylex, should be observed for signs and symptoms of hyperglycaemia (such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weakness) and patients with diabetes mellitus or with risk factors for diabetes mellitus should be monitored regularly for worsening of glucose control. Weight should be monitored regularly, e.g. at baseline, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after starting olanzapine treatment and quarterly thereafter.

Lipid alterations

Undesirable alterations in lipids have been observed in olanzapine-treated patients in placebo-controlled clinical trials. Lipid alterations should be managed as clinically appropriate, particularly in dyslipidemic patients and in patients with risk factors for the development of lipids disorders. Patients treated with any antipsychotic medicines, including Kozylex, should be monitored regularly for lipids in accordance with utilised antipsychotic guidelines, e.g. at baseline, 12 weeks after starting olanzapine treatment and every 5 years thereafter.

Anticholinergic activity

While olanzapine demonstrated anticholinergic activity in vitro, experience during the clinical trials revealed a low incidence of related events. However, as clinical experience with olanzapine in patients with concomitant illness is limited, caution is advised when prescribing for patients with prostatic hypertrophy, or paralytic ileus and related conditions.

Hepatic function

Transient, asymptomatic elevations of hepatic aminotransferases, ALT, AST have been seen commonly, especially in early treatment. Caution should be exercised and follow-up organised in patients with elevated ALT and/or AST, in patients with signs and symptoms of hepatic impairment, in patients with pre-existing conditions associated with limited hepatic functional reserve, and in patients who are being treated with potentially hepatotoxic medicines. In cases where hepatitis (including hepatocellular, cholestatic or mixed liver injury) has been diagnosed, olanzapine treatment should be discontinued.

Neutropenia

Caution should be exercised in patients with low leukocyte and/or neutrophil counts for any reason, in patients receiving medicines known to cause neutropenia, in patients with a history of drug-induced bone marrow depression/toxicity, in patients with bone marrow depression caused by concomitant illness, radiation therapy or chemotherapy and in patients with hypereosinophilic conditions or with myeloproliferative disease. Neutropenia has been reported commonly when olanzapine and valproate are used concomitantly.

Discontinuation of treatment

Acute symptoms such as sweating, insomnia, tremor, anxiety, nausea, or vomiting have been reported rarely > 0.01% and < 0.1%) when olanzapine is stopped abruptly.

QT interval

In clinical trials, clinically meaningful QTc prolongations (Fridericia QT correction [QTcF] > 500 milliseconds [msec] at any time post baseline in patients with baseline QTcF< 500 msec) were uncommon (0.1% to 1%) in patients treated with olanzapine, with no significant differences in associated cardiac events compared to placebo. However, caution should be exercised when olanzapine is prescribed with medicines known to increase QTc interval, especially in the elderly, in patients with congenital long QT syndrome, congestive heart failure, heart hypertrophy, hypokalaemia or hypomagnesaemia.

Thromboembolism

Temporal association of olanzapine treatment and venous thromboembolism has been reported uncommonly (> 0.1% and < 1%). A causal relationship between the occurrence of venous thromboembolism and treatment with olanzapine has not been established. However, since patients with schizophrenia often present with acquired risk factors for venous thromboembolism all possible risk factors of VTE e.g. immobilisation of patients, should be identified and preventive measures undertaken.

General CNS activity

Given the primary CNS effects of olanzapine, caution should be used when it is taken in combination with other centrally acting medicines and alcohol. As it exhibits in vitro dopamine antagonism, olanzapine may antagonize the effects of direct and indirect dopamine agonists.

Seizures

Olanzapine should be used cautiously in patients who have a history of seizures or are subject to factors which may lower the seizure threshold. Seizures have been reported to occur uncommonly in patients when treated with olanzapine. In most of these cases, a history of seizures or risk factors for seizures was reported.

Tardive Dyskinesia

In comparator studies of one year or less duration, olanzapine was associated with a statistically significant lower incidence of treatment emergent dyskinesia. However the risk of tardive dyskinesia increases with long term exposure, and therefore if signs or symptoms of tardive dyskinesia appear in a patient on olanzapine, a dose reduction or discontinuation should be considered.

These symptoms can temporally deteriorate or even arise after discontinuation of treatment.

Postural hypotension

Postural hypotension was infrequently observed in the elderly in olanzapine clinical trials. It is recommended that blood pressure is measured periodically in patients over 65 years.

Sudden cardiac death

In postmarketing reports with olanzapine, the event of sudden cardiac death has been reported in patients with olanzapine. In a retrospective observational cohort study, the risk of presumed sudden cardiac death in patients treated with olanzapine was approximately twice the risk in patients not using antipsychotics. In the study, the risk of olanzapine was comparable to the risk of atypical antipsychotics included in a pooled analysis.

Paediatric population

Olanzapine is not indicated for use in the treatment of children and adolescents. Studies in patients aged 13-17 years showed various adverse reactions, including weight gain, changes in metabolic parameters and increases in prolactin levels.

Aspartame

Kozylex orodispersible tablets contain aspartame, a source of phenylalanine. May be harmful for people with phenylketonuria.

Effects on ability to drive and use machines

The information provided in Effects on ability to drive and use machines of Kozylex is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kozylex of the medicine (Olanzapine). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Effects on ability to drive and use machines in the instructions to the drug Kozylex directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close
Coated tablet; Film-coated tablet; Powder and solvent for prolonged-release suspension for injection; Powder for solution for injection
Pills; Substance; Substance-powder
Oral drops, solution
Orodispersible tablet

No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. Because olanzapine may cause somnolence and dizziness, patients should be cautioned about operating machinery, including motor vehicles.

No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. Because Kozylex may cause somnolence and dizziness, patients should be cautioned about operating machinery, including motor vehicles.

No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. As olanzapine may cause somnolence and dizziness, patients should be cautioned about operating machinery, including motor vehicles.

Patients should be advised not to drive or operate machinery for the remainder of the day after each injection due to the possibility of a post-injection syndrome event leading to symptoms consistent with olanzapine overdose.

No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed.

Because olanzapine may cause somnolence and dizziness, patients should be cautioned about operating machinery, including motor vehicles.

Undesirable effects

The information provided in Undesirable effects of Kozylex is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kozylex of the medicine (Olanzapine). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Undesirable effects in the instructions to the drug Kozylex directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close
Coated tablet; Film-coated tablet; Powder and solvent for prolonged-release suspension for injection; Powder for solution for injection
Pills; Substance; Substance-powder
Oral drops, solution
Orodispersible tablet

Summary of the safety profile

Adults

The most frequently (seen in > 1% of patients) reported adverse reactions associated with the use of olanzapine in clinical trials were somnolence, weight gain, eosinophilia, elevated prolactin, cholesterol, glucose and triglyceride levels , glucosuria, increased appetite, dizziness, akathisia, parkinsonism, leukopenia, neutropenia , dyskinesia, orthostatic hypotension, anticholinergic effects, transient asymptomatic elevations of hepatic aminotransferases , rash, asthenia, fatigue, pyrexia, arthralgia, increased alkaline phosphatase, high gamma glutamyltransferase, high uric acid, high creatine phosphokinase and oedema.

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

The following table lists the adverse reactions and laboratory investigations observed from spontaneous reporting and in clinical trials. Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness. The frequency terms listed are defined as follows: Very common (> 1/10), common (> 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon (> 1/1,000 to < 1/100), rare (> 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000), very rare (< 1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the data available).

Very common

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Not known

Blood and the lymphatic system disorders

Eosinophilia

Leukopenia10

Neutropenia10

Thrombocytopenia11

Immune system disorders

Hypersensitivity11

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Weight gain1

Elevated cholesterol levels2,3

Elevated glucose levels4

Elevated triglyceride levels2,5

Glucosuria

Increased appetite

Development or exacerbation of diabetes occasionally associated with ketoacidosis or coma, including some fatal cases 11

Hypothermia12

Nervous system disorders

Somnolence

Dizziness

Akathisia6

Parkinsonism6

Dyskinesia6

Seizures where in most cases a history of seizures or risk factors for seizures were reported 11

Dystonia (including oculogyration) 11

Tardive dyskinesia11

Amnesia 9

Dysarthria

Restless Legs Syndrome

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome 12

Discontinuation symptoms7, 12

Cardiac disorders

Bradycardia

QTc prolongation

Ventricular tachycardia/ fibrillation, sudden death 11

Vascular disorders

Orthostatic hypotension10

Thromboembolism (including pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis)

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Epistaxis9

Gastrointestinal disorders

Mild, transient anticholinergic effects including constipation and dry mouth

Abdominal distension9

Pancreatitis11

Hepatobiliary disorders

Transient, asymptomatic elevations of hepatic aminotransferases (ALT, AST), especially in early treatment

Hepatitis (including hepatocellular, cholestatic or mixed liver injury) 11

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Rash

Photosensitivity reaction

Alopecia

Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS)

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Arthralgia9

Rhabdomyolysis11

Renal and urinary disorders

Urinary incontinence, urinary retention

Urinary hesitation11

Pregnancy, puerperium and perinatal conditions

Drug withdrawal syndrome neonatal

Reproductive system and breast disorders

Erectile dysfunction in males

Decreased libido in males and females

Amenorrhea

Breast enlargement

Galactorrhea in females

Gynaecomastia/breast enlargement in males

Priapism12

General disorders and administration site conditions

Asthenia

Fatigue

Oedema

Pyrexia10

Investigations

Elevated plasma prolactin levels8

Increased alkaline phosphatase10

High creatine phosphokinase11

High Gamma Glutamyltransferase10

High uric acid 10

Increased total bilirubin

1Clinically significant weight gain was observed across all baseline Body Mass Index (BMI) categories. Following short-term treatment (median duration 47 days), weight gain > 7% of baseline body weight was very common (22.2%); > 15% was common (4.2%); and > 25% was uncommon (0.8%). Patients gaining > 7%, > 15% and > 25% of their baseline body weight with long-term exposure (at least 48 weeks) were very common (64.4%, 31.7% and 12.3% respectively).

2Mean increases in fasting lipid values (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides) were greater in patients without evidence of lipid dysregulation at baseline.

3Observed for fasting normal levels at baseline (< 5.17 mmol/l) which increased to high (> 6.2 mmol/l). Changes in total fasting cholesterol levels from borderline at baseline (> 5.17 - < 6.2 mmol/l) to high (> 6.2 mmol/l) were very common.

4Observed for fasting normal levels at baseline (< 5.56 mmol/l) which increased to high (> 7 mmol/l). Changes in fasting glucose from borderline at baseline (> 5.56 - < 7 mmol/l) to high (> 7 mmol/l) were very common.

5Observed for fasting normal levels at baseline (< 1.69 mmol/l) which increased to high (> 2.26 mmol/l). Changes in fasting triglycerides from borderline at baseline (> 1.69 mmol/l - < 2.26 mmol/l) to high (> 2.26 mmol/l) were very common.

6In clinical trials, the incidence of Parkinsonism and dystonia in olanzapine-treated patients was numerically higher, but not statistically significantly different from placebo. Olanzapine-treated patients had a lower incidence of Parkinsonism, akathisia and dystonia compared with titrated doses of haloperidol. In the absence of detailed information on the pre-existing history of individual acute and tardive extrapyramidal movement disorders, it cannot be concluded at present that olanzapine produces less tardive dyskinesia and/or other tardive extrapyramidal syndromes.

7Acute symptoms such as sweating, insomnia, tremor, anxiety, nausea and vomiting have been reported when olanzapine is stopped abruptly.

8 In clinical trials of up to 12 weeks, plasma prolactin concentrations exceeded the upper limit of normal range in approximately 30% of olanzapine-treated patients with normal baseline prolactin value. In the majority of these patients the elevations were generally mild, and remained below two times the upper limit of normal range.

9 Adverse event identified from clinical trials in the Olanzapine Integrated Database.

10 As assessed by measured values from clinical trials in the Olanzapine Integrated Database.

11 Adverse event identified from spontaneous post-marketing reporting with frequency determined utilising the Olanzapine Integrated Database.

12 Adverse event identified from spontaneous post-marketing reporting with frequency estimated at the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval utilising the Olanzapine Integrated Database.

Long-term exposure (at least 48 weeks)

The proportion of patients who had adverse, clinically significant changes in weight gain, glucose, total/LDL/HDL cholesterol or triglycerides increased over time. In adult patients who completed 9-12 months of therapy, the rate of increase in mean blood glucose slowed after approximately 6 months.

Additional information on special populations

In clinical trials in elderly patients with dementia, olanzapine treatment was associated with a higher incidence of death and cerebrovascular adverse reactions compared to placebo. Very common adverse reactions associated with the use of olanzapine in this patient group were abnormal gait and falls. Pneumonia, increased body temperature, lethargy, erythema, visual hallucinations and urinary incontinence were observed commonly.

In clinical trials in patients with drug-induced (dopamine agonist) psychosis associated with Parkinson's disease, worsening of Parkinsonian symptomatology and hallucinations were reported very commonly and more frequently than with placebo.

In one clinical trial in patients with bipolar mania, valproate combination therapy with olanzapine resulted in an incidence of neutropenia of 4.1%; a potential contributing factor could be high plasma valproate levels. Olanzapine administered with lithium or valproate resulted in increased levels (>10%) of tremor, dry mouth, increased appetite, and weight gain. Speech disorder was also reported commonly. During treatment with olanzapine in combination with lithium or divalproex, an increase of > 7% from baseline body weight occurred in 17.4% of patients during acute treatment (up to 6 weeks). Long-term olanzapine treatment (up to 12 months) for recurrence prevention in patients with bipolar disorder was associated with an increase of >7% from baseline body weight in 39.9% of patients.

Paediatric population

Olanzapine is not indicated for the treatment of children and adolescent patients below 18 years. Although no clinical studies designed to compare adolescents to adults have been conducted, data from the adolescent trials were compared to those of the adult trials.

The following table summarises the adverse reactions reported with a greater frequency in adolescent patients (aged 13-17 years) than in adult patients or adverse reactions only identified during short-term clinical trials in adolescent patients. Clinically significant weight gain (> 7%) appears to occur more frequently in the adolescent population compared to adults with comparable exposures. The magnitude of weight gain and the proportion of adolescent patients who had clinically significant weight gain were greater with long-term exposure (at least 24 weeks) than with short-term exposure.

Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness. The frequency terms listed are defined as follows: Very common (> 1/10), common (> 1/100 to < 1/10).

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Very common: Weight gain13, elevated triglyceride levels14, increased appetite.

Common: Elevated cholesterol levels15.

Nervous system disorders

Very common: Sedation (including: hypersomnia, lethargy, somnolence).

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common: Dry mouth.

Hepatobiliary disorders

Very common: Elevations of hepatic aminotransferases.

Investigations

Very common: Decreased total bilirubin, increased GGT, elevated plasma prolactin levels16.

13Following short-term treatment (median duration 22 days), weight gain > 7% of baseline body weight (kg) was very common (40.6%); > 15% of baseline body weight was common (7.1%) and > 25% was common (2.5%). With long-term exposure (at least 24 weeks), 89.4% gained > 7%, 55.3% gained > 15% and 29.1% gained > 25% of their baseline body weight.

14Observed for fasting normal levels at baseline (< 1.016 mmol/l) which increased to high (> 1.467 mmol/l) and changes in fasting triglycerides from borderline at baseline (> 1.016 mmol/l - < 1.467 mmol/l) to high (> 1.467 mmol/l).

15Changes in total fasting cholesterol levels from normal at baseline (< 4.39 mmol/l) to high (> 5.17 mmol/l) were observed commonly. Changes in total fasting cholesterol levels from borderline at baseline (> 4.39 - < 5.17 mmol/l) to high (> 5.17 mmol/l) were very common.

16Elevated plasma prolactin levels were reported in 47.4% of adolescent patients.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via United Kingdom: Yellow Card Scheme; website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or Ireland: HPRA Pharmacovigilance, Earlsfort Terrace, IRL - Dublin 2, Tel: +353 1 6764971, Fax: +353 1 6762517, website: www.hpra.ie, e-mail: medsafety@hpra.ie

Summary of the safety profile

Adults

The most frequently (seen in >1% of patients) reported adverse reactions associated with the use of Kozylex in clinical trials were somnolence, weight gain, eosinophilia, elevated prolactin, cholesterol, glucose and triglyceride levels , glucosuria, increased appetite, dizziness, akathisia, parkinsonism, leukopenia, neutropenia , dyskinesia, orthostatic hypotension, anticholinergic effects, transient asymptomatic elevations of hepatic aminotransferases , rash, asthenia, fatigue pyrexia, arthralgia, increased alkaline phosphatase, high gamma glutamyltransferase, high uric acid, high creatine phosphokinase and oedema.

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

The following table lists the adverse reactions and laboratory investigations observed from spontaneous reporting and in clinical trials. Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness. The frequency terms listed are defined as follows: Very common (>1/10), common (> 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon (>1/1,000 to < 1/100), rare (>1/10,000 to < 1/1,000), very rare (< 1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the data available).

Very common

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Not known

Blood and the lymphatic system disorders

Eosinophilia

Leukopenia10

Neutropenia10

Thrombocytopenia11

Immune system disorders

Hypersensitivity11

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Weight gain1

Elevated cholesterol levels2,3

Elevated glucose levels4

Elevated triglyceride levels2,5

Glucosuria

Increased appetite

<)11

Hypothermia12

Nervous system disorders

Somnolence

Dizziness

Akathisia6

Parkinsonism6

Dyskinesia6

Seizures where in most cases a history of seizures or risk factors for seizures were reported11

Dystonia (including oculogyration)11

Tardive dyskinesia 11

Amnesia 9

Dysarthria

Restless legs syndrome

12

Discontinuation symptoms7,12

Cardiac disorders

Bradycardia

QTc prolongation

Ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation, sudden death 11

Vascular disorders

Orthostatic hypotension10

Thromboembolism (including pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis)

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Epistaxis9

Gastro-intestinal disorders

Mild, transient anticholinergic effects including constipation and dry mouth

Abdominal distension9

Pancreatitis11

Hepato-biliary disorders

<)

Hepatitis (including hepatocellular, cholestatic or mixed liver injury) 11

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Rash

Photosensitivity reaction, Alopecia

Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS)

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Arthralgia9

Rhabdomyolysis11

Renal and urinary disorders

Urinary incontinence, urinary retention

Urinary hesitation11

Pregnancy, puerperium and perinatal conditions

Drug withdrawal syndrome neonatal

Reproductive system and breast disorders

Erectile dysfunction in males

Decreased libido in males and females

Amenorrhea

Breast enlargement

Galactorrhea in females

Gynaecomastia/breast enlargement in males

Priapism12

General disorders and administration site conditions

Asthenia,

Fatigue,

Oedema

Pyrexia10

Investigations

Elevated plasma prolactin levels8

Increased alkaline phosphatase10

High creatine phosphokinase11

High Gamma Glutamyltransferase10

High Uric Acid10

Increased total bilirubin

1 Clinically significant weight gain was observed across all baseline Body Mass Index (BMI) categories. Following short term treatment (median duration 47 days), weight gain > 7% of baseline body weight was very common (22.2 %), > 15 % was common (4.2 %) and > 25 % was uncommon (0.8%). Patients gaining > 7 %, > 15 % and > 25 % of their baseline body weight with long-term exposure (at least 48 weeks) were very common (64.4 %, 31.7 % and 12.3 % respectively).

2Mean increases in fasting lipid values (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides) were greater in patients without evidence of lipid dysregulation at baseline.

3Observed for fasting normal levels at baseline (< 5.17 mmol/l) which increased to high (> 6.2 mmol/l). Changes in total fasting cholesterol levels from borderline at baseline (> 5.17 - < 6.2 mmol/l) to high (> 6.2 mmol/l) were very common.

4Observed for fasting normal levels at baseline (< 5.56 mmol/l) which increased to high (> 7 mmol/l). Changes in fasting glucose from borderline at baseline (> 5.56 - < 7 mmol/l) to high (> 7 mmol/l) were very common.

5Observed for fasting normal levels at baseline (< 1.69 mmol/l) which increased to high (> 2.26 mmol/l). Changes in fasting triglycerides from borderline at baseline (>1.69 mmol/l - < 2.26 mmol/l) to high (> 2.26 mmol/l) were very common.

6In clinical trials, the incidence of parkinsonism and dystonia in Kozylex-treated patients was numerically higher, but not statistically significantly different from placebo. Kozylex-treated patients had a lower incidence of parkinsonism, akathisia and dystonia compared with titrated doses of haloperidol. In the absence of detailed information on the pre-existing history of individual acute and tardive extrapyramidal movement disorders, it can-not be concluded at present that Kozylex produces less tardive dyskinesia and/or other tardive extrapyramidal syndromes.

7Acute symptoms such as sweating, insomnia, tremor, anxiety, nausea and vomiting have been reported when Kozylex is stopped abruptly.

8 In clinical trials of up to 12 weeks, plasma prolactin concentrations exceeded the upper limit of normal range in approximately 30% of Kozylex treated patients with normal baseline prolactin value. In the majority of these patients the elevations were generally mild, and remained below two times the upper limit of normal range.

9Adverse event identified from clinical trials in the Kozylex Integrated Database.

10As assessed by measured values from clinical trials in the Kozylex Integrated Database.

11Adverse event identified from spontaneous post-marketing reporting with frequency determined utilising the Kozylex Integrated Database.

12Adverse event identified from spontaneous post-marketing reporting with frequency estimated at the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval utilising the Kozylex Integrated Database.

Long-term exposure (at least 48 weeks)

The proportion of patients who had adverse, clinically significant changes in weight gain, glucose, total/LDL/HDL cholesterol or triglycerides increased over time. In adult patients who completed 9-12 months of therapy, the rate of increase in mean blood glucose slowed after approximately 6 months.

Additional information on special populations

In clinical trials in elderly patients with dementia, Kozylex treatment was associated with a higher incidence of death and cerebrovascular adverse reactions compared to placebo (see section 4.4). Very common adverse reactions associated with the use of Kozylex in this patient group were abnormal gait and falls. Pneumonia, increased body temperature, lethargy, erythema, visual hallucinations and urinary incontinence were observed commonly.

In clinical trials in patients with drug-induced (dopamine agonist) psychosis associated with Parkinson's disease, worsening of Parkinsonian symptomatology and hallucinations were reported very commonly and more frequently than with placebo.

In one clinical trial in patients with bipolar mania, valproate combination therapy with Kozylex resulted in an incidence of neutropenia of 4.1%; a potential contributing factor could be high plasma valproate levels. Kozylex administered with lithium or valproate resulted in increased levels (>10%) of tremor, dry mouth, increased appetite, and weight gain. Speech disorder was also reported commonly. During treatment with Kozylex in combination with lithium or divalproex, an increase of > 7% from baseline body weight occurred in 17.4% of patients during acute treatment (up to 6 weeks). Long-term Kozylex treatment (up to 12 months) for recurrence prevention in patients with bipolar disorder was associated with an increase of >7% from baseline body weight in 39.9% of patients.

Paediatric population

Kozylex is not indicated for the treatment of children and adolescent patients below 18 years. Although no clinical studies designed to compare adolescents to adults have been conducted, data from the adolescent trials were compared to those of the adult trials.

The following table summarizes the adverse reactions reported with a greater frequency in adolescent patients (aged 13-17 years) than in adult patients or adverse reactions only identified during short-term clinical trials in adolescent patients. Clinically significant weight gain (> 7%) appears to occur more frequently in the adolescent population compared to adults with comparable exposures. The magnitude of weight gain and the proportion of adolescent patients who had clinically significant weight gain were greater with long-term exposure (at least 24 weeks) than with short- term exposure.

Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness. The frequency terms listed are defined as follows: Very common (> 1/10), common (> 1/100 to < 1/10).

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Very common: Weight gain13, elevated triglyceride levels14, increased appetite.

Common: Elevated cholesterol levels15

Nervous system disorders

Very common: Sedation (including: hypersomnia, lethargy, somnolence).

Gastro-intestinal disorders

Common: Dry mouth

Hepato-biliary disorders

Very common: Elevations of hepatic aminotransferases.

Investigations

Very common: Decreased total bilirubin, increased GGT, elevated plasma prolactin levels16.

13 Following short term treatment (median duration 22 days), weight gain > 7 % of baseline body weight (kg) was very common (40.6 %), > 15 % of baseline body weight was common (7.1 %) and > 25 % was common (2.5 %). With long-term exposure (at least 24 weeks), 89.4 % gained > 7 %, 55.3 % gained > 15 % and 29.1 % gained > 25% of their baseline body weight.

14 Observed for fasting normal levels at baseline (< 1.016 mmol/l) which increased to high (> 1.467 mmol/l) and changes in fasting triglycerides from borderline at baseline (> 1.016 mmol/l - < 1.467 mmol/l) to high (> 1.467 mmol/l).

15Changes in total fasting cholesterol levels from normal at baseline (< 4.39 mmol/l) to high (> 5.17 mmol/l) were observed commonly. Changes in total fasting cholesterol levels from borderline at baseline (> 4.39 - < 5.17 mmol/l) to high (> 5.17 mmol/l) were very common.

16Elevated plasma prolactin levels were reported in 47.4% of adolescent patients.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.

Summary of the safety profile

Adverse reactions seen with olanzapine pamoate

Post-injection syndrome reactions have occurred with Kozylex leading to symptoms consistent with olanzapine overdose. Clinical signs and symptoms included symptoms of sedation (ranging from mild in severity up to coma) and/or delirium (including confusion, disorientation, agitation, anxiety and other cognitive impairment). Other symptoms noted include extrapyramidal symptoms, dysarthria, ataxia, aggression, dizziness, weakness, hypertension and convulsion.

Other adverse reactions observed in patients treated with Kozylex were similar to those seen with oral olanzapine. In clinical trials with Kozylex, the only adverse reaction reported at a statistically significantly higher rate in the Kozylex group than in the placebo group was sedation (Kozylex 8.2%, placebo 2.0%). Among all Kozylex-treated patients, sedation was reported by 4.7% of patients.

In clinical trials with Kozylex, the incidence of injection site-related adverse reactions was approximately 8%. The most commonly reported injection site-related adverse reaction was pain (5%); some other injection site-adverse reactions reported were (in decreasing frequency): nodule-type reactions, erythema-type reactions, non-specific injection-site reactions, irritation, oedema-type reactions, bruising, haemorrhage, and anaesthesia. These events occurred in about 0.1 to 1.1% of patients.

In a review of safety data from clinical trials and spontaneous postmarketing reports, injection site abscess was rarely (> 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000) reported.

Adverse reactions seen with olanzapine

The undesirable effects listed below have been observed following administration of olanzapine.

Adults

The most frequently (seen in > 1% of patients) reported adverse reactions associated with the use of olanzapine in clinical trials were somnolence, weight gain, eosinophilia, elevated prolactin, cholesterol, glucose and triglyceride levels , glucosuria, increased appetite, dizziness, akathisia, parkinsonism, leukopenia, neutropenia , dyskinesia, orthostatic hypotension, anticholinergic effects, transient asymptomatic elevations of hepatic aminotransferases , rash, asthenia, fatigue, pyrexia, arthralgia, increased alkaline phosphatase, high gamma glutamyltransferase, high uric acid, high creatine phosphokinase and oedema.

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

The following table lists the adverse reactions and laboratory investigations observed from spontaneous reporting and in clinical trials. Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness. The frequency terms listed are defined as follows: Very common (> 1/10), common (> 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon (> 1/1,000 to < 1/100), rare (> 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000), very rare (< 1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the data available).

Very common

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Not known

Blood and the lymphatic system disorders

Eosinophilia

Leukopenia10

Neutropenia10

Thrombocytopenia 11

Immune system disorders

Hypersensitivity11

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Weight gain1

Elevated cholesterol levels2,3

Elevated glucose levels4

Elevated triglyceride levels2,5

Glucosuria

Increased appetite

Development or exacerbation of diabetes occasionally associated with ketoacidosis or coma, including some fatal cases 11

Hypothermia12

Nervous system disorders

Somnolence

Dizziness

Akathisia6

Parkinsonism6

Dyskinesia6

Seizures where in most cases a history of seizures or risk factors for seizures were reported11

Dystonia (including oculogyration)11

Tardive dyskinesia11

Amnesia 9

Dysarthria

Restless Legs Syndrome

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome 12

Discontinuation symptoms7, 12

Cardiac disorders

Bradycardia

QTc prolongation

Ventricular tachycardia / fibrillation, sudden death 11

Vascular disorders

Orthostatic hypotension10

Thromboembolism (including pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis)

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Epistaxis9

Gastrointestinal disorders

Mild, transient anticholinergic effects including constipation and dry mouth

Abdominal distension9

Pancreatitis11

Hepatobiliary disorders

Transient, asymptomatic elevations of hepatic aminotransferases (ALT, AST), especially in early treatment

Hepatitis (including hepatocellular, cholestatic or mixed liver injury) 11

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Rash

Photosensitivity reaction

Alopecia

Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS)

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Arthralgia9

Rhabdomyolysis11

Renal and urinary disorders

Urinary incontinence, Urinary retention

Urinary hesitation11

Pregnancy, puerperium and perinatal conditions

Drug withdrawal syndrome neonatal

Reproductive system and breast disorders

Erectile dysfunction in males

Decreased libido in males and females

Amenorrhea

Breast enlargement

Galactorrhea in females

Gynaecomastia / breast enlargement in males

Priapism12

General disorders and administration site conditions

Asthenia

Fatigue

Oedema

Pyrexia10

Injection site pain

Injection site abscess

Investigations

Elevated plasma prolactin levels8

Increased alkaline phosphatase10

High creatine phosphokinase11

High Gamma Glutamyltransferase 10

High uric acid 10

Increased total bilirubin

1 Clinically significant weight gain was observed across all baseline Body Mass Index (BMI) categories. Following short-term treatment (median duration 47 days), weight gain > 7% of baseline body weight was very common (22.2%), > 15% was common (4.2%) and > 25% was uncommon (0.8%). Patients gaining > 7%, > 15% and > 25% of their baseline body weight with long-term exposure (at least 48 weeks) were very common (64.4%, 31.7% and 12.3% respectively).

2 Mean increases in fasting lipid values (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides) were greater in patients without evidence of lipid dysregulation at baseline.

3 Observed for fasting normal levels at baseline (< 5.17 mmol/l) which increased to high (> 6.2 mmol/l). Changes in total fasting cholesterol levels from borderline at baseline (> 5.17 - < 6.2 mmol/l) to high (> 6.2 mmol/l) were very common.

4 Observed for fasting normal levels at baseline (< 5.56 mmol/l) which increased to high (> 7 mmol/l). Changes in fasting glucose from borderline at baseline (> 5.56 - < 7 mmol/l) to high (> 7 mmol/l) were very common.

5 Observed for fasting normal levels at baseline (< 1.69 mmol/l) which increased to high (> 2.26 mmol/l). Changes in fasting triglycerides from borderline at baseline (> 1.69 mmol/l - < 2.26 mmol/l) to high (> 2.26 mmol/l) were very common.

6 In clinical trials, the incidence of Parkinsonism and dystonia in olanzapine-treated patients was numerically higher, but not statistically significantly different from placebo. Olanzapine-treated patients had a lower incidence of Parkinsonism, akathisia and dystonia compared with titrated doses of haloperidol. In the absence of detailed information on the pre-existing history of individual acute and tardive extrapyramidal movement disorders, it cannot be concluded at present that olanzapine produces less tardive dyskinesia and/or other tardive extrapyramidal syndromes.

7 Acute symptoms such as sweating, insomnia, tremor, anxiety, nausea and vomiting have been reported when olanzapine is stopped abruptly.

8 In clinical trials of up to 12 weeks, plasma prolactin concentrations exceeded the upper limit of normal range in approximately 30% of olanzapine-treated patients with normal baseline prolactin value. In the majority of these patients the elevations were generally mild, and remained below two times the upper limit of normal range.

9 Adverse event identified from clinical trials in the Olanzapine Integrated Database.

10 As assessed by measured values from clinical trials in the Olanzapine Integrated Database.

11 Adverse event identified from spontaneous post-marketing reporting with frequency determined utilising the Olanzapine Integrated Database.

12 Adverse event identified from spontaneous post-marketing reporting with frequency estimated at the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval utilising the Olanzapine Integrated Database.

Long-term exposure (at least 48 weeks)

The proportion of patients who had adverse, clinically significant changes in weight gain, glucose, total/LDL/HDL cholesterol or triglycerides increased over time. In adult patients who completed 9-12 months of therapy, the rate of increase in mean blood glucose slowed after approximately 6 months.

Additional information on special populations

Very common adverse reactions associated with the use of olanzapine in this patient group were abnormal gait and falls. Pneumonia, increased body temperature, lethargy, erythema, visual hallucinations and urinary incontinence were observed commonly.

In clinical trials in patients with drug-induced (dopamine agonist) psychosis associated with Parkinson's disease, worsening of Parkinsonian symptomatology and hallucinations were reported very commonly and more frequently than with placebo.

In one clinical trial in patients with bipolar mania, valproate combination therapy with olanzapine resulted in an incidence of neutropenia of 4.1%; a potential contributing factor could be high plasma valproate levels. Olanzapine administered with lithium or valproate resulted in increased levels (> 10%) of tremor, dry mouth, increased appetite, and weight gain. Speech disorder was also reported commonly. During treatment with olanzapine in combination with lithium or divalproex, an increase of > 7% from baseline body weight occurred in 17.4% of patients during acute treatment (up to 6 weeks). Long-term olanzapine treatment (up to 12 months) for recurrence prevention in patients with bipolar disorder was associated with an increase of > 7% from baseline body weight in 39.9% of patients.

Paediatric population

Olanzapine is not indicated for the treatment of children and adolescent patients below 18 years. Although no clinical studies designed to compare adolescents to adults have been conducted, data from the adolescent trials were compared to those of the adult trials.

The following table summarises the adverse reactions reported with a greater frequency in adolescent patients (aged 13-17 years) than in adult patients or adverse reactions only identified during short-term clinical trials in adolescent patients. Clinically significant weight gain (> 7%) appears to occur more frequently in the adolescent population compared to adults with comparable exposures. The magnitude of weight gain and the proportion of adolescent patients who had clinically significant weight gain were greater with long-term exposure (at least 24 weeks) than with short-term exposure.

Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness. The frequency terms listed are defined as follows: Very common (> 1/10), common (> 1/100 to < 1/10).

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Very common: Weight gain13, elevated triglyceride levels14, increased appetite

Common: Elevated cholesterol levels15

Nervous system disorders

Very common: Sedation (including: hypersomnia, lethargy, somnolence)

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common: Dry mouth

Hepatobiliary disorders

Very common: Elevations of hepatic aminotransferases

Investigations

Very common: Decreased total bilirubin, increased GGT, elevated plasma prolactin levels16

13 Following short-term treatment (median duration 22 days), weight gain > 7% of baseline body weight (kg) was very common (40.6%), > 15% of baseline body weight was common (7.1%) and > 25% was common (2.5%). With long-term exposure (at least 24 weeks), 89.4% gained > 7%, 55.3% gained > 15% and 29.1% gained > 25% of their baseline body weight.

14 Observed for fasting normal levels at baseline (< 1.016 mmol/l) which increased to high (> 1.467 mmol/l) and changes in fasting triglycerides from borderline at baseline (> 1.016 mmol/l - < 1.467 mmol/l) to high (> 1.467 mmol/l).

15 Changes in total fasting cholesterol levels from normal at baseline (< 4.39 mmol/l) to high (> 5.17 mmol/l) were observed commonly. Changes in total fasting cholesterol levels from borderline at baseline (> 4.39 - < 5.17 mmol/l) to high (> 5.17 mmol/l) were very common.

16 Elevated plasma prolactin levels were reported in 47.4% of adolescent patients.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via United Kingdom: Yellow Card Scheme, website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or Ireland: HPRA Pharmacovigilance, Earlsfort Terrace, IRL - Dublin 2, Tel: +353 1 6764971, Fax: +353 1 6762517, website: www.hpra.ie, e-mail: medsafety@hpra.ie.

Summary of the safety profile

Adults

The most frequently (seen in > 1% of patients) reported adverse reactions associated with the use of olanzapine in clinical trials were somnolence, weight gain, eosinophilia, elevated prolactin, cholesterol, glucose and triglyceride levels , glucosuria, increased appetite, dizziness, akathisia, parkinsonism, leukopenia, neutropenia , dyskinesia, orthostatic hypotension, anticholinergic effects, transient asymptomatic elevations of hepatic aminotransferases , rash, asthenia, fatigue, pyrexia, arthralgia, increased alkaline phosphatase, high gamma glutamyltransferase, high uric acid, high creatine phosphokinase and oedema.

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

The following table lists the adverse reactions and laboratory investigations observed from spontaneous reporting and in clinical trials. Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness. The frequency terms listed are defined as follows: Very common (> 1/10), common (> 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon (> 1/1,000 to < 1/100), rare (> 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000), very rare (< 1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the data available).

Very common

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Not known

Blood and the lymphatic system disorders

Eosinophilia

Leukopenia10

Neutropenia10

Thrombocytopenia11

Immune system disorders

Hypersensitivity11

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Weight gain1

Elevated cholesterol levels2,3

Elevated glucose levels4

Elevated triglyceride levels2,5

Glucosuria

Increased appetite

Development or exacerbation of diabetes occasionally associated with ketoacidosis or coma, including some fatal cases 11

Hypothermia12

Nervous system disorders

Somnolence

Dizziness

Akathisia6

Parkinsonism6 Dyskinesia6

Seizures where in most cases a history of seizures or risk factors for seizures were reported 11

Dystonia (including oculogyration) 11

Tardive dyskinesia11

Amnesia 9

Dysarthria

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome 12Discontinuation symptoms7, 12

Cardiac disorders

Bradycardia

QTc prolongation

Ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation, sudden death 11

Vascular disorders

Orthostatic hypotension10

Thromboembolism (including pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis)

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Epistaxis9

Gastrointestinal disorders

Mild, transient anticholinergic effects including constipation and dry mouth

Abdominal distension9

Pancreatitis11

Hepatobiliary disorders

Transient, asymptomatic elevations of hepatic aminotransferases (ALT, AST), especially in early treatment

Hepatitis (including hepatocellular, cholestatic or mixed liver injury) 11

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Rash

Photosensitivity reaction

Alopecia

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Arthralgia9

Rhabdomyolysis11

Renal and urinary disorders

Urinary incontinence, urinary retention

Urinary hesitation11

Pregnancy, puerperium and perinatal conditions

Drug withdrawal syndrome neonatal

Reproductive system and breast disorders

Erectile dysfunction in males

Decreased libido in males and females

Amenorrhea

Breast enlargement

Galactorrhea in females Gynaecomastia/breast enlargement in males

Priapism12

General disorders and administration site conditions

Asthenia

Fatigue

Oedema

Pyrexia10

Investigations

Elevated plasma prolactin levels8

Increased alkaline phosphatase10

High creatine phosphokinase11

High Gamma Glutamyltransferase10

High uric acid 10

Increased total bilirubin

1 Clinically significant weight gain was observed across all baseline Body Mass Index (BMI) categories. Following short term treatment (median duration 47 days), weight gain > 7% of baseline body weight was very common (22.2 %), > 15 % was common (4.2 %) and > 25 % was uncommon (0.8 %). Patients gaining > 7 %, > 15 % and > 25 % of their baseline body weight with long-term exposure (at least 48 weeks) were very common (64.4 %, 31.7 % and 12.3 % respectively).

2 Mean increases in fasting lipid values (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides) were greater in patients without evidence of lipid dysregulation at baseline.

3 Observed for fasting normal levels at baseline (< 5.17 mmol/l) which increased to high (> 6.2 mmol/l). Changes in total fasting cholesterol levels from borderline at baseline (> 5.17-< 6.2 mmol/l) to high (> 6.2 mmol/l) were very common.

4 Observed for fasting normal levels at baseline (< 5.56 mmol/l) which increased to high (> 7 mmol/l). Changes in fasting glucose from borderline at baseline (> 5.56-< 7 mmol/l) to high (> 7 mmol/l) were very common.

5 Observed for fasting normal levels at baseline (< 1.69 mmol/l) which increased to high (> 2.26 mmol/l). Changes in fasting triglycerides from borderline at baseline (> 1.69 mmol/l-< 2.26 mmol/l) to high (> 2.26 mmol/l) were very common.

6In clinical trials, the incidence of Parkinsonism and dystonia in olanzapine-treated patients was numerically higher, but not statistically significantly different from placebo. Olanzapine-treated patients had a lower incidence of Parkinsonism, akathisia and dystonia compared with titrated doses of haloperidol. In the absence of detailed information on the pre-existing history of individual acute and tardive extrapyramidal movement disorders, it cannot be concluded at present that olanzapine produces less tardive dyskinesia and/or other tardive extrapyramidal syndromes.

7 Acute symptoms such as sweating, insomnia, tremor, anxiety, nausea and vomiting have been reported when olanzapine is stopped abruptly.

8 In clinical trials of up to 12 weeks, plasma prolactin concentrations exceeded the upper limit of normal range in approximately 30% of olanzapine treated patients with normal baseline prolactin value. In the majority of these patients the elevations were generally mild, and remained below two times the upper limit of normal range.

9 Adverse event identified from clinical trials in the Olanzapine Integrated Database.

10 As assessed by measured values from clinical trials in the Olanzapine Integrated Database.

11 Adverse event identified from spontaneous post-marketing reporting with frequency determined utilising the Olanzapine Integrated Database.

12 Adverse event identified from spontaneous post-marketing reporting with frequency estimated at the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval utilising the Olanzapine Integrated Database.

Long-term exposure (at least 48 weeks)

The proportion of patients who had adverse, clinically significant changes in weight gain, glucose, total/LDL/HDL cholesterol or triglycerides increased over time. In adult patients who completed 9-12 months of therapy, the rate of increase in mean blood glucose slowed after approximately 6 months.

Additional information on special populations

In clinical trials in elderly patients with dementia, olanzapine treatment was associated with a higher incidence of death and cerebrovascular adverse reactions compared to placebo. Very common adverse reactions associated with the use of olanzapine in this patient group were abnormal gait and falls. Pneumonia, increased body temperature, lethargy, erythema, visual hallucinations and urinary incontinence were observed commonly.

In clinical trials in patients with drug-induced (dopamine agonist) psychosis associated with Parkinson's disease, worsening of Parkinsonian symptomatology and hallucinations were reported very commonly and more frequently than with placebo.

In one clinical trial in patients with bipolar mania, valproate combination therapy with olanzapine resulted in an incidence of neutropenia of 4.1%; a potential contributing factor could be high plasma valproate levels. Olanzapine administered with lithium or valproate resulted in increased levels (> 10%) of tremor, dry mouth, increased appetite, and weight gain. Speech disorder was also reported commonly. During treatment with olanzapine in combination with lithium or divalproex, an increase of > 7% from baseline body weight occurred in 17.4% of patients during acute treatment (up to 6 weeks). Long-term olanzapine treatment (up to 12 months) for recurrence prevention in patients with bipolar disorder was associated with an increase of > 7% from baseline body weight in 39.9% of patients.

Paediatric population

Olanzapine is not indicated for the treatment of children and adolescent patients below 18 years. Although no clinical studies designed to compare adolescents to adults have been conducted, data from the adolescent trials were compared to those of the adult trials.

The following table summarises the adverse reactions reported with a greater frequency in adolescent patients (aged 13-17 years) than in adult patients or adverse reactions only identified during short-term clinical trials in adolescent patients. Clinically significant weight gain (> 7%) appears to occur more frequently in the adolescent population compared to adults with comparable exposures. The magnitude of weight gain and the proportion of adolescent patients who had clinically significant weight gain were greater with long-term exposure (at least 24 weeks) than with short-term exposure.

Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness. The frequency terms listed are defined as follows: Very common (> 1/10), common (> 1/100 to < 1/10).

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Very common: Weight gain13, elevated triglyceride levels14, increased appetite.

Common: Elevated cholesterol levels15

Nervous system disorders

Very common: Sedation (including: hypersomnia, lethargy, somnolence).

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common: Dry mouth

Hepatobiliary disorders

Very common: Elevations of hepatic aminotransferases.

Investigations

Very common: Decreased total bilirubin, increased GGT, elevated plasma prolactin levels16.

13 Following short term treatment (median duration 22 days), weight gain > 7 % of baseline body weight (kg) was very common (40.6 %), > 15 % of baseline body weight was common (7.1 %) and > 25 % was common (2.5 %). With long-term exposure (at least 24 weeks), 89.4 % gained > 7 %, 55.3 % gained > 15 % and 29.1 % gained > 25% of their baseline body weight.

14 Observed for fasting normal levels at baseline (< 1.016 mmol/l) which increased to high (> 1.467 mmol/l) and changes in fasting triglycerides from borderline at baseline (> 1.016 mmol/l-< 1.467 mmol/l) to high (> 1.467 mmol/l).

15 Changes in total fasting cholesterol levels from normal at baseline (< 4.39 mmol/l) to high (> 5.17 mmol/l) were observed commonly. Changes in total fasting cholesterol levels from borderline at baseline (> 4.39-< 5.17 mmol/l) to high (> 5.17 mmol/l) were very common.

16 Elevated plasma prolactin levels were reported in 47.4% of adolescent patients.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system listed in Appendix V.

Overdose

The information provided in Overdose of Kozylex is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kozylex of the medicine (Olanzapine). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Overdose in the instructions to the drug Kozylex directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Coated tablet; Film-coated tablet; Powder and solvent for prolonged-release suspension for injection; Powder for solution for injection
Pills; Substance; Substance-powder
Oral drops, solution
Orodispersible tablet

Signs and symptoms

Very common symptoms in overdose (> 10% incidence) include tachycardia, agitation/aggressiveness, dysarthria, various extrapyramidal symptoms, and reduced level of consciousness ranging from sedation to coma.

Other medically significant sequelae of overdose include delirium, convulsion, coma, possible neuroleptic malignant syndrome, respiratory depression, aspiration, hypertension or hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias (<2% of overdose cases), and cardiopulmonary arrest. Fatal outcomes have been reported for acute overdoses as low as 450 mg, but survival has also been reported following acute overdose of approximately 2 g of oral olanzapine.

Management

There is no specific antidote for olanzapine. Induction of emesis is not recommended. Standard procedures for management of overdose may be indicated (i.e., gastric lavage, administration of activated charcoal). The concomitant administration of activated charcoal was shown to reduce the oral bioavailability of olanzapine by 50 to 60%.

Symptomatic treatment and monitoring of vital organ function should be instituted according to clinical presentation, including treatment of hypotension and circulatory collapse and support of respiratory function. Do not use epinephrine, dopamine, or other sympathomimetic agents with beta-agonist activity, since beta stimulation may worsen hypotension. Cardiovascular monitoring is necessary to detect possible arrhythmias. Close medical supervision and monitoring should continue until the patient recovers.

Signs and Symptoms

Very common symptoms in overdose (> 10% incidence) include tachycardia, agitation/aggressiveness, dysarthria, various extrapyramidal symptoms, and reduced level of consciousness ranging from sedation to coma.

Other medically significant sequelae of overdose include delirium, convulsion, coma, possible neuroleptic malignant syndrome, respiratory depression, aspiration, hypertension or hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias (<2% of overdose cases), and cardiopulmonary arrest. Fatal outcomes have been reported for acute overdoses as low as 450mg, but survival has also been reported following acute overdose of approximately 2 g of oral Kozylex.

Management

There is no specific antidote for Kozylex. Induction of emesis is not recommended.

Standard procedures for management of overdose may be indicated (ie, gastric lavage, administration of activated charcoal). The concomitant administration of activated charcoal was shown to reduce the oral bioavailability of Kozylex by 50 to 60%.

Symptomatic treatment and monitoring of vital organ function should be instituted according to clinical presentation, including treatment of hypotension and circulatory collapse and support of respiratory function. Do not use epinephrine, dopamine, or other sympathomimetic agents with beta-agonist activity, since beta stimulation may worsen hypotension. Cardiovascular monitoring is necessary to detect possible arrhythmias. Close medical supervision and monitoring should continue until the patient recovers.

If signs and symptoms of overdose consistent with post-injection syndrome are observed, appropriate supportive measures should be taken.

While overdose is less likely with parenteral than oral medicinal products, reference information for oral olanzapine overdose is presented below:

Signs and symptoms

Very common symptoms in overdose (>10% incidence) include tachycardia, agitation/aggressiveness, dysarthria, various extrapyramidal symptoms, and reduced level of consciousness ranging from sedation to coma.

Other medically significant sequelae of overdose include delirium, convulsion, coma, possible neuroleptic malignant syndrome, respiratory depression, aspiration, hypertension or hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias (< 2% of overdose cases) and cardiopulmonary arrest. Fatal outcomes have been reported for acute oral overdoses as low as 450 mg but survival has also been reported following acute overdose of approximately 2 g of oral olanzapine.

Management

There is no specific antidote for olanzapine. Symptomatic treatment and monitoring of vital organ function should be instituted according to clinical presentation, including treatment of hypotension and circulatory collapse and support of respiratory function. Do not use epinephrine, dopamine, or other sympathomimetic agents with beta-agonist activity since beta stimulation may worsen hypotension. Cardiovascular monitoring is necessary to detect possible arrhythmias. Close medical supervision and monitoring should continue until the patient recovers.

Signs and symptoms

Very common symptoms in overdose (> 10% incidence) include tachycardia, agitation/aggressiveness, dysarthria, various extrapyramidal symptoms, and reduced level of consciousness ranging from sedation to coma.

Other medically significant sequelae of overdose include delirium, convulsion, coma, possible neuroleptic malignant syndrome, respiratory depression, aspiration, hypertension or hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias (< 2% of overdose cases) and cardiopulmonary arrest. Fatal outcomes have been reported for acute overdoses as low as 450 mg but survival has also been reported following acute overdose of approximately 2 g of oral olanzapine.

Management

There is no specific antidote for olanzapine. Induction of emesis is not recommended. Standard procedures for management of overdose may be indicated (i.e. gastric lavage, administration of activated charcoal). The concomitant administration of activated charcoal was shown to reduce the oral bioavailability of olanzapine by 50 to 60%.

Symptomatic treatment and monitoring of vital organ function should be instituted according to clinical presentation, including treatment of hypotension and circulatory collapse and support of respiratory function. Do not use epinephrine, dopamine, or other sympathomimetic agents with beta agonist activity since beta stimulation may worsen hypotension. Cardiovascular monitoring is necessary to detect possible arrhythmias. Close medical supervision and monitoring should continue until the patient recovers.

Pharmacodynamic properties

The information provided in Pharmacodynamic properties of Kozylex is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kozylex of the medicine (Olanzapine). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacodynamic properties in the instructions to the drug Kozylex directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close
Coated tablet; Film-coated tablet; Powder and solvent for prolonged-release suspension for injection; Powder for solution for injection
Pills; Substance; Substance-powder
Oral drops, solution
Orodispersible tablet

Pharmacotherapeutic group: psycholeptics, diazepines, oxazepines, thiazepines and oxepines, ATC code N05A H03.

Pharmacodynamic effects

Olanzapine is an antipsychotic, antimanic, and mood stabilising agent that demonstrates a broad pharmacologic profile across a number of receptor systems.

In preclinical studies, olanzapine exhibited a range of receptor affinities (Ki <100nM) for serotonin 5HT2A/2C, 5HT3, 5HT6; dopamine D1, D2, D3, D4, D5; cholinergic muscarinic receptors M1-M5; α1 adrenergic; and histamine H1 receptors. Animal behavioural studies with olanzapine indicated 5HT, dopamine, and cholinergic antagonism, consistent with the receptor-binding profile. Olanzapine demonstrated a greater in vitro affinity for serotonin 5HT2 than dopamine D2 receptors and greater 5HT2 than D2 activity in in vivo models. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated that olanzapine selectively reduced the firing of mesolimbic (A10) dopaminergic neurons, while having little effect on the striatal (A9) pathways involved in motor function. Olanzapine reduced a conditioned avoidance response, a test indicative of antipsychotic activity, at doses below those producing catalepsy, an effect indicative of motor side-effects. Unlike some other antipsychotic agents, olanzapine increases responding in an 'anxiolytic' test.

In a single oral dose (10 mg) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) study in healthy volunteers, olanzapine produced a higher 5HT2A than dopamine D2 receptor occupancy. In addition, a Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging study in schizophrenic patients revealed that olanzapine-responsive patients had lower striatal D2 occupancy than some other antipsychotic- and risperidone-responsive patients, while being comparable to clozapine-responsive patients.

Clinical efficacy

In two of two placebo- and two of three comparator-controlled trials with over 2,900 schizophrenic patients presenting with both positive and negative symptoms, olanzapine was associated with statistically significantly greater improvements in negative as well as positive symptoms.

In a multinational, double-blind, comparative study of schizophrenia, schizoaffective and related disorders, which included 1,481 patients with varying degrees of associated depressive symptoms (baseline mean of 16.6 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale), a prospective secondary analysis of baseline to endpoint mood score change demonstrated a statistically significant improvement (P = 0.001) favouring olanzapine (-6.0) versus haloperidol (-3.1).

In patients with a manic or mixed episode of bipolar disorder, olanzapine demonstrated superior efficacy to placebo and valproate semisodium (divalproex) in reduction of manic symptoms over 3 weeks. Olanzapine also demonstrated comparable efficacy results to haloperidol in terms of the proportion of patients in symptomatic remission from mania and depression at 6 and 12 weeks. In a co-therapy study of patients treated with lithium or valproate for a minimum of 2 weeks, the addition of olanzapine 10 mg (co-therapy with lithium or valproate) resulted in a greater reduction in symptoms of mania than lithium or valproate monotherapy after 6 weeks.

In a 12 month recurrence prevention study in manic episode patients who achieved remission on olanzapine and were then randomised to olanzapine or placebo, olanzapine demonstrated statistically significant superiority over placebo on the primary endpoint of bipolar recurrence. Olanzapine also showed a statistically significant advantage over placebo in terms of preventing either recurrence into mania or recurrence into depression.

In a second 12 month recurrence prevention study in manic episode patients who achieved remission with a combination of olanzapine and lithium and were then randomised to olanzapine or lithium alone, olanzapine was statistically non-inferior to lithium on the primary endpoint of bipolar recurrence (olanzapine 30.0%, lithium 38.3%; P = 0.055).

In an 18 month co-therapy study in manic or mixed episode patients stabilised with olanzapine plus a mood stabiliser (lithium or valproate), long-term olanzapine co-therapy with lithium or valproate was not statistically significantly superior to lithium or valproate alone in delaying bipolar recurrence, defined according to syndromic (diagnostic) criteria.

Paediatric population

Controlled efficacy data in adolescents (ages 13 to 17 years) are limited to short term studies in schizophrenia (6 weeks) and mania associated with bipolar I disorder (3 weeks), involving less than 200 adolescents. Olanzapine was used as a flexible dose starting with 2.5 and ranging up to 20 mg/day. During treatment with olanzapine, adolescents gained significantly more weight compared with adults. The magnitude of changes in fasting total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and prolactin were greater in adolescents than in adults. There are no controlled data on maintenance of effect or long term safety . Information on long term safety is primarily limited to open-label, uncontrolled data.

Pharmacotherapeutic group: psycholeptics, diazepines, oxazepines, thiazepines and oxepines.

ATC code:N05A H03.

Pharmacodynamic effects

Kozylex is an antipsychotic, antimanic, and mood stabilising agent that demonstrates a broad pharmacologic profile across a number of receptor systems.

In preclinical studies, Kozylex exhibited a range of receptor affinities (Ki <100nM) for serotonin 5HT2A/2C, 5HT3, 5HT6; dopamine D1, D2, D3, D4, D5; cholinergic muscarinic receptors M1-M5; α1 adrenergic; and histamine H1 receptors. Animal behavioural studies with Kozylex indicated 5HT, dopamine, and cholinergic antagonism, consistent with the receptor-binding profile. Kozylex demonstrated a greater in vitro affinity for serotonin 5HT2 than dopamine D2 receptors and greater 5HT2 than D2 activity in in vivo models. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated that Kozylex selectively reduced the firing of mesolimbic (A10) dopaminergic neurons, while having little effect on the striatal (A9) pathways involved in motor function. Kozylex reduced a conditioned avoidance response, a test indicative of antipsychotic activity, at doses below those producing catalepsy, an effect indicative of motor side-effects. Unlike some other antipsychotic agents, Kozylex increases responding in an 'anxiolytic' test.

In a single oral dose (10mg) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) study in healthy volunteers, Kozylex produced a higher 5HT2A than dopamine D2 receptor occupancy. In addition, a Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging study in schizophrenic patients revealed that Kozylex-responsive patients had lower striatal D2 occupancy than some other antipsychotic- and risperidone-responsive patients, while being comparable to clozapine-responsive patients.

Clinical efficacy

In two of two placebo- and two of three comparator-controlled trials with over 2,900 schizophrenic patients presenting with both positive and negative symptoms, Kozylex was associated with statistically significantly greater improvements in negative as well as positive symptoms.

In a multinational, double-blind, comparative study of schizophrenia, schizoaffective and related disorders, which included 1,481 patients with varying degrees of associated depressive symptoms (baseline mean of 16.6 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale), a prospective secondary analysis of baseline to endpoint mood score change demonstrated a statistically significant improvement (P = 0.001) favouring Kozylex (-6.0) versus haloperidol (-3.1).

In patients with a manic or mixed episode of bipolar disorder, Kozylex demonstrated superior efficacy to placebo and valproate semisodium (divalproex) in reduction of manic symptoms over 3 weeks. Kozylex also demonstrated comparable efficacy results to haloperidol in terms of the proportion of patients in symptomatic remission from mania and depression at 6 and 12 weeks. In a co-therapy study of patients treated with lithium or valproate for a minimum of 2 weeks, the addition of Kozylex 10mg (co-therapy with lithium or valproate) resulted in a greater reduction in symptoms of mania than lithium or valproate monotherapy after 6 weeks.

In a 12-month recurrence prevention study in manic episode patients who achieved remission on Kozylex and were then randomised to Kozylex or placebo, Kozylex demonstrated statistically significant superiority over placebo on the primary endpoint of bipolar recurrence. Kozylex also showed a statistically significant advantage over placebo in terms of preventing either recurrence into mania or recurrence into depression.

In a second 12-month recurrence prevention study in manic episode patients who achieved remission with a combination of Kozylex and lithium and were then randomised to Kozylex or lithium alone, Kozylex was statistically non-inferior to lithium on the primary endpoint of bipolar recurrence (Kozylex 30.0%, lithium 38.3%; p = 0.055).

In an 18-month co-therapy study in manic or mixed episode patients stabilised with Kozylex plus a mood stabiliser (lithium or valproate), long-term Kozylex co- therapy with lithium or valproate was not statistically significantly superior to lithium or valproate alone in delaying bipolar recurrence, defined according to syndromic (diagnostic) criteria.

Paediatric population

Controlled efficacy data in adolescents (ages 13 to 17 years) are limited to short-term studies in schizophrenia (6 weeks) and mania associated with bipolar I disorder (3 weeks), involving less than 200 adolescents. Kozylex was used as a flexible dose starting with 2.5 and ranging up to 20 mg/day. During treatment with Kozylex, adolescents gained significantly more weight compared with adults. The magnitude of changes in fasting total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and prolactin were greater in adolescents than in adults. There are no controlled data on maintenance of effect or long-term safety. Information on long term safety is primarily limited to open-label, uncontrolled data.

Pharmacotherapeutic group: psycholeptics, diazepines, oxazepines, thiazepines and oxepines, ATC code N05A H03.

Pharmacodynamic effects

Olanzapine is an antipsychotic, antimanic and mood stabilising agent that demonstrates a broad pharmacologic profile across a number of receptor systems.

In preclinical studies, olanzapine exhibited a range of receptor affinities (Ki < 100 nM) for serotonin 5-HT2A/2C, 5-HT3, 5-HT6; dopamine D1, D2, D3, D4, D5; cholinergic muscarinic receptors M1-M5; α-1 adrenergic; and histamine H1 receptors. Animal behavioural studies with olanzapine indicated 5HT, dopamine, and cholinergic antagonism, consistent with the receptor-binding profile. Olanzapine demonstrated a greater in vitro affinity for serotonin 5-HT2 than dopamine D2 receptors and greater 5-HT2 than D2 activity in in vivo models. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated that olanzapine selectively reduced the firing of mesolimbic (A10) dopaminergic neurons, while having little effect on the striatal (A9) pathways involved in motor function. Olanzapine reduced a conditioned avoidance response, a test indicative of antipsychotic activity, at doses below those producing catalepsy, an effect indicative of motor side-effects. Unlike some other antipsychotic agents, olanzapine increases responding in an “anxiolytic” test.

In a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) study in patients treated with Kozylex (300 mg/4 weeks), mean D2 receptor occupancy was 60% or higher at the end of a 6-month period, a level consistent with that found during treatment with oral olanzapine.

Clinical efficacy

The effectiveness of Kozylex in the treatment and maintenance treatment of schizophrenia is consistent with the established effectiveness of the oral formulation of olanzapine.

A total of 1469 patients with schizophrenia were included in 2 pivotal trials:

The first, an 8-week, placebo-controlled trial conducted in adult patients (n=404) who were experiencing acute psychotic symptoms. Patients were randomised to receive injections of Kozylex 405 mg every 4 weeks, 300 mg every 2 weeks, 210 mg every 2 weeks, or placebo every 2 weeks. No oral antipsychotic supplementation was allowed. Total Positive and Negative Symptom Scores (PANSS) showed significant improvement from baseline (baseline mean Total PANSS Score 101) to endpoint (mean changes -22.57, -26.32, -22.49 respectively) with each dose of Kozylex (405 mg every 4 weeks, 300 mg every 2 weeks, and 210 mg every 2 weeks) as compared to placebo (mean change -8.51). Visitwise mean change from baseline to endpoint in PANSS Total Score indicated that by Day 3, patients in the 300 mg/2 weeks and 405 mg/4 weeks treatment groups had statistically significantly greater reductions in PANSS Total Score compared to placebo (-8.6, -8.2, and -5.2, respectively). All 3 Kozylex treatment groups showed statistically significantly greater improvement than placebo beginning by end of Week 1. These results support efficacy for Kozylex over 8 weeks of treatment and a drug effect that was observed as early as 1 week after starting treatment with Kozylex.

The second, a long-term study in clinically stable patients (n=1065) (baseline mean Total PANSS Score 54.33 to 57.75), who were initially treated with oral olanzapine for 4 to 8 weeks and then switched to continue on oral olanzapine or to Kozylex for 24 weeks. No oral antipsychotic supplementation was allowed. Kozylex treatment groups of 150 mg and 300 mg given every 2 weeks (doses pooled for analysis) and 405 mg given every 4 weeks were non-inferior to the combined doses of 10, 15 and 20 mg of oral olanzapine (doses pooled for analysis) as measured by rates of exacerbation of symptoms of schizophrenia (respective exacerbation rates, 10%, 10%, 7%). Exacerbation was measured by worsening of items on the PANSS derived BPRS Positive Scale and hospitalisation due to worsening of positive psychotic symptoms. The combined 150 mg and 300 mg/2 week treatment group was non-inferior to the 405 mg/4 week treatment group (exacerbation rates 10% for each group) at 24 weeks after randomisation.

Paediatric population

Kozylex has not been studied in the paediatric population. Controlled efficacy data in adolescents (ages 13 to 17 years) are limited to short term oral olanzapine studies in schizophrenia (6 weeks) and mania associated with bipolar I disorder (3 weeks), involving less than 200 adolescents. Oral olanzapine was used as a flexible dose starting with 2.5 and ranging up to 20 mg/day. During treatment with oral olanzapine, adolescents gained significantly more weight compared with adults. The magnitude of changes in fasting total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and prolactin were greater in adolescents than in adults. There are no controlled data on maintenance of effect or long term safety . Information on long term safety is primarily limited to open-label, uncontrolled data.

Pharmacotherapeutic group: psycholeptics, diazepines, oxazepines, thiazepines and oxepines, ATC code: N05AH03.

Pharmacodynamic effects

Olanzapine is an antipsychotic, antimanic and mood stabilising agent that demonstrates a broad pharmacologic profile across a number of receptor systems.

In preclinical studies, olanzapine exhibited a range of receptor affinities (Ki < 100 nM) for serotonin 5 HT2A/2C, 5 HT3, 5 HT6; dopamine D1, D2, D3, D4, D5; cholinergic muscarinic receptors M1-M5; α1 adrenergic; and histamine H1 receptors. Animal behavioural studies with olanzapine indicated 5HT, dopamine, and cholinergic antagonism, consistent with the receptor-binding profile. Olanzapine demonstrated a greater in vitro affinity for serotonin 5 HT2 than dopamine D2 receptors and greater 5 HT2 than D2 activity in vivo, models. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated that olanzapine selectively reduced the firing of mesolimbic (A10) dopaminergic neurons, while having little effect on the striatal (A9) pathways involved in motor function. Olanzapine reduced a conditioned avoidance response, a test indicative of antipsychotic activity, at doses below those producing catalepsy, an effect indicative of motor side-effects. Unlike some other antipsychotic agents, olanzapine increases responding in an “anxiolytic” test.

In a single oral dose (10 mg) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) study in healthy volunteers, olanzapine produced a higher 5 HT2A than dopamine D2 receptor occupancy. In addition, a Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging study in schizophrenic patients revealed that olanzapine-responsive patients had lower striatal D2 occupancy than some other antipsychotic- and risperidone-responsive patients, while being comparable to clozapine-responsive patients.

Clinical efficacy

In two of two placebo and two of three comparator controlled trials with over 2,900 schizophrenic patients presenting with both positive and negative symptoms, olanzapine was associated with statistically significantly greater improvements in negative as well as positive symptoms.

In a multinational, double-blind, comparative study of schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and related disorders which included 1,481 patients with varying degrees of associated depressive symptoms (baseline mean of 16.6 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale), a prospective secondary analysis of baseline to endpoint mood score change demonstrated a statistically significant improvement (p=0.001) favouring olanzapine (-6.0) versus haloperidol (-3.1).

In patients with a manic or mixed episode of bipolar disorder, olanzapine demonstrated superior efficacy to placebo and valproate semisodium (divalproex) in reduction of manic symptoms over 3 weeks. Olanzapine also demonstrated comparable efficacy results to haloperidol in terms of the proportion of patients in symptomatic remission from mania and depression at 6 and 12 weeks. In a co-therapy study of patients treated with lithium or valproate for a minimum of 2 weeks, the addition of olanzapine 10 mg (co-therapy with lithium or valproate) resulted in a greater reduction in symptoms of mania than lithium or valproate monotherapy after 6 weeks.

In a 12-month recurrence prevention study in manic episode patients who achieved remission on olanzapine and were then randomised to olanzapine or placebo, olanzapine demonstrated statistically significant superiority over placebo on the primary endpoint of bipolar recurrence. Olanzapine also showed a statistically significant advantage over placebo in terms of preventing either recurrence into mania or recurrence into depression.

In a second 12-month recurrence prevention study in manic episode patients who achieved remission with a combination of olanzapine and lithium and were then randomised to olanzapine or lithium alone, olanzapine was statistically non-inferior to lithium on the primary endpoint of bipolar recurrence (olanzapine 30.0%, lithium 38.3%; p=0.055).

In an 18-month co-therapy study in manic or mixed episode patients stabilised with olanzapine plus a mood stabiliser (lithium or valproate), long-term olanzapine co-therapy with lithium or valproate was not statistically significantly superior to lithium or valproate alone in delaying bipolar recurrence, defined according to syndromic (diagnostic) criteria.

Paediatric population

Controlled efficacy data in adolescents (ages 13 to 17 years) are limited to short term studies in schizophrenia (6 weeks) and mania associated with bipolar I disorder (3 weeks), involving less than 200 adolescents. Olanzapine was used as a flexible dose starting with 2.5 and ranging up to 20 mg/day. During treatment with olanzapine, adolescents gained significantly more weight compared with adults. The magnitude of changes in fasting total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and prolactin were greater in adolescents than in adults. There are no controlled data on maintenance of effect or long term safety . Information on long term safety is primarily limited to open-label, uncontrolled data.

Pharmacokinetic properties

The information provided in Pharmacokinetic properties of Kozylex is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kozylex of the medicine (Olanzapine). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacokinetic properties in the instructions to the drug Kozylex directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close
Coated tablet; Film-coated tablet; Powder and solvent for prolonged-release suspension for injection; Powder for solution for injection
Pills; Substance; Substance-powder
Oral drops, solution
Orodispersible tablet

Olanzapine orodispersible tablet is bioequivalent to olanzapine coated tablets, with a similar rate and extent of absorption. Olanzapine orodispersible tablets may be used as an alternative to olanzapine coated tablets.

Absorption

Olanzapine is well absorbed after oral administration, reaching peak plasma concentrations within 5 to 8 hours. The absorption is not affected by food. Absolute oral bioavailability relative to intravenous administration has not been determined.

Distribution

The plasma protein binding of olanzapine was about 93% over the concentration range of about 7 to about 1000 ng/ml. Olanzapine is bound predominantly to albumin and α1-acid-glycoprotein.

Biotransformation

Olanzapine is metabolised in the liver by conjugative and oxidative pathways. The major circulating metabolite is the 10-N-glucuronide, which does not pass the blood brain barrier. Cytochromes P450-CYP1A2 and P450-CYP2D6 contribute to the formation of the N-desmethyl and 2-hydroxymethyl metabolites; both exhibited significantly less in vivo pharmacological activity than olanzapine in animal studies. The predominant pharmacologic activity is from the parent, olanzapine.

Elimination

After oral administration, the mean terminal elimination half-life of olanzapine in healthy subjects varied on the basis of age and gender.

In healthy elderly (65 and over) versus non-elderly subjects, the mean elimination half-life was prolonged (51.8 versus 33.8 hours) and the clearance was reduced (17.5 versus 18.2 l/hr). The pharmacokinetic variability observed in the elderly is within the range for the non-elderly. In 44 patients with schizophrenia >65 years of age, dosing from 5 to 20 mg/day was not associated with any distinguishing profile of adverse events.

In female versus male subjects, the mean elimination half-life was somewhat prolonged (36.7 versus 32.3 hours) and the clearance was reduced (18.9 versus 27.3 l/hr). However, olanzapine (5-20 mg) demonstrated a comparable safety profile in female (n = 467) as in male patients (n = 869).

Renal impairment

In renally impaired patients (creatinine clearance <10ml/min) versus healthy subjects, there was no significant difference in mean elimination half-life (37.7 versus 32.4 hours) or clearance (21.2 versus 25.0 l/hr). A mass balance study showed that approximately 57% of radiolabelled olanzapine appeared in urine, principally as metabolites.

Smokers

In smoking subjects with mild hepatic dysfunction, mean elimination half-life (39.3 hours) was prolonged and clearance (18.0 l/hr) was reduced analogous to non-smoking healthy subjects (48.8 hours and 14.1 l/hr, respectively).

In non-smoking versus smoking subjects (males and females), the mean elimination half-life was prolonged (38.6 versus 30.4 hours) and the clearance was reduced (18.6 versus 27.7 l/hr).

The plasma clearance of olanzapine is lower in elderly versus young subjects, in females versus males, and in non-smokers versus smokers. However, the magnitude of the impact of age, gender, or smoking on olanzapine clearance and half-life is small in comparison to the overall variability between individuals.

In a study of Caucasians, Japanese, and Chinese subjects, there were no differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters among the three populations.

Paediatric population

Adolescents (ages 13 to 17 years): The pharmacokinetics of olanzapine are similar between adolescents and adults. In clinical studies, the average olanzapine exposure was approximately 27% higher in adolescents. Demographic differences between the adolescents and adults include a lower average body weight and fewer adolescents were smokers. Such factors possibly contribute to the higher average exposure observed in adolescents.

Absorption

Kozylex is well absorbed after oral administration, reaching peak plasma concentrations within 5 to 8 hours. The absorption is not affected by food. Absolute oral bioavailability relative to intravenous administration has not been determined.

Distribution

The plasma protein binding of Kozylex was about 93 % over the concentration range of about 7 to about 1000 ng/ml. Kozylex is bound predominantly to albumin and α1-acid-glycoprotein.

Biotransformation

Kozylex is metabolised in the liver by conjugative and oxidative pathways. The major circulating metabolite is the 10-N-glucuronide, which does not pass the blood brain barrier. Cytochromes P450-CYP1A2 and P450-CYP2D6 contribute to the formation of the N-desmethyl and 2-hydroxymethyl metabolites; both exhibited significantly less in vivo pharmacological activity than Kozylex in animal studies. The predominant pharmacologic activity is from the parent, Kozylex.

Elimination

After oral administration, the mean terminal elimination half-life of Kozylex in healthy subjects varied on the basis of age and gender.

In healthy elderly (65 and over) versus non-elderly subjects, the mean elimination half-life was prolonged (51.8 versus 33.8 hours) and the clearance was reduced (17.5 versus 18.2 l/hr). The pharmacokinetic variability observed in the elderly is within the range for the non-elderly. In 44 patients with schizophrenia >65 years of age, dosing from 5 to 20mg/day was not associated with any distinguishing profile of adverse events.

In female versus male subjects, the mean elimination half-life was somewhat prolonged (36.7 versus 32.3 hours) and the clearance was reduced (18.9 versus 27.3 l/hr). However, Kozylex (5-20mg) demonstrated a comparable safety profile in female (n = 467) as in male patients (n = 869).

Renal impairment

In renally impaired patients (creatinine clearance <10ml/min) versus healthy subjects, there was no significant difference in mean elimination half-life (37.7 versus 32.4 hours) or clearance (21.2 versus 25.0 l/hr). A mass balance study showed that approximately 57% of radiolabelled Kozylex appeared in urine, principally as metabolites.

Smokers

In smoking subjects with mild hepatic dysfunction, mean elimination half-life (39.3 hours) was prolonged and clearance (18.0 l/hr) was reduced analogous to non- smoking healthy subjects (48.8 hours and 14.1 l/hr, respectively).

In non-smoking versus smoking subjects (males and females), the mean elimination half-life was prolonged (38.6 versus 30.4 hours) and the clearance was reduced (18.6 versus 27.7 l/hr).

The plasma clearance of Kozylex is lower in elderly versus young subjects, in females versus males, and in non-smokers versus smokers. However, the magnitude of the impact of age, gender, or smoking on Kozylex clearance and half-life is small in comparison to the overall variability between individuals.

In a study of Caucasians, Japanese, and Chinese subjects, there were no differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters among the three populations.

Paediatric population

Adolescents (ages 13 to 17 years): The pharmacokinetics of Kozylex are similar between adolescents and adults. In clinical studies, the average Kozylex exposure was approximately 27% higher in adolescents. Demographic differences between the adolescents and adults include a lower average body weight and fewer adolescents were smokers. Such factors possibly contribute to the higher average exposure observed in adolescents.

Absorption

Olanzapine is metabolised in the liver by conjugative and oxidative pathways. The major circulating metabolite is the 10-N-glucuronide. Cytochromes P450-CYP1A2 and P450-CYP2D6 contribute to the formation of the N-desmethyl and 2-hydroxymethyl metabolites; both exhibited significantly less in vivo pharmacological activity than olanzapine in animal studies. The predominant pharmacologic activity is from the parent, olanzapine.

After a single IM injection with Kozylex, the slow dissolution of the olanzapine pamoate salt in muscle tissue begins immediately and provides a slow continuous release of olanzapine for more than four weeks. The release becomes diminishingly smaller within eight to twelve weeks. Antipsychotic supplementation is not required at the initiation of Kozylex treatment.

The combination of the release profile and the dosage regimen (IM injection every two or four weeks) result in sustained olanzapine plasma concentrations. Plasma concentrations remain measurable for several months after each Kozylex injection. The half-life of olanzapine after Kozylex is 30 days compared to 30 hours following oral administration. The absorption and elimination are complete approximately six to eight months after the last injection.

Distribution

Oral olanzapine is rapidly distributed. The plasma protein binding of olanzapine is about 93% over the concentration range of 7 to about 1000 ng/mL. In plasma, olanzapine is bound to albumin and α1-acid glycoprotein.

After repeated IM injections with 150 to 300 mg Kozylex every two weeks, the 10th to 90th percentile of steady-state plasma concentrations of olanzapine were between 4.2 and 73.2 ng/ml. The plasma concentrations of olanzapine observed across the dose range of 150mg every 4 weeks to 300mg every 2 weeks illustrate increased systemic olanzapine exposure with increased Kozylex doses. During the initial three months of treatment with Kozylex, accumulation of olanzapine was observed but there was no additional accumulation during long-term use (12 months) in patients who were injected with up to 300 mg every two weeks.

Elimination

Olanzapine plasma clearance after oral olanzapine is lower in females (18.9 l/hr) versus males (27.3 l/hr), and in non-smokers (18.6 l/hr) versus smokers (27.7 l/hr). Similar pharmacokinetic differences between males and females and smokers and non-smokers were observed in Kozylex clinical trials. However, the magnitude of the impact of gender, or smoking on olanzapine clearance is small in comparison to the overall variability between individuals.

Elderly

No specific investigations have been conducted in the elderly with Kozylex. Kozylex is not recommended for treatment in the elderly population (65 years and over) unless a well-tolerated and effective dosage regimen using oral olanzapine has been established. In healthy elderly (65 and over) versus non-elderly subjects, the mean elimination half-life was prolonged (51.8 versus 33.8 hours) and the clearance was reduced (17.5 versus 18.2 l/hr). The pharmacokinetic variability observed in the elderly is within the range for the non-elderly. In 44 patients with schizophrenia >65 years of age, dosing from 5 to 20 mg/day was not associated with any distinguishing profile of adverse events.

Renal impairment

In renally impaired patients (creatinine clearance < 10 ml/min) versus healthy subjects, there was no significant difference in mean elimination half-life (37.7 versus 32.4 hours) or clearance (21.2 versus 25.0 l/hr). A mass balance study showed that approximately 57% of radiolabelled olanzapine appeared in urine, principally as metabolites. Although patients with renal impairment were not studied with Kozylex, it is recommended that a well-tolerated and effective dosage regimen using oral olanzapine is established in patients with renal impairment before treatment with Kozylex is initiated.

Smokers

In smoking subjects with mild hepatic dysfunction, mean elimination half-life (39.3 hours) of orally administered olanzapine was prolonged and clearance (18.0 l/hr) was reduced analogous to non-smoking healthy subjects (48.8 hours and 14.1 l/hr, respectively). Although patients with hepatic impairment were not studied with Kozylex, it is recommended that a well-tolerated and effective dosage regimen using oral olanzapine is established in patients with hepatic impairment before treatment with Kozylex is initiated.

In a study of oral olanzapine given to Caucasians, Japanese, and Chinese subjects, there were no differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters among the three populations.

Olanzapine orodispersible tablet is bioequivalent to olanzapine tablets, with a similar rate and extent of absorption. Olanzapine orodispersible tablets may be used as an alternative to olanzapine tablets.

Absorption

Olanzapine is well absorbed after oral administration, reaching peak plasma concentrations within 5 to 8 hours. The absorption is not affected by food. Absolute oral bioavailability relative to intravenous administration has not been determined.

Distribution

The plasma protein binding of olanzapine was about 93 % over the concentration range of about 7 to about 1000 ng/ml. Olanzapine is bound predominantly to albumin and α1-acid-glycoprotein.

Biotransformation

Olanzapine is metabolized in the liver by conjugative and oxidative pathways. The major circulating metabolite is the 10-N-glucuronide, which does not pass the blood brain barrier. Cytochromes P450-CYP1A2 and P450-CYP2D6 contribute to the formation of the N-desmethyl and 2-hydroxymethyl metabolites, both exhibited significantly less in vivo pharmacological activity than olanzapine in animal studies. The predominant pharmacologic activity is from the parent olanzapine.

Elimination

After oral administration, the mean terminal elimination half-life of olanzapine in healthy subjects varied on the basis of age and gender.

In healthy elderly (65 and over) versus non-elderly subjects, the mean elimination half-life was prolonged (51.8 versus 33.8 hr) and the clearance was reduced (17.5 versus 18.2 l/hr). The pharmacokinetic variability observed in the elderly is within the range for the non-elderly. In 44 patients with schizophrenia 65 years of age, dosing from 5 to 20 mg/day was not associated with any distinguishing profile of adverse events.

In female versus male subjects the mean elimination half life was somewhat prolonged (36.7 versus 32.3 hr) and the clearance was reduced (18.9 versus 27.3 l/hr). However, olanzapine (5-20 mg) demonstrated a comparable safety profile in female (n=467) as in male patients (n=869).

Renal impairment

In renally impaired patients (creatinine clearance < 10 ml/min) versus healthy subjects, there was no significant difference in mean elimination half-life (37.7 versus 32.4 hr) or clearance (21.2 versus 25.0 l/hr). A mass balance study showed that approximately 57% of radiolabelled olanzapine appeared in urine, principally as metabolites.

Smokers

In smoking subjects with mild hepatic dysfunction, mean elimination half-life (39.3 hr) was prolonged and clearance (18.0 l/hr) was reduced analogous to non-smoking healthy subjects (48.8 hr and 14.1 l/hr, respectively).

In non-smoking versus smoking subjects (males and females) the mean elimination half-life was prolonged (38.6 versus 30.4 hr) and the clearance was reduced (18.6 versus 27.7 l/hr).

The plasma clearance of olanzapine is lower in elderly versus young subjects, in females versus males, and in non-smokers versus smokers. However, the magnitude of the impact of age, gender, or smoking on olanzapine clearance and half-life is small in comparison to the overall variability between individuals.

In a study of Caucasians, Japanese, and Chinese subjects, there were no differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters among the three populations.

Paediatric population

Adolescents (ages 13 to 17 years): The pharmacokinetics of olanzapine are similar between adolescents and adults. In clinical studies, the average olanzapine exposure was approximately 27% higher in adolescents. Demographic differences between the adolescents and adults include a lower average body weight and fewer adolescents were smokers. Such factors possibly contribute to the higher average exposure observed in adolescents.

Pharmacotherapeutic group

The information provided in Pharmacotherapeutic group of Kozylex is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kozylex of the medicine (Olanzapine). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacotherapeutic group in the instructions to the drug Kozylex directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Coated tablet; Film-coated tablet; Powder and solvent for prolonged-release suspension for injection; Powder for solution for injection
Pills; Substance; Substance-powder
Oral drops, solution
Orodispersible tablet
psycholeptics, diazepines, oxazepines, thiazepines and oxepines, ATC code N05A H03.
psycholeptics, diazepines, oxazepines, thiazepines and oxepines.
psycholeptics, diazepines, oxazepines, thiazepines and oxepines, ATC code N05A H03.
psycholeptics, diazepines, oxazepines, thiazepines and oxepines, ATC code: N05AH03.

Preclinical safety data

The information provided in Preclinical safety data of Kozylex is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kozylex of the medicine (Olanzapine). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Preclinical safety data in the instructions to the drug Kozylex directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Coated tablet; Film-coated tablet; Powder and solvent for prolonged-release suspension for injection; Powder for solution for injection
Pills; Substance; Substance-powder
Oral drops, solution
Orodispersible tablet

Acute (single-dose) toxicity

Signs of oral toxicity in rodents were characteristic of potent neuroleptic compounds: hypoactivity, coma, tremors, clonic convulsions, salivation, and depressed weight gain. The median lethal doses were approximately 210 mg/kg (mice) and 175 mg/kg (rats). Dogs tolerated single oral doses up to 100 mg/kg without mortality. Clinical signs included sedation, ataxia, tremors, increased heart rate, laboured respiration, miosis, and anorexia. In monkeys, single oral doses up to 100 mg/kg resulted in prostration and, at higher doses, semi-consciousness.

Repeated-dose toxicity

In studies up to 3 months duration in mice and up to 1 year in rats and dogs, the predominant effects were CNS depression, anticholinergic effects, and peripheral haematological disorders. Tolerance developed to the CNS depression. Growth parameters were decreased at high doses. Reversible effects consistent with elevated prolactin in rats included decreased weights of ovaries and uterus and morphologic changes in vaginal epithelium and in mammary gland.

Haematologic toxicity

Effects on haematology parameters were found in each species, including dose-related reductions in circulating leukocytes in mice and non-specific reductions of circulating leukocytes in rats; however, no evidence of bone marrow cytotoxicity was found. Reversible neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, or anaemia developed in a few dogs treated with 8 or 10 mg/kg/day (total olanzapine exposure [area under the curve] is 12- to 15-fold greater than that of a man given a 12 mg dose). In cytopenic dogs, there were no adverse effects on progenitor and proliferating cells in the bone marrow.

Reproductive toxicity

Olanzapine had no teratogenic effects. Sedation affected mating performance of male rats. Oestrous cycles were affected at doses of 1.1 mg/kg (3-times the maximum human dose) and reproduction parameters were influenced in rats given 3 mg/kg (9-times the maximum human dose). In the offspring of rats given olanzapine, delays in foetal development and transient decreases in offspring activity levels were seen.

Mutagenicity

Olanzapine was not mutagenic or clastogenic in a full range of standard tests, which included bacterial mutation tests and in vitro and in vivo mammalian tests.

Carcinogenicity

Based on the results of studies in mice and rats, it was concluded that olanzapine is not carcinogenic.

Acute (Single-Dose) Toxicity

Signs of oral toxicity in rodents were characteristic of potent neuroleptic compounds:

hypoactivity, coma, tremors, clonic convulsions, salivation, and depressed weight gain. The median lethal doses were approximately 210mg/kg (mice) and 175mg/kg (rats). Dogs tolerated single oral doses up to 100mg/kg without mortality. Clinical signs included sedation, ataxia, tremors, increased heart rate, laboured respiration, miosis, and anorexia. In monkeys, single oral doses up to 100mg/kg resulted in prostration and, at higher doses, semi-consciousness.

Repeated-Dose Toxicity

In studies up to 3 months duration in mice and up to 1 year in rats and dogs, the predominant effects were CNS depression, anticholinergic effects, and peripheral haematological disorders. Tolerance developed to the CNS depression. Growth parameters were decreased at high doses. Reversible effects consistent with elevated prolactin in rats included decreased weights of ovaries and uterus and morphologic changes in vaginal epithelium and in mammary gland.

Haematologic toxicity

Effects on haematology parameters were found in each species, including dose-related reductions in circulating leukocytes in mice and non-specific reductions of circulating leukocytes in rats; however, no evidence of bone marrow cytotoxicity was found. Reversible neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, or anaemia developed in a few dogs treated with 8 or 10mg/kg/day (total Kozylex exposure [AUC] is 12- to 15-fold greater than that of a man given a 12mg dose). In cytopenic dogs, there were no adverse effects on progenitor and proliferating cells in the bone marrow.

Reproductive Toxicity

Kozylex had no teratogenic effects. Sedation affected mating performance of male rats. Estrous cycles were affected at doses of 1.1mg/kg (3-times the maximum human dose) and reproduction parameters were influenced in rats given 3mg/kg (9- times the maximum human dose). In the offspring of rats given Kozylex, delays in foetal development and transient decreases in offspring activity levels were seen.

Mutagenicity

Kozylex was not mutagenic or clastogenic in a full range of standard tests, which included bacterial mutation tests and in vitro and in vivo mammalian tests.

Carcinogenicity

Based on the results of studies in mice and rats, it was concluded that Kozylex is not carcinogenic.

Preclinical safety studies were performed using olanzapine pamoate monohydrate. The main findings found in repeat-dose toxicity studies (rat, dog), in a 2-year rat carcinogenicity study, and in toxicity to reproduction studies (rat, rabbit) were limited to injection-site reactions for which no NOAEL could be determined. No new toxic effect resulting from systemic exposure to olanzapine could be identified. However, systemic concentrations in these studies were generally less than that seen at effect levels in the oral studies; thus the information on oral olanzapine is provided below for reference.

Acute (single-dose) toxicity

Signs of oral toxicity in rodents were characteristic of potent antipsychotic compounds: hypoactivity, coma, tremors, clonic convulsions, salivation, and depressed weight gain. The median lethal doses were approximately 210 mg/kg (mice) and 175 mg/kg (rats). Dogs tolerated single oral doses up to 100 mg/kg without mortality. Clinical signs included sedation, ataxia, tremors, increased heart rate, laboured respiration, miosis, and anorexia. In monkeys, single oral doses up to 100 mg/kg resulted in prostration and, at higher doses, semi-consciousness.

Repeated-dose toxicity

In studies up to 3 months duration in mice and up to 1 year in rats and dogs, the predominant effects were CNS depression, anticholinergic effects, and peripheral haematological disorders. Tolerance developed to the CNS depression. Growth parameters were decreased at high doses. Reversible effects consistent with elevated prolactin in rats included decreased weights of ovaries and uterus and morphologic changes in vaginal epithelium and in mammary gland.

Haematologic toxicity: Effects on haematology parameters were found in each species, including dose-related reductions in circulating leukocytes in mice and non-specific reductions of circulating leukocytes in rats; however, no evidence of bone marrow cytotoxicity was found. Reversible neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, or anaemia developed in a few dogs treated with 8 or 10 mg/kg/day (total olanzapine exposure [AUC] is 12- to 15-fold greater than that of a man given a 12 mg dose). In cytopenic dogs, there were no undesirable effects on progenitor and proliferating cells in the bone marrow.

Reproductive toxicity

Olanzapine had no teratogenic effects. Sedation affected mating performance of male rats. Oestrous cycles were affected at doses of 1.1 mg/kg (3-times the maximum human dose) and reproduction parameters were influenced in rats given 3 mg/kg (9-times the maximum human dose). In the offspring of rats given olanzapine, delays in foetal development and transient decreases in offspring activity levels were seen.

Mutagenicity

Olanzapine was not mutagenic or clastogenic in a full range of standard tests, which included bacterial mutation tests and in vitro and oral in vivo mammalian tests.

Carcinogenicity

Based on the results of oral studies in mice and rats, it was concluded that olanzapine is not carcinogenic.

Acute (single-dose) toxicity

Signs of oral toxicity in rodents were characteristic of potent neuroleptic compounds: hypoactivity, coma, tremors, clonic convulsions, salivation, and depressed weight gain. The median lethal doses were approximately 210 mg/kg (mice) and 175 mg/kg (rats). Dogs tolerated single oral doses up to 100 mg/kg without mortality. Clinical signs included sedation, ataxia, tremors, increased heart rate, labored respiration, miosis, and anorexia. In monkeys, single oral doses up to 100 mg/kg resulted in prostration and, at higher doses, semi-consciousness.

Repeated-dose toxicity

In studies up to 3 months duration in mice and up to 1 year in rats and dogs, the predominant effects were CNS depression, anticholinergic effects, and peripheral haematological disorders. Tolerance developed to the CNS depression. Growth parameters were decreased at high doses. Reversible effects consistent with elevated prolactin in rats included decreased weights of ovaries and uterus and morphologic changes in vaginal epithelium and in mammary gland.

Haematologic toxicity:

Effects on haematology parameters were found in each species, including dose-related reductions in circulating leukocytes in mice and non-specific reductions of circulating leukocytes in rats; however, no evidence of bone marrow cytotoxicity was found. Reversible neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, or anaemia developed in a few dogs treated with 8 or 10 mg/kg/day (total olanzapine exposure [AUC] is 12- to 15-fold greater than that of a man given a 12-mg dose). In cytopenic dogs, there were no adverse effects on progenitor and proliferating cells in the bone marrow.

Reproductive toxicity

Olanzapine had no teratogenic effects. Sedation affected mating performance of male rats. Estrous cycles were affected at doses of 1.1 mg/kg (3 times the maximum human dose) and reproduction parameters were influenced in rats given 3 mg/kg (9 times the maximum human dose). In the offspring of rats given olanzapine, delays in foetal development and transient decreases in offspring activity levels were seen.

Mutagenicity

Olanzapine was not mutagenic or clastogenic in a full range of standard tests, which included bacterial mutation tests and in vitro and in vivo mammalian tests.

Carcinogenicity

Based on the results of studies in mice and rats, it was concluded that olanzapine is not carcinogenic.

Incompatibilities

The information provided in Incompatibilities of Kozylex is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kozylex of the medicine (Olanzapine). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Incompatibilities in the instructions to the drug Kozylex directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The information provided in Special precautions for disposal and other handling of Kozylex is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kozylex of the medicine (Olanzapine). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special precautions for disposal and other handling in the instructions to the drug Kozylex directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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FOR DEEP INTRAMUSCULAR GLUTEAL INJECTION ONLY. DO NOT ADMINISTER INTRAVENOUSLY OR SUBCUTANEOUSLY.

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

Reconstitution

STEP 1: Preparing materials

It is recommended that gloves are used as Kozylex may irritate the skin.

Reconstitute Kozylex powder for prolonged release suspension for injection only with the solvent provided in the pack using standard aseptic techniques for reconstitution of parenteral products.

STEP 2: Determining solvent volume for reconstitution

This table provides the amount of solvent required to reconstitute Kozylex powder for prolonged release suspension for injection.

Kozylex vial strength (mg)

Volume of solvent to add (ml)

210

1.3

300

1.8

405

2.3

It is important to note that there is more solvent in the vial than is needed to reconstitute.

STEP 3: Reconstituting Kozylex

1. Loosen the powder by lightly tapping the vial.

2. Open the pre-packaged Hypodermic syringe and needle with needle protection device. Peel blister pouch and remove device. Attach a syringe (if not already attached) to the Luer connection of the device with an easy twisting motion. Seat the needle firmly on the device with a push and a clockwise twist, then pull the needle cap straight away from the needle. Failure to follow these instructions may result in a needlestick injury.

3. Withdraw the pre-determined solvent volume (Step 2) into the syringe.

4. Inject the solvent volume into the powder vial.

5. Withdraw air to equalize the pressure in the vial.

6. Remove the needle, holding the vial upright to prevent any loss of solvent.

7. Engage the needle safety device. Press the needle into the sheath using a one-handed technique. Perform a one-handed technique by GENTLY pressing the sheath against a flat surface. AS THE SHEATH IS PRESSED (Fig. 1), THE NEEDLE IS FIRMLY ENGAGED INTO THE SHEATH (Fig. 2).

8. Visually confirm that the needle is fully engaged into the needle protection sheath. Only remove the device with the engaged needle from the syringe when required by a specific medical procedure. Remove by grasping the Luer hub of the needle protection device with thumb and forefinger, keeping the free fingers clear of the end of the device containing the needle point (Fig. 3).

9. Tap the vial firmly and repeatedly on a hard surface until no powder is visible. Protect the surface to cushion impact (see Figure A).

Figure A: Tap firmly to mix

10. Visually check the vial for clumps. Unsuspended powder appears as yellow, dry clumps clinging to the vial. Additional tapping may be required if clumps remain (see Figure B).

Figure B: Check for unsuspended powder and repeat tapping if needed.

11. Shake the vial vigorously until the suspension appears smooth and is consistent in colour and texture. The suspended product will be yellow and opaque (see Figure C).

Figure C: Vigorously shake vial

If foam forms, let vial stand to allow foam to dissipate. If the product is not used immediately, it should be shaken vigorously to re-suspend. Reconstituted Kozylex remains stable for up to 24 hours in the vial.

Administration

STEP 1: Injecting Kozylex

This table confirms the final Kozylex suspension volume to inject. Suspension concentration is 150 mg/ml olanzapine.

Dose

(mg)

Final volume to inject

(ml)

150

1.0

210

1.4

300

2.0

405

2.7

1. Determine which needle will be used to administer the injection to the patient. For obese patients, the 50 mm needle is recommended for injection:

â–ª If the 50 mm needle is to be used for injection, attach the 38 mm safety needle to the syringe to withdraw the required suspension volume.

â–ª If the 38 mm needle is to be used for the injection, attach the 50 mm safety needle to withdraw the required suspension volume.

2. Slowly withdraw the desired amount. Some excess product will remain in the vial.

3. Engage the needle safety device and remove needle from syringe.

4. Attach the selected 50 mm or 38 mm safety needle to the syringe prior to injection. Once the suspension has been removed from the vial, it should be injected immediately.

5. Select and prepare a site for injection in the gluteal area. DO NOT INJECT INTRAVENOUSLY OR SUBCUTANEOUSLY.

6. After insertion of the needle, aspirate for several seconds to ensure no blood appears. If any blood is drawn into the syringe, discard the syringe and the dose and begin reconstitution and administration procedure again. The injection should be performed with steady, continuous pressure.

DO NOT MASSAGE THE INJECTION SITE.

7. Engage the needle safety device (Fig. 1 and 2).

8. Discard the vials, syringe, used needles, extra needle and any unused solvent in accordance with appropriate clinical procedures. The vial is for single use only.

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