For the treatment of hyperkeratotic and scaling conditions such as psoriasis.
Recommended dose and dosage schedule
Adults, children and the elderly: apply twice daily to the affected area.
Contraindicated in patients displaying salicylate hypersensitivity, or sensitivity to any other ingredient in the preparation.
For external use only.
Avoid contact with broken or inflamed skin.
Salicylate toxicity may occur if applied to large areas of skin or to the skin of neonates.
Possible sensitivity reactions, drying and irritation.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.
Symptoms of systemic salicylate poisoning (tinnitus, dizziness and deafness) have been reported after the application of Koal to large areas of skin and for prolonged periods. Salicylism may also occur in the unlikely event of large quantities being ingested. Salicylism is unlikely to occur if Koal Ointment BP is used as indicated.
Salicylate poisoning is usually associated with plasma concentrations >350mg/L (2.5mmol/L). Most adult deaths occur in patients whose concentrations exceed 700mg/L (5.1mmol/L). Single doses less than 100mg/kg are unlikely to cause serious poisoning.
Common features include vomiting, dehydration, tinnitus, vertigo, deafness, sweating, warm extremities with bounding pulses, increased respiratory rate and hyperventilation. Some degree of acid-base disturbance is present in most cases.
A mixed respiratory alkalosis and metabolic acidosis with normal or high arterial pH (normal or reduced hydrogen ion concentration) is usual in adults and children over the age of four years. In children aged four years or less, a dominant metabolic acidosis with low arterial pH (raised hydrogen ion concentration) is common. Acidosis may increase salicylate transfer across the blood brain barrier.
Uncommon features include haematemesis, hyperpyrexia, hypoglycaemia, hypokalaemia, thrombocytopaenia, increased INR/PTR, intravascular coagulation, renal failure and non-cardiac pulmonary oedema.
Central nervous system features including confusion, disorientation, coma and convulsions are less common in adults than in children.
Give activated charcoal if an adult presents within one hour of ingestion of more than 250 mg/kg. The plasma salicylate concentration should be measured, although the severity of poisoning cannot be determined from this alone and the clinical and biochemical features must be taken into account. Elimination is increased by urinary alkalinisation, which is achieved by the administration of 1.26% sodium bicarbonate. The urine pH should be monitored. Correct metabolic acidosis with intravenous 8.4% sodium bicarbonate (first check serum potassium). Forced diuresis should not be used since it does not enhance salicylate excretion and may cause pulmonary oedema.
Haemodialysis is the treatment of choice for severe poisoning and should be considered in patients with plasma salicylate concentrations >700 mg/L (5.1 mmol/L), or lower concentrations associated with severe clinical or metabolic features. Patients under ten years or over 70 have increased risk of salicylate toxicity and may require dialysis at an earlier stage.
Koal has a keratolytic action.
Koal may be percutaneously absorbed. However, there is no evidence of any systemic absorption from the use of Koal Ointment BP.
No other information relevant to the prescriber other than that already stated in other sections of the SPC.
No special requirements.