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Components:
Ciclopirox
Method of action:
Available in countries
Medically reviewed by Kovalenko Svetlana Olegovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2019.12.14

Therapeutic indications

The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Kitonail is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kitonail of the medicine (Ciclopirox). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Therapeutic indications in the instructions to the drug Kitonail directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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(To understand fully the indication for this product, please read the entire INDICATIONS AND USAGE section of the labeling.)

Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, as a component of a comprehensive management program, is indicated as topical treatment in immunocompetent patients with mild to moderate onychomycosis of fingernails and toenails without lunula involvement, due to Trichophyton rubrum. The comprehensive management program includes removal of the unattached, infected nails as frequently as monthly, by a health care professional who has special competence in the diagnosis and treatment of nail disorders, including minor nail procedures.

  • No studies have been conducted to determine whether ciclopirox might reduce the effectiveness of systemic antifungal agents for onychomycosis. Therefore, the concomitant use of 8% ciclopirox topical solution and systemic antifungal agents for onychomycosis, is not recommended.
  • Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, should be used only under medical supervision as described above.
  • The effectiveness and safety of Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, in the following populations has not been studied. The clinical trials with use of Kitonail®NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, excluded patients who: were pregnant or nursing, planned to become pregnant, had a history of immunosuppression (e.g., extensive, persistent, or unusual distribution of dermatomycoses, extensive seborrheic dermatitis, recent or recurring herpes zoster, or persistent herpes simplex), were HIV seropositive, received organ transplant, required medication to control epilepsy, were insulin dependent diabetics or had diabetic neuropathy. Patients with severe plantar (moccasin) tinea pedis were also excluded.
  • The safety and efficacy of using Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, daily for greater than 48 weeks have not been established.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administration of Kitonail is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kitonail of the medicine (Ciclopirox). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Kitonail directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, should be used as a component of a comprehensive management program for onychomycosis. Removal of the unattached, infected nail, as frequently as monthly, by a health care professional, weekly trimming by the patient, and daily application of the medication are all integral parts of this therapy. Careful consideration of the appropriate nail management program should be given to patients with diabetes (see PRECAUTIONS).

Nail Care By Health Care Professionals

Removal of the unattached, infected nail, as frequently as monthly, trimming of onycholytic nail, and filing of excess horny material should be performed by professionals trained in treatment of nail disorders.

Nail Care By Patient

Patients should file away (with emery board) loose nail material and trim nails, as required, or as directed by the health care professional, every seven days after Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, is removed with alcohol.

Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, should be applied once daily (preferably at bedtime or eight hours before washing) to all affected nails with the applicator brush provided. The Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, should be applied evenly over the entire nail plate.

If possible, Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, should be applied to the nail bed, hyponychium, and the under surface of the nail plate when it is free of the nail bed (e.g., onycholysis).

The Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, should not be removed on a daily basis. Daily applications should be made over the previous coat and removed with alcohol every seven days. This cycle should be repeated throughout the duration of therapy.

Contraindications

The information provided in Contraindications of Kitonail is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kitonail of the medicine (Ciclopirox). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Kitonail directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, is contraindicated in individuals who have shown hypersensitivity to any of its components.

Special warnings and precautions for use

The information provided in Special warnings and precautions for use of Kitonail is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kitonail of the medicine (Ciclopirox). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special warnings and precautions for use in the instructions to the drug Kitonail directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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WARNINGS

Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, is not for ophthalmic, oral, or intravaginal use. For use on nails and immediately adjacent skin only.

PRECAUTIONS

If a reaction suggesting sensitivity or chemical irritation should occur with the use of Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, treatment should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

So far there is no relevant clinical experience with patients with insulin dependent diabetes or who have diabetic neuropathy. The risk of removal of the unattached, infected nail, by the health care professional and trimming by the patient should be carefully considered before prescribing to patients with a history of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or diabetic neuropathy.

Information for Patients

Patients should have detailed instructions regarding the use of Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, as a component of a comprehensive management program for onychomycosis in order to achieve maximum benefit with the use of this product.

The patient should be told to:

  1. Use Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, as directed by a health care professional. Avoid contact with the eyes and mucous membranes. Contact with skin other than skin immediately surrounding the treated nail(s) should be avoided. Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, is for external use only.
  2. Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, should be applied evenly over the entire nail plate and 5 mm of surrounding skin. If possible, Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, should be applied to the nail bed, hyponychium, and the under surface of the nail plate when it is free of the nail bed (e.g., onycholysis). Contact with the surrounding skin may produce mild, transient irritation (redness).
  3. Removal of the unattached, infected nail, as frequently as monthly, by a health care professional is needed with use of this medication. Inform a health care professional if they have diabetes or problems with numbness in your toes or fingers for consideration of the appropriate nail management program.
  4. Inform a health care professional if the area of application shows signs of increased irritation (redness, itching, burning, blistering, swelling, oozing).
  5. Up to 48 weeks of daily applications with Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, and professional removal of the unattached, infected nail, as frequently as monthly, are considered the full treatment needed to achieve a clear or almost clear nail (defined as 10% or less residual nail involvement).
  6. Six months of therapy with professional removal of the unattached, infected nail may be required before initial improvement of symptoms is noticed.
  7. A completely clear nail may not be achieved with use of this medication. In clinical studies less than 12% of patients were able to achieve either a completely clear or almost clear toenail.
  8. Do not use the medication for any disorder other than that for which it is prescribed.
  9. Do not use nail polish or other nail cosmetic products on the treated nails.
  10. Avoid use near heat or open flame, because product is flammable.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

No carcinogenicity study was conducted with Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, formulation. A carcinogenicity study of ciclopirox (1% and 5% solutions in polyethylene glycol 400) in female mice dosed topically twice per week for 50 weeks followed by a 6-month drug-free observation period prior to necropsy revealed no evidence of tumors at the application sites.

In human systemic tolerability studies following daily application (~340 mg of Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%) in subjects with distal subungual onychomycosis, the average maximal serum level of ciclopirox was 31 28 ng/mL after two months of once daily applications. This level was 159 times lower than the lowest toxic dose and 115 times lower than the highest nontoxic dose in rats and dogs fed 7.7 and 23.1 mg ciclopirox (as ciclopirox olamine)/kg/day.

The following in vitro genotoxicity tests have been conducted with ciclopirox: evaluation of gene mutation in Ames Salmonella and E. coli assays (negative); chromosome aberration assays in V79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts, with and without metabolic activation (positive); gene mutation assay in the HGPRT-test with V79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (negative); unscheduled DNA synthesis in human A549 cells (negative); and BALB/c3T3 cell transformation assay (negative). In an in vivo Chinese hamster bone marrow cytogenetic assay, ciclopirox was negative for chromosome aberrations at 5,000 mg/kg.

The following in vitro genotoxicity tests were conducted with Kitonail ®NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%: Ames Salmonella test (negative); unscheduled DNA synthesis in the rat hepatocytes (negative); cell transformation assay in BALB/c3T3 cell assay (positive). The positive response of the lacquer formulation in the BALB/c3T3 test was attributed to its butyl monoester of poly[methylvinyl ether/maleic acid] resin component (Gantrez® ES-435), which also tested positive in this test. The cell transformation assay may have been confounded because of the film-forming nature of the resin. Gantrez® ES-435 tested nonmutagenic in both the in vitro mouse lymphoma forward mutation assay with or without activation and unscheduled DNA synthesis assay in rat hepatocytes.

Oral reproduction studies in rats at doses up to 3.85 mg ciclopirox (as ciclopirox olamine)/kg/day [equivalent to approximately 1.4 times the potential exposure at the maximum recommended human topical dose (MRHTD)] did not reveal any specific effects on fertility or other reproductive parameters. MRHTD (mg/m2) is based on the assumption of 100% systemic absorption of 27.12 mg ciclopirox (~340 mg Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%) that will cover all the fingernails and toenails including 5 mm proximal and lateral fold area plus onycholysis to a maximal extent of 50%.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic effects: Pregnancy Category B

Teratology studies in mice, rats, rabbits, and monkeys at oral doses of up to 77, 23, 23, or 38.5 mg, respectively, of ciclopirox as ciclopirox olamine/kg/day (14, 8, 17, and 28 times MRHTD), or in rats and rabbits receiving topical doses of up to 92.4 and 77 mg/kg/day, respectively (33 and 55 times MRHTD), did not indicate any significant fetal malformations.

There are no adequate or well-controlled studies of topically applied ciclopirox in pregnant women. Kitonail ®NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Since many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Based on the safety profile in adults, Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8% is considered safe for use in children twelve years and older. No clinical trials have been conducted in the pediatric population.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients.

Undesirable effects

The information provided in Undesirable effects of Kitonail is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kitonail of the medicine (Ciclopirox). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Undesirable effects in the instructions to the drug Kitonail directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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In the vehicle-controlled clinical trials conducted in the US, 9% (30/327) of patients treated with Kitonail ®NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, and 7% (23/328) of patients treated with vehicle reported treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAE) considered by the investigator to be causally related to the test material. The incidence of these adverse events, within each body system, was similar between the treatment groups except for Skin and Appendages: 8% (27/327) and 4% (14/328) of subjects in the ciclopirox and vehicle groups reported at least one adverse event, respectively. The most common were rash-related adverse events: periungual erythema and erythema of the proximal nail fold were reported more frequently in patients treated with Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, (5% [16/327]) than in patients treated with vehicle (1% [3/328]). Other TEAEs thought to be causally related included nail disorders such as shape change, irritation, ingrown toenail, and discoloration.

The incidence of nail disorders was similar between the treatment groups (2% [6/327] in the Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, group and 2% [7/328] in the vehicle group). Moreover, application site reactions and/or burning of the skin occurred in 1% of patients treated with Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, (3/327) and vehicle (4/328).

A 21-Day Cumulative Irritancy study was conducted under conditions of semi-occlusion. Mild reactions were seen in 46% of patients with the Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, 32% with the vehicle and 2% with the negative control, but all were reactions of mild transient erythema. There was no evidence of allergic contact sensitization for either the Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, or the vehicle base. In a separate study of the photosensitization potential of Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8% in a maximized test design that included the occluded application of sodium lauryl sulfate, no photoallergic reactions were noted. In four subjects localized allergic contact reactions were observed. In the vehicle-controlled studies, one patient treated with Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, discontinued treatment due to a rash, localized to the palm (causal relation to test material undetermined).

Use of Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, for 48 additional weeks was evaluated in an open-label extension study conducted in patients previously treated in the vehicle-controlled studies. Three percent (9/281) of subjects treated with Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, experienced at least one TEAE that the investigator thought was causally related to the test material. Mild rash in the form of periungual erythema (1% [2/281]) and nail disorders (1% [4/281]) were the most frequently reported. Four patients discontinued because of TEAEs. Two of the four had events considered to be related to test material: one patient's great toenail "broke away" and another had an elevated creatine phosphokinase level on Day 1 (after 48 weeks of treatment with vehicle in the previous vehicle-controlled study).

Overdose

The information provided in Overdose of Kitonail is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kitonail of the medicine (Ciclopirox). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Overdose in the instructions to the drug Kitonail directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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No information provided.

Pharmacokinetic properties

The information provided in Pharmacokinetic properties of Kitonail is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kitonail of the medicine (Ciclopirox). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacokinetic properties in the instructions to the drug Kitonail directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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As demonstrated in pharmacokinetic studies in animals and man, ciclopirox olamine is rapidly absorbed after oral administration and completely eliminated in all species via feces and urine. Most of the compound is excreted either unchanged or as glucuronide. After oral administration of 10 mg of radiolabeled drug (14C-ciclopirox) to healthy volunteers, approximately 96% of the radioactivity was excreted renally within 12 hours of administration. Ninety-four percent of the renally excreted radioactivity was in the form of glucuronides. Thus, glucuronidation is the main metabolic pathway of this compound.

Systemic absorption of ciclopirox was determined in 5 patients with dermatophytic onychomycoses, after application of Kitonail (ciclopirox topical solution) ® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, to all 20 digits and adjacent 5 mm of skin once daily for six months. Random serum concentrations and 24 hour urinary excretion of ciclopirox were determined at two weeks and at 1, 2, 4 and 6 months after initiation of treatment and 4 weeks post-treatment. In this study, ciclopirox serum levels ranged from 12-80 ng/mL. Based on urinary data, mean absorption of ciclopirox from the dosage form was < 5% of the applied dose. One month after cessation of treatment, serum and urine levels of ciclopirox were below the limit of detection.

In two vehicle-controlled trials, patients applied Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, to all toenails and affected fingernails. Out of a total of 66 randomly selected patients on active treatment, 24 had detectable serum ciclopirox concentrations at some point during the dosing interval (range 10.0-24.6 ng/mL). It should be noted that eleven of these 24 patients took concomitant medication containing ciclopirox as ciclopirox olamine (Loprox® Cream, 0.77%).

The penetration of the Kitonail® NAIL LACQUER (ciclopirox) Topical Solution, 8%, was evaluated in an in vitro investigation. Radiolabeled ciclopirox applied once to onychomycotic toenails that were avulsed demonstrated penetration up to a depth of approximately 0.4 mm. As expected, nail plate concentrations decreased as a function of nail depth. The clinical significance of these findings in nail plates is unknown. Nail bed concentrations were not determined.

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