Medically reviewed by Kovalenko Svetlana Olegovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2020-03-15
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Cyclophosphan (cyclophosphamide) is indicated for the treatment of:
- malignant lymphomas (Stages III and IV of the Ann Arbor staging system), Hodgkin's disease, lymphocytic lymphoma (nodular or diffuse), mixed-cell type lymphoma, histiocytic lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma
- multiple myeloma
- leukemias: chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic granulocytic leukemia (it is usually ineffective in acute blastic crisis), acute myelogenous and monocytic leukemia, acute lymphoblastic (stem-cell) leukemia (cyclophosphamide given during remission is effective in prolonging its duration)
- mycosis fungoides (advanced disease)
- neuroblastoma (disseminated disease)
- adenocarcinoma of the ovary
- carcinoma of the breast
Cyclophosphamide, although effective alone in susceptible malignancies, is more frequently used concurrently or sequentially with other antineoplastic drugs.
Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome in Pediatric Patients:
Cyclophosphamide is indicated for the treatment of biopsy proven minimal change nephrotic syndrome in pediatrics patients who failed to adequately respond to or are unable to tolerate adrenocorticosteroid therapy.
Limitations of Use
The safety and effectiveness for the treatment of nephrotic syndrome in adults or other renal disease has not been established.
During or immediately after the administration, adequate amounts of fluid should be ingested or infused to force diuresis in order to reduce the risk of urinary tract toxicity. Therefore, cyclophosphamide should be administered in the morning.
Dosing for Malignant Diseases
Adults and Pediatric Patients
When used as the only oncolytic drug therapy, the initial course of cyclophosphamide for patients with no hematologic deficiency usually consists of 40 mg per kg to 50 mg per kg given intravenously in divided doses over a period of 2 to 5 days. Other intravenous regimens include 10 mg per kg to 15 mg per kg given every 7 to 10 days or 3 mg per kg to 5 mg per kg twice weekly.
Oral cyclophosphamide dosing is usually in the range of 1 mg per kg per day to 5 mg per kg per day for both initial and maintenance dosing.
Many other regimens of intravenous and oral cyclophosphamide have been reported. Dosages must be adjusted in accord with evidence of antitumor activity and/or leukopenia. The total leukocyte count is a good, objective guide for regulating dosage.
When cyclophosphamide is included in combined cytotoxic regimens, it may be necessary to reduce the dose of cyclophosphamide as well as that of the other drugs.
Dosing for Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome in Pediatric Patients
An oral dose of 2 mg per kg daily for 8 to 12 weeks (maximum cumulative dose 168 mg per kg) is recommended. Treatment beyond 90 days increases the probability of sterility in males.
Preparation, Handling and Administration
Handle and dispose of cyclophosphamide in a manner consistent with other cytotoxic drugs.1 Caution should be exercised when handling and preparing Cyclophosphamide for Injection, USP (lyophilized powder), or bottles containing cyclophosphamide tablets. To minimize the risk of dermal exposure, always wear gloves when handling vials containing Cyclophosphamide for Injection, USP (lyophilized powder), or bottles containing cyclophosphamide tablets. The coating of the cyclophosphamide tablets prevents direct contact of persons handling the tablets with the active substance. However, to prevent inadvertent exposure to the active substance, the cyclophosphamide tablets should not be cut, chewed, or crushed. Personnel should avoid exposure to broken tablets. If contact with broken tablets occurs, wash hands immediately and thoroughly.
Cyclophosphamide for Injection, USP
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Do not use cyclophosphamide vials if there are signs of melting. Melted cyclophosphamide is a clear or yellowish viscous liquid usually found as a connected phase or in droplets in the affected vials.
Cyclophosphamide does not contain any antimicrobial preservative and thus care must be taken to assure the sterility of prepared solutions. Use aseptic technique.
For Direct Intravenous Injection
Reconstitute Cyclophosphamide with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP only, using the volumes listed below in Table 1. Gently swirl the vial to dissolve the drug completely. Do not use Sterile Water for Injection, USP because it results in a hypotonic solution and should not be injected directly.
Table 1: Reconstitution for Direct Intravenous Injection
|Strength||Volume of 0.9% Sodium Chloride||Cyclophosphamide Concentration|
|500 mg||25 mL||20 mg per mL|
|1 g||50 mL|
|2 g||100 mL|
For Intravenous Infusion
Reconstitution of Cyclophosphamide
Reconstitute Cyclophosphamide using 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP or Sterile Water for Injection, USP with the volume of diluent listed below in Table 2. Add the diluent to the vial and gently swirl to dissolve the drug completely.
Table 2: Reconstitution in preparation for Intravenous Infusion
|Strength||Volume of Diluent||Cyclophosphamide Concentration|
|500 mg||25 mL||20 mg per mL|
|1 g||50 mL|
|2 g||100 mL|
Dilution of Reconstituted Cyclophosphamide
Further dilute the reconstituted Cyclophosphamide solution to a minimum concentration of 2 mg per mL with any of the following diluents:
- 5% Dextrose Injection, USP
- 5% Dextrose and 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP
- 0.45% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP
To reduce the likelihood of adverse reactions that appear to be administration rate-dependent (e.g., facial swelling, headache, nasal congestion, scalp burning), cyclophosphamide should be injected or infused very slowly. Duration of the infusion also should be appropriate for the volume and type of carrier fluid to be infused.
Storage of Reconstituted and Diluted Cyclophosphamide Solution
If not used immediately, for microbiological integrity, cyclophosphamide solutions should be stored as described in Table 3:
Table 3: Storage of Cyclophosphamide Solutions
|Reconstituted Solution (Without Further Dilution)|
|0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP||up to 24 hrs||Up to 6 days|
|Sterile Water for Injection, USP||Do not store; use immediately|
|0.45% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP||up to 24 hrs||up to 6 days|
|5% Dextrose Injection, USP||up to 24 hrs||up to 36 hrs|
|5% Dextrose and 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP||up to 24 hrs||up to 36 hrs|
|1Storage time is the total time cyclophosphamide is in solution including the time it is reconstituted in 0.9% Sterile Sodium Chloride Injection, USP or Sterile Water for Injection, USP.|
Use of Reconstituted Solution for Oral Administration
Liquid preparations of cyclophosphamide for oral administration may be prepared by dissolving cyclophosphamide for injection in Aromatic Elixir, National Formulary (NF) Such preparations should be stored under refrigeration in glass containers and used within 14 days.
Cyclophosphamide is contraindicated in patients who have a history of severe hypersensitivity reactions to it, any of its metabolites, or to other components of the product. Anaphylactic reactions including death have been reported with cyclophosphamide. Possible cross-sensitivity with other alkylating agents can occur.
- Urinary Outflow Obstruction
Cyclophosphamide is contraindicated in patients with urinary outflow obstruction.
Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.
Myelosuppression, Immunosuppression, Bone Marrow Failure and Infections
Cyclophosphan (cyclophosphamide) can cause myelosuppression (leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia), bone marrow failure, and severe immunosuppression which may lead to serious and sometimes fatal infections, including sepsis and septic shock. Latent infections can be reactivated.
Antimicrobial prophylaxis may be indicated in certain cases of neutropenia at the discretion of the managing physician. In case of neutropenic fever, antibiotic therapy is indicated. Antimycotics and/or antivirals may also be indicated.
Monitoring of complete blood counts is essential during cyclophosphamide treatment so that the dose can be adjusted, if needed. Cyclophosphamide should not be administered to patients with neutrophils ≤ 1,500/mm³ and platelets < 50,000/mm³. Cyclophosphamide treatment may not be indicated, or should be interrupted, or the dose reduced, in patients who have or who develop a serious infection. G-CSF may be administered to reduce the risks of neutropenia complications associated with cyclophosphamide use. Primary and secondary prophylaxis with G-CSF should be considered in all patients considered to be at increased risk for neutropenia complications. The nadirs of the reduction in leukocyte count and thrombocyte count are usually reached in weeks 1 and 2 of treatment. Peripheral blood cell counts are expected to normalize after approximately 20 days. Bone marrow failure has been reported. Severe myelosuppression may be expected particularly in patients pretreated with and/or receiving concomitant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.
Urinary Tract and Renal Toxicity
Hemorrhagic cystitis, pyelitis, ureteritis, and hematuria have been reported with cyclophosphamide. Medical and/or surgical supportive treatment may be required to treat protracted cases of severe hemorrhagic cystitis. Discontinue cyclophosphamide therapy in case of severe hemorrhagic cystitis. Urotoxicity (bladder ulceration, necrosis, fibrosis, contracture and secondary cancer) may require interruption of cyclophosphamide treatment or cystectomy. Urotoxicity can be fatal. Urotoxicity can occur with short-term or long-term use of cyclophosphamide.
Before starting treatment, exclude or correct any urinary tract obstructions. Urinary sediment should be checked regularly for the presence of erythrocytes and other signs of urotoxicity and/or nephrotoxicity. Cyclophosphamide should be used with caution, if at all, in patients with active urinary tract infections. Aggressive hydration with forced diuresis and frequent bladder emptying can reduce the frequency and severity of bladder toxicity. Mesna has been used to prevent severe bladder toxicity.
Myocarditis, myopericarditis, pericardial effusion including cardiac tamponade, and congestive heart failure, which may be fatal, have been reported with cyclophosphamide therapy
Supraventricular arrhythmias (including atrial fibrillation and flutter) and ventricular arrhythmias (including severe QT prolongation associated with ventricular tachyarrhythmia) have been reported after treatment with regimens that included cyclophosphamide.
The risk of cardiotoxicity may be increased with high doses of cyclophosphamide, in patients with advanced age, and in patients with previous radiation treatment to the cardiac region and/or previous or concomitant treatment with other cardiotoxic agents.
Particular caution is necessary in patients with risk factors for cardiotoxicity and in patients with preexisting cardiac disease.
Monitor patients with risk factors for cardiotoxicity and with pre-existing cardiac disease.
Pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and other forms of pulmonary toxicity leading to respiratory failure have been reported during and following treatment with cyclophosphamide. Late onset pneumonitis (greater than 6 months after start of cyclophosphamide) appears to be associated with increased mortality. Pneumonitis may develop years after treatment with cyclophosphamide.
Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of pulmonary toxicity.
Cyclophosphamide is genotoxic. Secondary malignancies (urinary tract cancer, myelodysplasia, acute leukemias, lymphomas, thyroid cancer, and sarcomas) have been reported in patients treated with cyclophosphamide-containing regimens. The risk of bladder cancer may be reduced by prevention of hemorrhagic cystitis.
Veno-occlusive Liver Disease
Veno-occlusive liver disease (VOD) including fatal outcome has been reported in patients receiving cyclophosphamide-containing regimens. A cytoreductive regimen in preparation for bone marrow transplantation that consists of cyclophosphamide in combination with whole-body irradiation, busulfan, or other agents has been identified as a major risk factor. VOD has also been reported to develop gradually in patients receiving long-term low-dose immunosuppressive doses of cyclophosphamide. Other risk factors predisposing to the development of VOD include preexisting disturbances of hepatic function, previous radiation therapy of the abdomen, and a low performance status.
Cyclophosphamide can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Exposure to cyclophosphamide during pregnancy may cause birth defects, miscarriage, fetal growth retardation, and fetotoxic effects in the newborn. Cyclophosphamide is teratogenic and embryo-fetal toxic in mice, rats, rabbits and monkeys.
Advise female patients of reproductive potential to avoid becoming pregnant and to use highly effective contraception during treatment and for up to 1 year after completion of therapy.
Male and female reproductive function and fertility may be impaired in patients being treated with cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide interferes with oogenesis and spermatogenesis. It may cause sterility in both sexes. Development of sterility appears to depend on the dose of cyclophosphamide, duration of therapy, and the state of gonadal function at the time of treatment. Cyclophosphamide-induced sterility may be irreversible in some patients. Advise patients on the potential risks for infertility.
Impairment of Wound Healing
Cyclophosphamide may interfere with normal wound healing.
Hyponatremia associated with increased total body water, acute water intoxication, and a syndrome resembling SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone), which may be fatal, has been reported.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Cyclophosphamide administered by different routes, including intravenous, subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection, or in drinking water, caused tumors in both mice and rats. In addition to leukemia and lymphoma, benign and malignant tumors were found at various tissue sites, including urinary bladder, mammary gland, lung, liver, and injection site.
Cyclophosphamide was mutagenic and clastogenic in multiple in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicology studies.
Cyclophosphamide is genotoxic in male and female germ cells. Animal data indicate that exposure of oocytes to cyclophosphamide during follicular development may result in a decreased rate of implantations and viable pregnancies, and in an increased risk of malformations. Male mice and rats treated with cyclophosphamide show alterations in male reproductive organs (e.g., decreased weights, atrophy, changes in spermatogenesis), and decreases in reproductive potential (e.g., decreased implantations and increased post-implantation loss) and increases in fetal malformations when mated with untreated females.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category D - Risk Summary
Cyclophosphamide can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman based on its mechanism of action and published reports of effects in pregnant patients or animals. Exposure to cyclophosphamide during pregnancy may cause fetal malformations, miscarriage, fetal growth retardation, and toxic effects in the newborn. Cyclophosphamide is teratogenic and embryo-fetal toxic in mice, rats, rabbits and monkeys. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, apprise the patient of the potential hazard to a fetus.
Malformations of the skeleton, palate, limbs and eyes as well as miscarriage have been reported after exposure to cyclophosphamide in the first trimester. Fetal growth retardation and toxic effects manifesting in the newborn, including leukopenia, anemia, pancytopenia, severe bone marrow hypoplasia, and gastroenteritis have been reported after exposure to cyclophosphamide.
Administration of cyclophosphamide to pregnant mice, rats, rabbits and monkeys during the period of organogenesis at doses at or below the dose in patients based on body surface area resulted in various malformations, which included neural tube defects, limb and digit defects and other skeletal anomalies, cleft lip and palate, and reduced skeletal ossification.
Cyclophosphamide is present in breast milk. Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, low hemoglobin, and diarrhea have been reported in infants breast fed by women treated with cyclophosphamide. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from cyclophosphamide, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Pre-pubescent girls treated with cyclophosphamide generally develop secondary sexual characteristics normally and have regular menses. Ovarian fibrosis with apparently complete loss of germ cells after prolonged cyclophosphamide treatment in late pre-pubescence has been reported. Girls treated with cyclophosphamide who have retained ovarian function after completing treatment are at increased risk of developing premature menopause.
Pre-pubescent boys treated with cyclophosphamide develop secondary sexual characteristics normally, but may have oligospermia or azoospermia and increased gonadotropin secretion. Some degree of testicular atrophy may occur. Cyclophosphamide-induced azoospermia is reversible in some patients, though the reversibility may not occur for several years after cessation of therapy.
There is insufficient data from clinical studies of cyclophosphamide available for patients 65 years of age and older to determine whether they respond differently than younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac functioning, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Females and Males of Reproductive Potential
Pregnancy should be avoided during treatment with cyclophosphamide because of the risk of fetal harm.
Female patients of reproductive potential should use highly effective contraception during and for up to 1 year after completion of treatment.
Male patients who are sexually active with female partners who are or may become pregnant should use a condom during and for at least 4 months after treatment.
Amenorrhea, transient or permanent, associated with decreased estrogen and increased gonadotropin secretion develops in a proportion of women treated with cyclophosphamide. Affected patients generally resume regular menses within a few months after cessation of therapy. The risk of premature menopause with cyclophosphamide increases with age. Oligomenorrhea has also been reported in association with cyclophosphamide treatment.
Animal data suggest an increased risk of failed pregnancy and malformations may persist after discontinuation of cyclophosphamide as long as oocytes/follicles exist that were exposed to cyclophosphamide during any of their maturation phases. The exact duration of follicular development in humans is not known, but may be longer than 12 months.
Men treated with cyclophosphamide may develop oligospermia or azoospermia which are normally associated with increased gonadotropin but normal testosterone secretion.
Use in Patients with Renal Impairment
In patients with severe renal impairment, decreased renal excretion may result in increased plasma levels of cyclophosphamide and its metabolites. This may result in increased toxicity. Monitor patients with severe renal impairment (CrCl =10 mL/min to 24 mL/min) for signs and symptoms of toxicity.
Cyclophosphamide and its metabolites are dialyzable although there are probably quantitative differences depending upon the dialysis system being used. In patients requiring dialysis, use of a consistent interval between cyclophosphamide administration and dialysis should be considered.
Use in Patients with Hepatic Impairment
Patients with severe hepatic impairment have reduced conversion of cyclophosphamide to the active 4hydroxyl metabolite, potentially reducing efficacy.
The following adverse reactions are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling.
- Myelosuppression, Immunosuppression, Bone Marrow Failure, and Infections
- Urinary Tract and Renal Toxicity
- Pulmonary Toxicity
- Secondary Malignancies
- Veno-occlusive Liver Disease
- Embryo-Fetal Toxicity
- Reproductive System Toxicity
- Impaired Wound Healing
Common Adverse Reactions
Neutropenia occurs in patients treated with Cyclophosphan (cyclophosphamide). The degree of neutropenia is particularly important because it correlates with a reduction in resistance to infections. Fever without documented infection has been reported in neutropenic patients.
Nausea and vomiting occur with cyclophosphamide therapy. Anorexia and, less frequently, abdominal discomfort or pain and diarrhea may occur. There are isolated reports of hemorrhagic colitis, oral mucosal ulceration and jaundice occurring during therapy.
Skin and its structures
Alopecia occurs in patients treated with cyclophosphamide. Skin rash occurs occasionally in patients receiving the drug. Pigmentation of the skin and changes in nails can occur.
The following adverse reactions have been identified from clinical trials or post-marketing surveillance. Because they are reported from a population from unknown size, precise estimates of frequency cannot be made.
Cardiac: cardiac arrest, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, cardiogenic shock, pericardial effusion (progressing to cardiac tamponade), myocardial hemorrhage, myocardial infarction, cardiac failure (including fatal outcomes), cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, pericarditis, carditis, atrial fibrillation, supraventricular arrhythmia, ventricular arrhythmia, bradycardia, tachycardia, palpitations, QT prolongation.
Congenital, Familial and Genetic: intra-uterine death, fetal malformation, fetal growth retardation, fetal toxicity (including myelosuppression, gastroenteritis).
Ear and Labyrinth: deafness, hearing impaired, tinnitus.
Endocrine: water intoxication.
Eye: visual impairment, conjunctivitis, lacrimation.
Gastrointestinal: gastrointestinal hemorrhage, acute pancreatitis, colitis, enteritis, cecitis, stomatitis, constipation, parotid gland inflammation.
General Disorders and Administrative Site Conditions: multiorgan failure, general physical deterioration, influenza-like illness, injection/infusion site reactions (thrombosis, necrosis, phlebitis, inflammation, pain, swelling, erythema), pyrexia, edema, chest pain, mucosal inflammation, asthenia, pain, chills, fatigue, malaise, headache.
Hematologic: myelosuppression, bone marrow failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation and hemolytic uremic syndrome (with thrombotic microangiopathy).
Hepatic: veno-occlusive liver disease, cholestatic hepatitis, cytolytic hepatitis, hepatitis, cholestasis; hepatotoxicity with hepatic failure, hepatic encephalopathy, ascites, hepatomegaly, blood bilirubin increased, hepatic function abnormal, hepatic enzymes increased.
Immune: immunosuppression, anaphylactic shock and hypersensitivity reaction.
Infections: The following manifestations have been associated with myelosuppression and immunosuppression caused by cyclophosphamide: increased risk for and severity of pneumonias (including fatal outcomes), other bacterial, fungal, viral, protozoal and, parasitic infections; reactivation of latent infections, (including viral hepatitis, tuberculosis), Pneumocystis jiroveci, herpes zoster, Strongyloides, sepsis and septic shock.
Investigations: blood lactate dehydrogenase increased, C-reactive protein increased.
Metabolism and Nutrition: hyponatremia, fluid retention, blood glucose increased, blood glucose decreased.
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue: rhabdomyolysis, scleroderma, muscle spasms, myalgia, arthralgia.
Neoplasms: acute leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, lymphoma, sarcomas, renal cell carcinoma, renal pelvis cancer, bladder cancer, ureteric cancer, thyroid cancer.
Nervous System: encephalopathy, convulsion, dizziness, neurotoxicity has been reported and manifested as reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome, myelopathy, peripheral neuropathy, polyneuropathy, neuralgia, dysesthesia, hypoesthesia, paresthesia, tremor, dysgeusia, hypogeusia, parosmia.
Pregnancy: premature labor.
Psychiatric: confusional state.
Renal and Urinary: renal failure, renal tubular disorder, renal impairment, nephropathy toxic, hemorrhagic cystitis, bladder necrosis, cystitis ulcerative, bladder contracture, hematuria, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, atypical urinary bladder epithelial cells.
Reproductive System: infertility, ovarian failure, ovarian disorder, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, testicular atrophy, azoospermia, oligospermia.
Respiratory: pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, acute respiratory distress syndrome, interstitial lung disease as manifested by respiratory failure (including fatal outcomes), obliterative bronchiolitis, organizing pneumonia, alveolitis allergic, pneumonitis, pulmonary hemorrhage; respiratory distress, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, bronchospasm, dyspnea, hypoxia, cough, nasal congestion, nasal discomfort, oropharyngeal pain, rhinorrhea.
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue: toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome, radiation recall dermatitis, toxic skin eruption, urticaria, dermatitis, blister, pruritus, erythema, nail disorder, facial swelling, hyperhidrosis.
Tumor lysis syndrome: like other cytotoxic drugs, cyclophosphamide may induce tumor-lysis syndrome and hyperuricemia in patients with rapidly growing tumors.
Vascular: pulmonary embolism, venous thrombosis, vasculitis, peripheral ischemia, hypertension, hypotension, flushing, hot flush.
No specific antidote for cyclophosphamide is known.
Overdosage should be managed with supportive measures, including appropriate treatment for any concurrent infection, myelosuppression, or cardiac toxicity should it occur.
Serious consequences of overdosage include manifestations of dose dependent toxicities such as myelosuppression, urotoxicity, cardiotoxicity (including cardiac failure), veno-occlusive hepatic disease, and stomatitis.
Patients who received an overdose should be closely monitored for the development of toxicities, and hematologic toxicity in particular.
Cyclophosphan (cyclophosphamide) and its metabolites are dialyzable. Therefore, rapid hemodialysis is indicated when treating any suicidal or accidental overdose or intoxication.
Cystitis prophylaxis with mesna may be helpful in preventing or limiting urotoxic effects with cyclophosphamide overdose.
Cyclophosphan (cyclophosphamide) is biotransformed principally in the liver to active alkylating metabolites by a mixed function microsomal oxidase system. These metabolites interfere with the growth of susceptible rapidly proliferating malignant cells.
Following IV administration, elimination half-life (t ½) ranges from 3 to 12 hours with total body clearance (CL) values of 4 to 5.6 L/h. Pharmacokinetics are linear over the dose range used clinically. When cyclophosphamide was administered at 4.0 g/m² over a 90 minutes infusion, saturable elimination in parallel with first-order renal elimination describe the kinetics of the drug.
After oral administration, peak concentrations of cyclophosphamide occurred at one hour. Area under the curve ratio for the drug after oral and IV administration (AUCpo : AUCiv) ranged from 0.87 to 0.96.
Approximately 20% of cyclophosphamide is protein bound, with no dose dependent changes. Some metabolites are protein bound to an extent greater than 60%. Volume of distribution approximates total body water (30 to 50 L).
The liver is the major site of cyclophosphamide activation. Approximately 75% of the administered dose of cyclophosphamide is activated by hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450s including CYP2A6, 2B6, 3A4, 3A5, 2C9, 2C18 and 2C19, with 2B6 displaying the highest 4-hydroxylase activity. Cyclophosphamide is activated to form 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide, which is in equilibrium with its ring-open tautomer aldophosphamide. 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide and aldophosphamide can undergo oxidation by aldehyde dehydrogenases to form the inactive metabolites 4-ketocyclophosphamide and carboxyphosphamide, respectively. Aldophosphamide can undergo β-elimination to form active metabolites phosphoramide mustard and acrolein. This spontaneous conversion can be catalyzed by albumin and other proteins. Less than 5% of cyclophosphamide may be directly detoxified by side chain oxidation, leading to the formation of inactive metabolites 2-dechloroethylcyclophosphamide. At high doses, the fraction of parent compound cleared by 4-hydroxylation is reduced resulting in non-linear elimination of cyclophosphamide in patients. Cyclophosphamide appears to induce its own metabolism. Auto-induction results in an increase in the total clearance, increased formation of 4-hydroxyl metabolites and shortened t1/2 values following repeated administration at 12- to 24-hour interval.
Cyclophosphamide is primarily excreted as metabolites. 10 to 20% is excreted unchanged in the urine and 4% is excreted in the bile following IV administration.
However, we will provide data for each active ingredient