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Allopurinol
Method of action:
Antigout, Hypouricemic
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Medically reviewed by Kovalenko Svetlana Olegovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2019.09.15

Name of the medicinal product

Acepurin

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Allopurinol

Therapeutic indications

The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Acepurin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acepurin of the medicine (Allopurinol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Therapeutic indications in the instructions to the drug Acepurin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Acepurin is indicated for reducing urate/uric acid formation in conditions where urate/uric acid deposition has already occurred (e.g. gouty arthritis, skin tophi, nephrolithiasis) or is a predictable clinical risk (e.g. treatment of malignancy potentially leading to acute uric acid nephropathy). The main clinical conditions where urate/uric acid deposition may occur are: idiopathic gout; uric acid lithiasis; acute uric acid nephropathy; neoplastic disease and myeloproliferative disease with high cell turnover rates, in which high urate levels occur either spontaneously, or after cytotoxic therapy; certain enzyme disorders which lead to overproduction of urate, for example: hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, including Lesch-Nyhan syndrome; glucose-6-phosphatase including glycogen storage disease; phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase, phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase; adenine phosphoribosyltransferase.

Acepurin is indicated for the management of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (2,8-DHA) renal stones related to deficient activity of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase.

Acepurin is indicated for the management of recurrent mixed calcium oxalate renal stones in the presence of hyperuricosuria, when fluid, dietary and similar measures have failed.

Acepurin is indicated for reducing urate/uric acid formation in conditions where urate/uric acid deposition has already occurred (e.g. gouty arthritis, skin tophi, nephrolithiasis) or is a predictable clinical risk (e.g. treatment of malignancy potentially leading to acute uric acid nephropathy). The main clinical conditions where urate/uric acid deposition may occur are: idiopathic gout; uric acid lithiasis; acute uric acid nephropathy; neoplastic disease and myeloproliferative disease with high cell turnover rates, in which high urate levels occur either spontaneously, or after cytotoxic therapy; certain enzyme disorders which lead to overproduction of urate, for example: hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, including Lesch-Nyhan syndrome; glucose-6-phosphatase including glycogen storage disease; phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase, phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase; adenine phosphoribosyltransferase.

Acepurin is indicated for the management of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (2,8-DHA) renal stones related to deficient activity of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase.

Acepurin is indicated for the management of recurrent mixed calcium oxalate renal stones in the presence of hyperuricosuria, when fluid, dietary and similar measures have failed.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administration of Acepurin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acepurin of the medicine (Allopurinol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Acepurin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Posology

Adults

Acepurin should be introduced at low dosage e.g. 100 mg/day to reduce the risk of adverse reactions and increased only if the serum urate response is unsatisfactory. Extra caution should be exercised if renal function is poor. The following dosage schedules are suggested:

100 to 200 mg daily in mild conditions,

300 to 600 mg daily in moderately severe conditions,

700 to 900 mg daily in severe conditions.

If dosage on a mg/kg bodyweight basis is required, 2 to 10 mg/kg bodyweight/day should be used.

Paediatric population

Children under 15 years: 10 to 20 mg/kg bodyweight/day up to a maximum of 400 mg daily. Use in children is rarely indicated, except in malignant conditions (especially leukaemia) and certain enzyme disorders such as Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.

Older people

In the absence of specific data, the lowest dosage which produces satisfactory urate reduction should be used.4.

Renal impairment

Since Acepurin and its metabolites are excreted by the kidney, impaired renal function may lead to retention of the drug and/or its metabolites with consequent prolongation of plasma half-lives. In severe renal insufficiency, it may be advisable to use less than 100 mg per day or to use single doses of 100 mg at longer intervals than one day. If facilities are available to monitor plasma oxipurinol concentrations, the dose should be adjusted to maintain plasma oxipurinol levels below 100 micromol/litre (15.2 mg/litre). Acepurin and its metabolites are removed by renal dialysis. If dialysis is required two to three times a week consideration should be given to an alternative dosage schedule of 300-400 mg Acepurin immediately after each dialysis with none in the interim.

Hepatic impairment

Reduced doses should be used in patients with hepatic impairment. Periodic liver function tests are recommended during the early stages of therapy.

Treatment of high urate turnover conditions, e.g. neoplasia, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

It is advisable to correct existing hyperuricaemia and/or hyperuricosuria with Acepurin before starting cytotoxic therapy. It is important to ensure adequate hydration to maintain optimum diuresis and to attempt alkalinisation of urine to increase solubility of urinary urate/uric acid. Dosage of Acepurin should be at the lower end of the recommended dosage schedule.

These steps may reduce the risk of xanthine and/or oxipurinol deposition complicating the clinical situation.8.

Monitoring Advice

The dosage should be adjusted by monitoring serum urate concentrations and urinary urate/uric acid levels at appropriate intervals.

Method of administration

Acepurin may be taken orally once a day after a meal. It is well tolerated, especially after food. Should the daily dosage exceed 300 mg and gastrointestinal intolerance be manifested, a divided doses regimen may be appropriate.

Posology

Adults

Acepurin should be introduced at low dosage e.g. 100 mg/day to reduce the risk of adverse reactions and increased only if the serum urate response is unsatisfactory. Extra caution should be exercised if renal function is poor. The following dosage schedules are suggested:

100 to 200 mg daily in mild conditions,

300 to 600 mg daily in moderately severe conditions,

700 to 900 mg daily in severe conditions.

If dosage on a mg/kg bodyweight basis is required, 2 to 10 mg/kg bodyweight/day should be used.

Paediatric population

Children under 15 years: 10 to 20 mg/kg bodyweight/day up to a maximum of 400 mg daily. Use in children is rarely indicated, except in malignant conditions (especially leukaemia) and certain enzyme disorders such as Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.

Older people

<.

Renal impairment

Since allopurinol and its metabolites are excreted by the kidney, impaired renal function may lead to retention of the drug and/or its metabolites with consequent prolongation of plasma half-lives. In severe renal insufficiency, it may be advisable to use less than 100 mg per day or to use single doses of 100 mg at longer intervals than one day. If facilities are available to monitor plasma oxipurinol concentrations, the dose should be adjusted to maintain plasma oxipurinol levels below 100 micromol/litre (15.2 mg/litre). Allopurinol and its metabolites are removed by renal dialysis. If dialysis is required two to three times a week consideration should be given to an alternative dosage schedule of 300-400 mg Acepurin immediately after each dialysis with none in the interim.

Hepatic impairment

Reduced doses should be used in patients with hepatic impairment. Periodic liver function tests are recommended during the early stages of therapy.

Treatment of high urate turnover conditions, e.g. neoplasia, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

It is advisable to correct existing hyperuricaemia and/or hyperuricosuria with Acepurin before starting cytotoxic therapy. It is important to ensure adequate hydration to maintain optimum diuresis and to attempt alkalinisation of urine to increase solubility of urinary urate/uric acid. Dosage of Acepurin should be at the lower end of the recommended dosage schedule.

<Renal impairment should be followed.

These steps may reduce the risk of xanthine and/or oxipurinol deposition complicating the clinical situation.8.

Monitoring Advice

The dosage should be adjusted by monitoring serum urate concentrations and urinary urate/uric acid levels at appropriate intervals.

Method of administration

Acepurin may be taken orally once a day after a meal. It is well tolerated, especially after food. Should the daily dosage exceed 300 mg and gastrointestinal intolerance be manifested, a divided doses regimen may be appropriate.

Contraindications

The information provided in Contraindications of Acepurin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acepurin of the medicine (Allopurinol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Acepurin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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<

Special warnings and precautions for use

The information provided in Special warnings and precautions for use of Acepurin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acepurin of the medicine (Allopurinol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special warnings and precautions for use in the instructions to the drug Acepurin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Hypersensitivity syndrome, SJS and TEN

Acepurin hypersensitivity reactions can manifest in many different ways, including maculopapular exanthema, hypersensitivity syndrome (also known as DRESS) and SJS / TEN. These reactions are clinical diagnoses, and their clinical presentations remain the basis for decision making. If such reactions occur at any time during treatment, Acepurin should be withdrawn immediately. Rechallenge should not be undertaken in patients with hypersensitivity syndrome and SJS/TEN. Corticosteroids may be beneficial in overcoming hypersensitivity skin reactions.

HLA-B*5801 allele

The HLA-B*5801 allele has been shown to be associated with the risk of developing Acepurin related hypersensitivity syndrome and SJS/TEN. The frequency of the HLA-B*5801 allele varies widely between ethnic populations: up to 20% in Han Chinese population, 8-15% in the Thai, about 12% in the Korean population and 1-2% in individuals of Japanese or European origin. Screening for HLA-B*5801 should be considered before starting treatment with Acepurin in patient subgroups where the prevalence of this allele is known to be high. Chronic kidney disease may increase the risk in these patients additionally. In case that no HLA-B*5801 genotyping is available for patients with Han Chinese, Thai or Korean descent the benefits should be thoroughly assessed and considered outweigh the possible higher risks before starting therapy. The use of genotyping has not been established in other patient populations. If the patient is a known carrier of HLA-B*5801 (especially in those who are from Han Chinese, Thai or Korean descent),Acepurin should not be started unless there are no other reasonable therapeutic options and the benefits are thought to exceed risks. Extra vigilance for signs of hypersensitivity syndrome or SJS/TEN is required and the patient should be informed of the need to stop treatment immediately at the first appearance of symptoms.

SJS/TEN can still occur in patients who are found to be negative for HLA-B*5801 irrespective of their ethnic origin.

Chronic renal impairment

Patients with chronic renal impairment and concomitant diuretic use, in particular thiazides, may be at increased risk of developing hypersensitivity reactions including SJS/TEN associated with Acepurin. Extra vigilance for the signs of hypersensitivity syndrome or SJS/TEN is required and the patient should be informed of the need to stop treatment immediately and permanently at the first appearance of symptoms.

Hepatic or renal impairment

Reduced doses should be used in patients with hepatic or renal impairment. Patients under treatment for hypertension or cardiac insufficiency, for example with diuretics or ACE inhibitors, may have some concomitant impairment of renal function and Acepurin should be used with care in this group.

Asymptomatic hyperuricaemia

Asymptomatic hyperuricaemia per se is generally not considered an indication for use of Acepurin. Fluid and dietary modification with management of the underlying cause may correct the condition.

Acute gouty attacks

Acepurin treatment should not be started until an acute attack of gout has completely subsided, as further attacks may be precipitated.

In the early stages of treatment with Acepurin, as with uricosuric agents, an acute attack of gouty arthritis may be precipitated. Therefore it is advisable to give prophylaxis with a suitable anti-inflammatory agent or colchicine for at least one month. The literature should be consulted for details of appropriate dosage and precautions and warnings.

If acute attacks develop in patients receiving Acepurin, treatment should continue at the same dosage while the acute attack is treated with a suitable anti-inflammatory agent.

Xanthine deposition

In conditions where the rate of urate formation is greatly increased (e.g. malignant disease and its treatment, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome) the absolute concentration of xanthine in urine could, in rare cases, rise sufficiently to allow deposition in the urinary tract. This risk may be minimised by adequate hydration to achieve optimal urine dilution.

Impaction of uric acid renal stones

Adequate therapy with Acepurin will lead to dissolution of large uric acid renal pelvic stones, with the remote possibility of impaction in the ureter.

Thyroid disorders

Increased TSH values (>5.5 µIU/mL) were observed in patients on long-term treatment with Acepurin (5.8%) in a long term open label extension study. Caution is required when Acepurin is used in patients with alteration of thyroid function.

Lactose

Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.

Hypersensitivity syndrome, SJS and TEN

Allopurinol hypersensitivity reactions can manifest in many different ways, including maculopapular exanthema, hypersensitivity syndrome (also known as DRESS) and SJS/TEN. These reactions are clinical diagnoses, and their clinical presentations remain the basis for decision making. If such reactions occur at any time during treatment, allopurinol should be withdrawn immediately. Rechallenge should not be undertaken in patients with hypersensitivity syndrome and SJS/TEN. Corticosteroids may be beneficial in overcoming hypersensitivity skin reactions.

HLA-B*5801 allele

The HLA-B*5801 allele has been shown to be associated with the risk of developing allopurinol related hypersensitivity syndrome and SJS/TEN. The frequency of the HLA-B*5801 allele varies widely between ethnic populations: up to 20% in Han Chinese population, 8-15% in the Thai, about 12% in the Korean population and 1-2% in individuals of Japanese or European origin. Screening for HLA-B*5801 should be considered before starting treatment with allopurinol in patient subgroups where the prevalence of this allele is known to be high. Chronic kidney disease may increase the risk in these patients additionally In case that no HLA-B*5801 genotyping is available for patients with Han Chinese, Thai or Korean descent the benefits should be thoroughly assessed and considered outweigh the possible higher risks before starting therapy. The use of genotyping has not been established in other patient populations. If the patient is a known carrier of HLA-B*5801 (especially in those who are from Han Chinese, Thai or Korean descent), allopurinol should not be started unless there are no other reasonable therapeutic options and the benefits are thought to exceed risks. Extra vigilance for signs of hypersensitivity syndrome or SJS/TEN is required and the patient should be informed of the need to stop treatment immediately at the first appearance of symptoms.

SJS/TEN can still occur in patients who are found to be negative for HLA-B*5801 irrespective of their ethnic origin.

Chronic renal impairment

Patients with chronic renal impairment and concomitant diuretic use, in particular thiazides, may be at increased risk of developing hypersensitivity reactions including SJS/TEN associated with allopurinol. Extra vigilance for the signs of hypersensitivity syndrome or SJS/TEN is required and the patient should be informed of the need to stop treatment immediately and permanently at the first appearance of symptoms.

Hepatic or renal impairment

Reduced doses should be used in patients with hepatic or renal impairment. Patients under treatment for hypertension or cardiac insufficiency, for example with diuretics or ACE inhibitors, may have some concomitant impairment of renal function and allopurinol should be used with care in this group.

Asymptomatic hyperuricaemia

Asymptomatic hyperuricaemia per se is generally not considered an indication for use of Acepurin. Fluid and dietary modification with management of the underlying cause may correct the condition.

Acute gouty attacks

Allopurinol treatment should not be started until an acute attack of gout has completely subsided, as further attacks may be precipitated.

In the early stages of treatment with Acepurin, as with uricosuric agents, an acute attack of gouty arthritis may be precipitated. Therefore it is advisable to give prophylaxis with a suitable anti-inflammatory agent or colchicine for at least one month. The literature should be consulted for details of appropriate dosage and precautions and warnings.

If acute attacks develop in patients receiving allopurinol, treatment should continue at the same dosage while the acute attack is treated with a suitable anti-inflammatory agent.

Xanthine deposition

In conditions where the rate of urate formation is greatly increased (e.g. malignant disease and its treatment, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome) the absolute concentration of xanthine in urine could, in rare cases, rise sufficiently to allow deposition in the urinary tract. This risk may be minimised by adequate hydration to achieve optimal urine dilution.

Impaction of uric acid renal stones

Adequate therapy with Acepurin will lead to dissolution of large uric acid renal pelvic stones, with the remote possibility of impaction in the ureter.

Thyroid disorders

Increased TSH values (>5.5 µIU/mL) were observed in patients on long-term treatment with allopurinol (5.8%) in a long term open label extension study. Caution is required when allopurinol is used in patients with alteration of thyroid function.

Lactose

Acepurin tablets contain lactose and therefore should not be administered to patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption.

Effects on ability to drive and use machines

The information provided in Effects on ability to drive and use machines of Acepurin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acepurin of the medicine (Allopurinol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Effects on ability to drive and use machines in the instructions to the drug Acepurin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Since adverse reactions such as somnolence, vertigo and ataxia have been reported in patients receiving Acepurin, patients should exercise caution before driving, using machinery or participating in dangerous activities until they are reasonably certain that Acepurin does not adversely affect performance.

Since adverse reactions such as somnolence, vertigo and ataxia have been reported in patients receiving allopurinol, patients should exercise caution before driving, using machinery or participating in dangerous activities until they are reasonably certain that allopurinol does not adversely affect performance.

Undesirable effects

The information provided in Undesirable effects of Acepurin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acepurin of the medicine (Allopurinol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Undesirable effects in the instructions to the drug Acepurin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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For this product there is no modern clinical documentation which can be used as support for determining the frequency of undesirable effects. Undesirable effects may vary in their incidence depending on the dose received and also when given in combination with other therapeutic agents.

The frequency categories assigned to the adverse drug reactions below are estimates: for most reactions, suitable data for calculating incidence are not available. Adverse drug reactions identified though post-marketing surveillance were considered to be rare or very rare. The following convention has been used for the classification of frequency:

Very common

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Very rare

> 1/10

> 1/100 to <1/10

> 1/1,000 to < 1/100

> 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000

< 1/10,000

Adverse reactions in association with Acepurin are rare in the overall treated population and mostly of a minor nature. The incidence is higher in the presence of renal and/or hepatic disorder.

Table 1 Tabulated summary of adverse reactions

System Organ Class

Frequency

Adverse Reaction

Infections and infestations

Very rare

Furuncle

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Very rare

Agranulocytosis1

Aplastic anaemia1

Thrombocytopenia1

Not known

Haemolytic anaemia

Immune system disorders

Uncommon

Hypersensitivity2

Very rare

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma3

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Very rare

Diabetes mellitus

Hyperlipidaemia

Psychiatric conditions

Very rare

Depression

Nervous system disorders

Very rare

Coma

Paralysis

Ataxia

Neuropathy peripheral

Paraesthesiae

Somnolence

Headache

Dysgeusia

Eye disorders

Very rare

Cataract

Visual impairment

Maculopathy

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Very rare

Vertigo

Cardiac disorders

Very rare

Angina pectoris

Bradycardia

Vascular disorders

Very rare

Hypertension

Gastrointestinal disorders

Uncommon

Vomiting4

Nausea4

Very rare

Haematemesis

Steatorrhoea

Stomatitis

Changed bowel habit

Hepatobiliary disorders

Uncommon

Liver function test abnormal5

Rare

Hepatitis (including hepatic necrosis and granulomatous hepatitis)5

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Common

Rash

Rare

Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis6

Very rare

Angioedema7

Drug eruption

Alopecia

Hair colour changes

Renal and urinary disorders

Very rare

Haematuria

Azotaemia

Reproductive and breast disorders

Very rare

Infertility male

Erectile dysfunction

Gynaecomastia

General disorders and administration site conditions

Very rare

Oedema

Malaise

Asthenia

Pyrexia8

Not known

Chills

Investigations

Common

Blood thyroid stimulating hormone increased9

1 Very rare reports have been received of thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis and aplastic anaemia, particularly in individuals with impaired renal and/or hepatic function, reinforcing the need for particular care in this group of patients.

2 A delayed multi-organ hypersensitivity disorder (known as hypersensitivity syndrome or DRESS) with fever, rashes, vasculitis,lymphadenopathy, pseudo lymphoma, arthralgia, leucopenia, eosinophilia hepato-splenomegaly, abnormal liver function tests, and vanishing bile duct syndrome (destruction and disappearance of the intrahepatic bile ducts) occurring in various combinations. Other organs may also be affected (e.g. liver, lungs, kidneys, pancreas, myocardium and colon). Very rarely acute anaphylactic shock has been reported. If such reactions do occur, it may be at any time during treatment. Acepurin should be withdrawn IMMEDIATELY AND PERMANENTLY.

Rechallenge should not be undertaken in patients with hypersensitivity syndrome and SJS/TEN. Corticosteroids may be beneficial in overcoming hypersensitivity skin reactions. When generalised hypersensitivity reactions have occurred, renal and/or hepatic disorder has usually been present particularly when the outcome has been fatal.

3 Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma has been described very rarely following biopsy of a generalised lymphadenopathy. It appears to be reversible on withdrawal of Acepurin.

4 In early clinical studies, nausea and vomiting were reported. Further reports suggest that this reaction is not a significant problem and can be avoided by taking Acepurin after meals.

5 Hepatic dysfunction has been reported without overt evidence of more generalised hypersensitivity.

6 Skin reactions are the most common reactions and may occur at any time during treatment.). If SJS/TEN, or other serious hypersensitivity reactions cannot be ruled out, DO NOT re-introduce Acepurin due to the potential for a severe or even fatal reaction. The clinical diagnosis of SJS/TEN remains the basis for decision making. If such reactions occur at any time during treatment, Acepurin should be withdrawn immediately and permanently

7 Angioedema has been reported to occur with and without signs and symptoms of a more generalised hypersensitivity reaction.

9 The occurrence of increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the relevant studies did not report any impact on free T4 levels or had TSH levels indicative of subclinical hypothyroidism.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.

For this product there is no modern clinical documentation which can be used as support for determining the frequency of undesirable effects. Undesirable effects may vary in their incidence depending on the dose received and also when given in combination with other therapeutic agents.

The frequency categories assigned to the adverse drug reactions below are estimates: for most reactions, suitable data for calculating incidence are not available. Adverse drug reactions identified through post-marketing surveillance were considered to be rare or very rare. The following convention has been used for the classification of frequency:

Very common

>1/10

Common

>1/100 to <1/10

Uncommon

>1/1000 to <1/100

Rare

>1/10,000 to <1/1000

Very rare

<1/10,000

Adverse reactions in association with Acepurin are rare in the overall treated population and mostly of a minor nature. The incidence is higher in the presence of renal and/or hepatic disorder.

Table 1 Tabulated summary of adverse reactions

System Organ Class

Frequency

Adverse reaction

Infections and infestations

Very rare

Furuncle

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Very rare

Agranulocytosis1

Aplastic anaemia1

Thrombocytopenia1

Immune system disorders

Uncommon

Hypersensitivity 2

Very rare

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma 3

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Very rare

Diabetes mellitus

Hyperlipidaemia

Psychiatric disorders

Very rare

Depression

Nervous system disorders

Very rare

Coma

Paralysis

Ataxia

Neuropathy peripheral

Paraesthesia

Somnolence

HeadacheDysgeusia

Eye disorders

Very rare

Cataract

Visual impairment

Maculopathy

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Very rare

Vertigo

Cardiac disorders

Very rare

Angina pectoris

Bradycardia

Vascular disorders

Very rare

Hypertension

Gastrointestinal disorders

Uncommon

Vomiting4

Nausea4

Very rare

Haematemesis

Steatorrhoea

Stomatitis

Change of bowel habit

Hepatobiliary disorders

Uncommon

Liver function test abnormal5

Rare

Hepatitis (including hepatic necrosis and granulomatous hepatitis) 5

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Common

Rash

Rare

Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis 6

Very rare

Angioedema7

Drug eruption

Alopecia

Hair colour changes

Renal and urinary disorders

Very rare

Haematuria

Azotaemia

Reproductive system and breast disorders

Very rare

Infertility male

Erectile dysfunction

Gynaecomastia

General disorders and administration site conditions

Very rare

Oedema

Malaise

Asthenia

Pyrexia 8

Investigations

Common

Blood thyroid stimulating hormone increased9

1 Very rare reports have been received of thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis and aplastic anaemia, particularly in individuals with impaired renal and/or hepatic function, reinforcing the need for particular care in this group of patients.

2 A delayed multi-organ hypersensitivity disorder (known as hypersensitivity syndrome or DRESS) with fever, rashes, vasculitis,lymphadenopathy, pseudo lymphoma, arthralgia, leucopenia, eosinophilia hepato-splenomegaly, abnormal liver function tests, and vanishing bile duct syndrome (destruction and disappearance of the intrahepatic bile ducts) occurring in various combinations. Other organs may also be affected (e.g. liver, lungs, kidneys, pancreas, myocardium, and colon). If such reactions do occur, it may be at any time during treatment, allopurinol should be withdrawn IMMEDIATELY AND PERMANENTLY.

Rechallenge should not be undertaken in patients with hypersensitivity syndrome and SJS/TEN. Corticosteroids may be beneficial in overcoming hypersensitivity skin reactions. When generalised hypersensitivity reactions have occurred, renal and/or hepatic disorder has usually been present particularly when the outcome has been fatal.

3 Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma has been described very rarely following biopsy of a generalised lymphadenopathy. It appears to be reversible on withdrawal of Acepurin.

4 In early clinical studies, nausea and vomiting were reported. Further reports suggest that this reaction is not a significant problem and can be avoided by taking Acepurin after meals.

5 Hepatic dysfunction has been reported without overt evidence of more generalised hypersensitivity.

6 Skin reactions are the most common reactions and may occur at any time during treatment.Immune system disorders). If SJS/TEN, or other serious hypersensitivity reactions cannot be ruled out, DO NOT re-introduce allopurinol due to the potential for a severe or even fatal reaction. The clinical diagnosis of SJS/TEN remains the basis for decision making. If such reactions occur at any time during treatment, allopurinol should be withdrawn immediately and permanently.

7 Angioedema has been reported to occur with and without signs and symptoms of a more generalised hypersensitivity reaction.

<Immune system disorders).

9 The occurrence of increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the relevant studies did not report any impact on free T4 levels or had TSH levels indicative of subclinical hypothyroidism.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via:

Yellow Card Scheme

Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard

Overdose

The information provided in Overdose of Acepurin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acepurin of the medicine (Allopurinol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Overdose in the instructions to the drug Acepurin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Ingestion of up to 22.5 g Acepurin without adverse effect has been reported. Symptoms and signs including nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and dizziness have been reported in a patient who ingested 20 g Acepurin. Recovery followed general supportive measures. Massive absorption of Acepurin may lead to considerable inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity which should have no untoward effect unless affecting concomitant medication, especially with 6-mercaptopurine and/or azathioprine. Adequate hydration to maintain optimum diuresis facilitates excretion of Acepurin and its metabolites. If considered necessary haemodialysis may be used.

Ingestion of up to 22.5 g allopurinol without adverse effect has been reported. Symptoms and signs including nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and dizziness have been reported in a patient who ingested 20 g allopurinol. Recovery followed general supportive measures. Massive absorption of Acepurin may lead to considerable inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity, which should have no untoward effects unless affecting concomitant medication, especially with 6-mercaptopurine and/or azathioprine. Adequate hydration to maintain optimum diuresis facilitates excretion of allopurinol and its metabolites. If considered necessary haemodialysis may be used.

Pharmacodynamic properties

The information provided in Pharmacodynamic properties of Acepurin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acepurin of the medicine (Allopurinol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacodynamic properties in the instructions to the drug Acepurin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Pharmacotherapeutic group: Preparations inhibiting uric acid production. ATC code: M04AA01.

Acepurin and its main metabolite oxipurinol lower the level of uric acid in plasma and urine by inhibition of xanthine oxidase, the enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid. In addition to the inhibition of purine catabolism in some but not all hyperuricaemic patients, de novo purine biosynthesis is depressed via feedback inhibition of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. Other metabolites of Acepurin include Acepurin-riboside and oxipurinol-7-riboside.

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Preparations inhibiting uric acid production, ATC code: M04AA01.

Allopurinol is a xanthine-oxidase inhibitor. Allopurinol and its main metabolite oxipurinol lower the level of uric acid in plasma and urine by inhibition of xanthine oxidase, the enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid. In addition to the inhibition of purine catabolism in some but not all hyperuricaemic patients, de novo purine biosynthesis is depressed via feedback inhibition of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. Other metabolites of allopurinol include allopurinol-riboside and oxipurinol-7-riboside.

Pharmacokinetic properties

The information provided in Pharmacokinetic properties of Acepurin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acepurin of the medicine (Allopurinol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacokinetic properties in the instructions to the drug Acepurin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Absorption

Acepurin is active when given orally and is rapidly absorbed from the upper gastrointestinal tract. Studies have detected Acepurin in the blood 30-60 minutes after dosing. Estimates of bioavailability vary from 67% to 90%. Peak plasma levels of Acepurin generally occur approximately 1.5 hours after oral administration of Acepurin, but fall rapidly and are barely detectable after 6 hours. Peak plasma levels of oxipurinol generally occur after 3-5 hours after oral administration of Acepurin and are much more sustained.

Distribution

Acepurin is negligibly bound by plasma proteins and therefore variations in protein binding are not thought to significantly alter clearance. The apparent volume of distribution of Acepurin is approximately 1.6 litre/kg which, suggests relatively extensive uptake by tissues. Tissue concentrations of Acepurin have not been reported in humans, but it is likely that Acepurin and oxipurinol will be present in the highest concentrations in the liver and intestinal mucosa where xanthine oxidase activity is high.

Biotransformation

The main metabolite of Acepurin is oxipurinol. Other metabolites of Acepurin include Acepurin-riboside and oxipurinol-7-riboside.

Elimination

Approximately 20% of the ingested Acepurin is excreted in the faeces. Elimination of Acepurin is mainly by metabolic conversion to oxipurinol by xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase, with less than 10% of the unchanged drug excreted in the urine. Acepurin has a plasma half-life of about 0.5 to 1.5 hours.

Oxipurinol is a less potent inhibitor of xanthine oxidase than Acepurin, but the plasma half-life of oxipurinol is far more prolonged. Estimates range from 13 to 30 hours in man. Therefore effective inhibition of xanthine oxidase is maintained over a 24 hour period with a single daily dose of Acepurin. Patients with normal renal function will gradually accumulate oxipurinol until a steady-state plasma oxipurinol concentration is reached. Such patients, taking 300 mg of Acepurin per day will generally have plasma oxipurinol concentrations of 5-10 mg/litre.

Oxipurinol is eliminated unchanged in the urine but has a long elimination half-life because it undergoes tubular reabsorption. Reported values for the elimination half-life range from 13.6 hours to 29 hours. The large discrepancies in these values may be accounted for by variations in study design and/or creatinine clearance in the patients.

Pharmacokinetics in patients with renal impairment

Acepurin and oxipurinol clearance is greatly reduced in patients with poor renal function resulting in higher plasma levels in chronic therapy. Patients with renal impairment, where creatinine clearance values were between 10 and 20 ml/min, showed plasma oxipurinol concentrations of approximately 30 mg/litre after prolonged treatment with 300 mg Acepurin per day. This is approximately the concentration which would be achieved by doses of 600 mg/day in those with normal renal function. A reduction in the dose of Acepurin is therefore required in patients with renal impairment.

Pharmacokinetics in elderly patients

Absorption

Allopurinol is active when given orally and is rapidly absorbed from the upper gastrointestinal tract. Studies have detected allopurinol in the blood 30-60 minutes after dosing. Estimates of bioavailability vary from 67% to 90%. Peak plasma levels of allopurinol generally occur approximately 1.5 hours after oral administration of Acepurin, but fall rapidly and are barely detectable after 6 hours. Peak plasma levels of oxipurinol generally occur after 3-5 hours after oral administration of Acepurin and are much more sustained.

Distribution

Allopurinol is negligibly bound by plasma proteins and therefore variations in protein binding are not thought to significantly alter clearance. The apparent volume of distribution of allopurinol is approximately 1.6 litre/kg which, suggests relatively extensive uptake by tissues. Tissue concentrations of allopurinol have not been reported in humans, but it is likely that allopurinol and oxipurinol will be present in the highest concentrations in the liver and intestinal mucosa where xanthine oxidase activity is high.

Biotransformation

The main metabolite of Acepurin is oxipurinol. Other metabolites of allopurinol include allopurinol-riboside and oxipurinol-7-riboside.

Elimination

Approximately 20% of the ingested allopurinol is excreted in the faeces. Elimination of allopurinol is mainly by metabolic conversion to oxipurinol by xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase, with less than 10% of the unchanged drug excreted in the urine. Allopurinol has a plasma half-life of about 0.5 to 1.5 hours.

Oxipurinol is a less potent inhibitor of xanthine oxidase than allopurinol, but the plasma half-life of oxipurinol is far more prolonged. Estimates range from 13 to 30 hours in man. Therefore effective inhibition of xanthine oxidase is maintained over a 24 hour period with a single daily dose of Acepurin. Patients with normal renal function will gradually accumulate oxipurinol until a steady-state plasma oxipurinol concentration is reached. Such patients, taking 300 mg of allopurinol per day will generally have plasma oxipurinol concentrations of 5-10 mg/litre.

Oxipurinol is eliminated unchanged in the urine but has a long elimination half-life because it undergoes tubular reabsorption. Reported values for the elimination half-life range from 13.6 hours to 29 hours. The large discrepancies in these values may be accounted for by variations in study design and/or creatinine clearance in the patients.

Pharmacokinetics in patients with renal impairment

Allopurinol and oxipurinol clearance is greatly reduced in patients with poor renal function resulting in higher plasma levels in chronic therapy. Patients with renal impairment, where creatinine clearance values were between 10 and 20 ml/min, showed plasma oxipurinol concentrations of approximately 30 mg/litre after prolonged treatment with 300 mg allopurinol per day. This is approximately the concentration which would be achieved by doses of 600 mg/day in those with normal renal function. A reduction in the dose of Acepurin is therefore required in patients with renal impairment.

Pharmacokinetics in elderly patients

<Pharmacokinetics in patients with renal impairment).

Pharmacotherapeutic group

The information provided in Pharmacotherapeutic group of Acepurin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acepurin of the medicine (Allopurinol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacotherapeutic group in the instructions to the drug Acepurin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Preparations inhibiting uric acid production. ATC code: M04AA01.
Preparations inhibiting uric acid production, ATC code: M04AA01.

Preclinical safety data

The information provided in Preclinical safety data of Acepurin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acepurin of the medicine (Allopurinol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Preclinical safety data in the instructions to the drug Acepurin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Mutagenicity

Cytogenetic studies show that Acepurin does not induce chromosome aberrations in human blood cells in vitro at concentrations up to 100 micrograms/ml and in vivo at doses up to 600 mg/day for a mean period of 40 months.

Acepurin does not produce nitroso compounds in vitro or affect lymphocyte transformation in vitro.

Evidence from biochemical and other cytological investigations strongly suggests that Acepurin has no deleterious effects on DNA at any stage of the cell cycle and is not mutagenic.

Carcinogenicity

No evidence of carcinogenicity has been found in mice and rats treated with Acepurin for up to 2 years.

Teratogenicity

One study in mice receiving intraperitoneal doses of 50 or 100 mg/kg on days 10 or 13 of gestation resulted in foetal abnormalities, however in a similar study in rats at 120 mg/kg on day 12 of gestation no abnormalities were observed. Extensive studies of high oral doses of Acepurin in mice up to 100 mg/kg/day, rats up to 200 mg/kg/day and rabbits up to 150 mg/kg/day during days 8 to 16 of gestation produced no teratogenic effects.

An in vitro study using foetal mouse salivary glands in culture to detect embryotoxicity indicated that Acepurin would not be expected to cause embryotoxicity without also causing maternal toxicity.

Mutagenicity

Cytogenetic studies show that allopurinol does not induce chromosome aberrations in human blood cells in vitro at concentrations up to 100 micrograms/ml and in vivo at doses up to 600 mg/day for a mean period of 40 months.

Allopurinol does not produce nitroso compounds in vitro or affect lymphocyte transformation in vitro.

Evidence from biochemical and other cytological investigations strongly suggests that allopurinol has no deleterious effects on DNA at any stage of the cell cycle and is not mutagenic.

Carcinogenicity

No evidence of carcinogenicity has been found in mice and rats treated with allopurinol for up to 2 years.

Teratogenicity

One study in mice receiving intraperitoneal doses of 50 or 100 mg/kg on days 10 or 13 of gestation resulted in foetal abnormalities, however in a similar study in rats at 120 mg/kg on day 12 of gestation no abnormalities were observed. Extensive studies of high oral doses of allopurinol in mice up to 100 mg/kg/day, rats up to 200 mg/kg/day and rabbits up to 150 mg/kg/day during days 8 to 16 of gestation produced no teratogenic effects.

An in vitro study using foetal mouse salivary glands in culture to detect embryotoxicity indicated that allopurinol would not be expected to cause embryotoxicity without also causing maternal toxicity.

Incompatibilities

The information provided in Incompatibilities of Acepurin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acepurin of the medicine (Allopurinol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Incompatibilities in the instructions to the drug Acepurin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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No major incompatibilities known.

Not applicable.

Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The information provided in Special precautions for disposal and other handling of Acepurin is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acepurin of the medicine (Allopurinol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special precautions for disposal and other handling in the instructions to the drug Acepurin directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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N/A

No special requirements.