Medically reviewed by Oliinyk Elizabeth Ivanovna, PharmD. Last updated on 19.03.2022
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Zigotrig 160 mg Tablets are indicated as an adjunct to diet and other non-pharmacological treatment (e.g. exercise, weight reduction) for the following:
- Treatment of severe hypertriglyceridaemia with or without low HDL cholesterol.
- Mixed hyperlipidaemia when a statin is contraindicated or not tolerated.
- Mixed hyperlipidaemia in patients at high cardiovascular risk in addition to a statin when triglycerides and HDL cholesterol are not adequately controlled.
Primary Hypercholesterolemia or Mixed Dyslipidemia
Zigotrig is indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet to reduce elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (total-c), Triglycerides (TG) and apolopoprotein B (Apo B), and to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in adult patients with primary hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia.
Zigotrig is also indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for treatment of adult patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Improving glycemic control in diabetic patients showing fasting chylomicronemia will usually obviate the need for pharmacologic intervention.
Markedly elevated levels of serum triglycerides (e.g. > 2,000 mg/dL) may increase the risk of developing pancreatitis. The effect of fenofibrate therapy on reducing this risk has not been adequately studied.
Important Limitations of Use
Fenofibrate at a dose equivalent to 150 mg of Zigotrig was not shown to reduce coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality in 2 large, randomized controlled trials of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Adults: The recommended dose is one tablet containing 160 mg Zigotrig taken once daily. Patients currently taking one Zigotrig 200mg capsule can be changed to one Zigotrig 160 mg tablet without further dose adjustment.
Elderly patients (> 65 years old): No dose adjustment is necessary. The usual dose is recommended, except for decreased renal function with estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (see Patients with renal impairment).
Patients with renal impairment: Zigotrig should not be used if severe renal impairment, defined as eGFR <30 mL/min per 1.73 m2, is present.
If eGFR is between 30 and 59 mL/min per 1.73 m2, the dose of Zigotrig should not exceed 100mg standard or 67 mg micronized once daily.
If, during follow-up, the eGFR decreases persistently to <30 mL/min per 1.73 m2, Zigotrig should be discontinued.
Paediatric population: The safety and efficacy of Zigotrig in children and adolescents younger than 18 years has not been established. No data are available. Therefore the use of Zigotrig is not recommended in paediatric subjects under 18 years.
Hepatic disease: Patients with hepatic disease have not been studied.
Dietary measures initiated before therapy should be continued.
If after several months of Zigotrig administration (e.g. 3 months) serum lipid levels have not been reduced satisfactorily, complementary or different therapeutic measures should be considered.
Method of administration: Tablets should be swallowed whole during a meal.
Zigotrig Capsules should be given with meals thereby optimizing the absorption of the medication.
Patients should be advised to swallow Zigotrig capsules whole. Do not open, crush, dissolve or chew capsules.
Patients should be placed on an appropriate lipid-lowering diet before receiving Zigotrig, and should continue this diet during treatment with Zigotrig.
The initial treatment for dyslipidemia is dietary therapy specific for the type of lipoprotein abnormality. Excess body weight and excess alcoholic intake may be important factors in hypertriglyceridemia and should be addressed prior to any drug therapy. Physical exercise can be an important ancillary measure. Diseases contributory to hyperlipidemia, such as hypothyroidism or diabetes mellitus should be looked for and adequately treated. Estrogen therapy, thiazide diuretics and beta-blockers, are sometimes associated with massive rises in plasma triglycerides, especially in subjects with familial hypertriglyceridemia. In such cases, discontinuation of the specific etiologic agent may obviate the need for specific drug therapy of hypertriglyceridemia.
Periodic determination of serum lipids should be obtained during initial therapy in order to establish the lowest effective dose of Zigotrig. Therapy should be withdrawn in patients who do not have an adequate response after two months of treatment with the maximum recommended dose of 150 mg per day.
Consideration should be given to reducing the dosage of Zigotrig if lipid levels fall significantly below the targeted range.
Primary Hypercholesterolemia or Mixed Dyslipidemia
The dose of Zigotrig is 150 mg once daily.
The initial dose is 50 to 150 mg per day. Dosage should be individualized according to patient response, and should be adjusted if necessary following repeat lipid determination at 4 to 8 week intervals.
The maximum dose of Zigotrig is 150 mg once daily.
Impaired Renal Function
In patients with mild-to-moderate renal impairment, treatment with Zigotrig should be initiated at a dose of 50 mg per day, and increased only after evaluation of the effects on renal function and lipid levels at this dose.
The use of Zigotrig should be avoided in patients with severe renal impairment.
Dose selection for the elderly should be made on the basis of renal function.
- hepatic insufficiency (including biliary cirrhosis),
- severe renal insufficiency (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2),
- hypersensitivity to Zigotrig or any component of this medication,
- known photoallergy or phototoxic reaction during treatment with fibrates or ketoprofen,
- gall bladder disease.
Chronic or acute pancreatitis with the exception of acute pancreatitis due to severe hypertriglyceridemia
Zigotrig is contraindicated in:
- patients with severe renal impairment, including those receiving dialysis.
- patients with active liver disease, including those with primary biliary cirrhosis and unexplained persistent liver function abnormalities.
- patients with preexisting gallbladder disease.
- patients with known hypersensitivity to fenofibrate or fenofibric acid.
- nursing mothers.
As with other lipid lowering agents, increases have been reported in transaminase levels in some patients. In the majority of cases these elevations were transient, minor and asymptomatic. It is recommended that transaminase levels be monitored every 3 months during the first 12 months of treatment. Attention should be paid to patients who develop increase in transaminase levels and therapy should be discontinued if ASAT and ALAT levels increase to more than 3 times the upper limit of the normal range or 100 IU.
Pancreatitis has been reported in patients taking Zigotrig This occurrence may represent a failure of efficacy in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia, a direct drug effect, or a secondary phenomenon mediated through bilary tract stone or sludge formation, resulting in the obstruction of the common bile duct.
Muscle toxicity, including very rare cases of rhabdomyolysis, has been reported with administration of fibrates and other lipid-lowering agents. The incidence of this disorder increases in cases of hypoalbuminaemia and previous renal insufficiency. Muscle toxicity should be suspected in patients presenting diffuse myalgia, myositis, muscular cramps and weakness and/or marked increases in CPK (levels exceeding 5 times the normal range). In such cases treatment with Zigotrig should be stopped.
Patients with pre-disposing factors for myopathy and/or rhabdomyolysis, including age above 70 years old, personal or familial history of hereditary muscular disorders, renal impairment, hypothyroidism and high alcohol intake, may be at an increased risk of developing rhabdomyolysis. For these patients, the putative benefits and risks of Zigotrig therapy should be carefully weighed up.
The risk of muscle toxicity may be increased if the drug is administered with another fibrate or an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, especially in cases of pre-existing muscular disease. Consequently, the co-prescription of Zigotrig with a statin should be reserved to patients with severe combined dyslipidaemia and high cardiovascular risk without any history of muscular disease.
This combination therapy should be used with caution and patients should be monitored closely for signs of muscle toxicity.
For hyperlipidaemic patients taking oestrogens or contraceptives containing oestrogens it should be ascertained whether the hyperlipidaemia is of primary or secondary nature (possible elevation of lipid values caused by oral oestrogen).
As Zigotrig 160 mg tablets contains lactose, patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.
Zigotrig is contraindicated in severe renal impairment.
Zigotrig should be used with caution in patients with mild to moderate renal insufficiency. Dose should be adjusted in patients whose estimated glomerular filtration rate is 30 to 59 mL/min/1.73 m2.
Reversible elevations in serum creatinine have been reported in patients receiving Zigotrig monotherapy or co-administered with statins. Elevations in serum creatinine were generally stable over time with no evidence for continued increases in serum creatinine with long therapy and tended to return to baseline following discontinuation of treatment.
During clinical trials, 10% of patients had a creatinine increase from baseline greater than 30 Âµmol/L with co-administered Zigotrig and simvastatin versus 4.4% with statin monotherapy. 0.3% of patients receiving co-administration had clinically relevant increases in creatinine to values >200 Âµmol/L.
Treatment should be interrupted when creatinine level is 50% above the upper limit of normal.
It is recommended that creatinine is measured during the first 3 months after initiation of treatment and periodically thereafter.
Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.
Coronary Heart Disease Morbidity and Mortality
The effect of Zigotrig on coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality and non-cardiovascular mortality has not been established.
The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Lipid (ACCORD Lipid) trial was a randomized placebo-controlled study of 5518 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on background statin therapy treated with fenofibrate. The mean duration of follow-up was 4.7 years. Fenofibrate plus statin combination therapy showed a non-significant 8% relative risk reduction in the primary outcome of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and cardiovascular disease death (hazard ratio [HR] 0.92, 95% CI 0.79-1.08) (p=0.32) as compared to statin monotherapy. In a gender subgroup analysis, the hazard ratio for MACE in men receiving combination therapy versus statin monotherapy was 0.82 (95% CI 0.69-0.99), and the hazard ratio for MACE in women receiving combination therapy versus statin monotherapy was 1.38 (95% CI 0.98-1.94) (interaction p=0.01). The clinical significance of this subgroup finding is unclear.
The Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study was a 5-year randomized, placebo-controlled study of 9795 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with fenofibrate. Fenofibrate demonstrated a non-significant 11% relative reduction in the primary outcome of coronary heart disease events (hazard ratio [HR] 0.89, 95% CI 0.75-1.05, p=0.16) and a significant 11% reduction in the secondary outcome of total cardiovascular disease events (HR 0.89 [0.80-0.99], p=0.04). There was a non-significant 11% (HR 1.11 [0.95, 1.29], p=0.18) and 19% (HR 1.19 [0.90, 1.57], p=0.22) increase in total and coronary heart disease mortality, respectively, with fenofibrate as compared to placebo.1
Because of chemical, pharmacological, and clinical similarities between fenofibrate, clofibrate, and gemfibrozil, the adverse findings in 4 large randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies with these other fibrate drugs may also apply to Zigotrig.
In the Coronary Drug Project, a large study of post myocardial infarction patients treated for 5 years with clofibrate, there was no difference in mortality seen between the clofibrate group and the placebo group. There was however, a difference in the rate of cholelithiasis and cholecystitis requiring surgery between the two groups (3.0% vs. 1.8%).
In a study conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO), 5000 subjects without known coronary artery disease were treated with placebo or clofibrate for 5 years and followed for an additional one year. There was a statistically significant, higher age-adjusted all-cause mortality in the clofibrate group compared with the placebo group (5.70% vs. 3.96%, p= < 0.01). Excess mortality was due to a 33% increase in non-cardiovascular causes, including malignancy, post-cholecystectomy complications, and pancreatitis. This appeared to confirm the higher risk of gallbladder disease seen in clofibrate-treated patients studied in the Coronary Drug Project.
The Helsinki Heart Study was a large (n=4081) study of middle aged men without a history of coronary artery disease. Subjects received either placebo or gemfibrozil for 5 years, with a 3.5 year open extension afterward. Total mortality was numerically higher in the gemfibrozil randomization group but did not achieve statistical significance (p=0.19, 95% confidence interval for relative risk G:P=0.91-1.64). Although cancer deaths trended higher in the gemfibrozil group (p=0.11), cancers (excluding basal cell carcinoma) were diagnosed with equal frequency in both study groups. Due to the limited size of the study, the relative risk of death from any cause was not shown to be different than that seen in the 9 year follow-up data from the WHO study (RR=1.29).
A secondary prevention component of the Helsinki Heart Study enrolled middle-aged men excluded from the primary prevention study because of known or suspected coronary heart disease. Subjects received gemfibrozil or placebo for 5 years. Although cardiac deaths trended higher in the gemfibrozil group, this was not statistically significant (hazard ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval: 0.94-5.05).
Fibrates increase the risk for myopathy and have been associated with rhabdomyolysis. The risk for serious muscle toxicity appears to be increased in elderly patients and in patients with diabetes, renal insufficiency, or hypothyroidism.
Data from observational studies indicate that the risk for rhabdomyolysis is increased when fibrates, in particular gemfibrozil, are co-administered with an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin). The combination should be avoided unless the benefit of further alterations in lipid levels is likely to outweigh the increased risk of this drug combination.
Myopathy should be considered in any patient with diffuse myalgias, muscle tenderness or weakness, and/or marked elevations of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels.
Patients should be advised to report promptly unexplained muscle pain, tenderness or weakness, particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever. Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels should be assessed in patients reporting these symptoms, and Zigotrig therapy should be discontinued if markedly elevated CPK levels occur or myopathy is diagnosed.
Cases of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, have been reported with fenofibrates co-administered with colchicine, and caution should be exercised when prescribing fenofibrate with colchicine.
Fenofibrate at doses equivalent to 100 mg to 150 mg Zigotrig per day has been associated with increases in serum transaminases [AST (SGOT) or ALT (SGPT)]. In a pooled analysis of 10 placebo-controlled trials of fenofibrate, increases to > 3 times the upper limit of normal of ALT occurred in 5.3% of patients taking fenofibrate versus 1.1% of patients treated with placebo. The incidence of increases in transaminases observed with fenofibrate therapy may be dose related. When transaminase determinations were followed either after discontinuation of treatment or during continued treatment, a return to normal limits was usually observed.
Chronic active hepatocellular and cholestatic hepatitis associated with fenofibrate therapy have been reported after exposures of weeks to several years. In extremely rare cases, cirrhosis has been reported in association with chronic active hepatitis.
Baseline and regular monitoring of liver tests, including ALT should be performed for the duration of therapy with Zigotrig, and therapy discontinued if enzyme levels persist above three times the normal limit.
Elevations in serum creatinine have been reported in patients on fenofibrate. These elevations tend to return to baseline following discontinuation of fenofibrate. The clinical significance of these observations is unknown. Monitor renal function in patients with renal impairment taking Zigotrig. Renal monitoring should also be considered for patients taking Zigotrig and are at risk for renal insufficiency, such as the elderly and patients with diabetes.
Fenofibrate, like clofibrate and gemfibrozil, may increase cholesterol excretion into the bile, leading to cholelithiasis. If cholelithiasis is suspected, gallbladder studies are indicated. Zigotrig therapy should be discontinued if gallstones are found.
Caution should be exercised when Zigotrig is given in conjunction with coumarin anticoagulants. Zigotrig may potentiate the anticoagulant effects of these agents resulting in prolongation of the Prothrombin Time/International Normalized Ratio (PT/INR). To prevent bleeding complications, frequent monitoring of PT/INR and dose adjustment of the anticoagulant are recommended until PT/INR has stabilized.
Pancreatitis has been reported in patients taking fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, and clofibrate. This occurrence may represent a failure of efficacy in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia, a direct drug effect, or a secondary phenomenon mediated through biliary tract stone or sludge formation with obstruction of the common bile duct.
Mild to moderate decreases in hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood cell decreases have been observed in patients following initiation of fenofibrate therapy. However, these levels stabilize during long term administration. Thrombocytopenia and agranulocytosis have been reported in individuals treated with fenofibrate. Periodic monitoring of red and white blood cell counts is recommended during the first 12 months of Zigotrig administration.
Acute hypersensitivity reactions including severe skin rashes such as Steven-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis requiring patient hospitalization and treatment with steroids have been reported in individuals treated with fenofibrate. Urticaria was seen in 1.1 vs. 0% and rash in 1.4 vs. 0.8% of fenofibrate and placebo patients respectively in controlled trials.
In the FIELD trial, pulmonary embolus (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were observed at higher rates in the fenofibrate than the placebo-treated group. Of 9,795 patients enrolled in FIELD, 4,900 in the placebo group and 4,895 in the fenofibrate group. For DVT, there were 48 events (1%) in the placebo group and 67 (1%) in the fenofibrate group (p = 0.074); and for PE, there were 32 (0.7%) events in the placebo group and 53 (1%) in the fenofibrate group (p = 0.022).
In the Coronary Drug Project, a higher proportion of the clofibrate group experienced definite or suspected fatal or nonfatal pulmonary embolism or thrombophlebitis than the placebo group (5.2% vs. 3.3% at 5 years; p < 0.01).
Paradoxical Decreases in HDL Cholesterol Levels
There have been postmarketing and clinical trial reports of severe decreases in HDL cholesterol levels (as low as 2 mg/dL) occurring in diabetic and non-diabetic patients initiated on fibrate therapy. The decrease in HDL-C is mirrored by a decrease in apolipoprotein A1. This decrease has been reported to occur within 2 weeks to years after initiation of fibrate therapy. The HDL-C levels remain depressed until fibrate therapy has been withdrawn; the response to withdrawal of fibrate therapy is rapid and sustained. The clinical significance of this decrease in HDL-C is unknown. It is recommended that HDL-C levels be checked within the first few months after initiation of fibrate therapy. If a severely depressed HDL-C level is detected fibrate therapy should be withdrawn, and the HDL-C level monitored until it has returned to baseline, and fibrate therapy should not be re-initiated.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
Safety in pregnant women has not been established. There are no adequate and well controlled studies of fenofibrate in pregnant women. Fenofibrate should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
In female rats given oral dietary doses of 15, 75, and 300 mg/kg/day of fenofibrate from 15 days prior to mating through weaning, maternal toxicity was observed at 0.3 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD), based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m².
In pregnant rats given oral dietary doses of 14, 127, and 361 mg/kg/day from gestation day 6-15 during the period of organogenesis, adverse developmental findings were not observed at 14 mg/kg/day (less than 1 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m²). At higher multiples of human doses evidence of maternal toxicity was observed.
In pregnant rabbits given oral gavage doses of 15, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day from gestation day 6-18 during the period of organogenesis and allowed to deliver, aborted litters were observed at 150 mg/kg/day (10 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons: mg/m²). No developmental findings were observed at 15 mg/kg/day (at less than 1 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m²).
In pregnant rats given oral dietary doses of 15, 75, and 300 mg/kg/day from gestation day 15 through lactation day 21 (weaning), maternal toxicity was observed at less than 1 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m².
Fenofibrate should not be used in nursing mothers. A decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness have not been established in pediatric patients.
Fenofibrate is substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Since elderly patients have a higher incidence of renal impairment, the dose selection for the elderly should be made on the basis of renal function. Fenofibrate exposure is not influenced by age. Elderly patients with normal renal function should require no dose modifications. Consider monitoring renal function in elderly patients taking Zigotrig.
The use of Zigotrig should be avoided in patients who have severe renal impairment. Dose reduction is required in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. Monitoring renal function in patients with renal impairment is recommended.
The use of Zigotrig has not been evaluated in patients with hepatic impairment.
No effect noted.
The frequencies of adverse events are ranked according top the following: Very common ( > 1/10), Common (> 1/100, < 1/10), Uncommon (> 1/1,000, < 1/100), Rare (>1/10,000, < 1/1,000), very rare ( < 1/10,000 including isolated reports
Common: Digestive, gastric or intestinal disorders (abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and flatulence) moderate in severity
Uncommon: Pancreatitis *
Common: Moderately elevated levels of serum transaminases (see Special Precautions for use).
Uncommon: Development of gallstones
Very rare: Episodes of hepatitis. When symptoms (e.g. jaundice, pruritus) indicative of hepatitis occur, laboratory tests are to be conducted for verification and Zigotrig discontinued, if applicable (see Special Warnings).
Uncommon: Thromboembolism (pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis*)
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorder:
Uncommon: rashes, pruritus, urticaria or photosensitivity reactions.
Very rare: cutaneous photosensitivity with erythema, vesiculation or nodulation on parts of the skin expose to sunlight or artificial light (e.g. sunlamp) in individual cases (even after many months of uncomplicated use)
Musculoskeletal, connective tissue and bone disorders:
Rare: diffuse myalgia, myositis, muscular cramps and weakness
Not known: rhabdomyolysis
Blood and lymphatic system disorders:
Rare: decrease in haemoglobin and leukocytes
Nervous system disorder:
Rare: sexual asthenia
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders.
Not known: interstitial pneumopathies
Uncommon: increases in serum creatinine and urea
* In the FIELD study, a randomised placebo controlled trial performed in 9795 patients with type II diabetes mellitus, a statistically significant increase in pancreatitis cases was observed in patients receiving Zigotrig verses patients receiving placebo. (0.8% versus 05% p = 0.031. In the same study, a statistically significant increase was reported in the incidence of pulmonary embolism (0.7% in the placebo group versus 1.1% in the Zigotrig group; p = 0.022) and a statistically non-significant increase in deep vein thromboses (placebo 1.0% [48/4900 patients] versus Zigotrig 1.4% [67/4895 patients]; p = 0.074)
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rate observed in clinical practice.
Adverse reactions reported by 2% or more of patients treated with fenofibrate (and greater than placebo) during the double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, regardless of causality, are listed in Table 1 below. Adverse events led to discontinuation of treatment in 5.0% of patients treated with fenofibrate and in 3.0% treated with placebo. Increases in liver function tests were the most frequent events, causing discontinuation of fenofibrate treatment in 1.6% of patients in double-blind trials.
Table 1: Adverse Reactions Reported by 2% or More of Patients Treated with Fenofibrate and Greater than Placebo During the Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials
|BODY SYSTEM Adverse Event
|BODY AS A WHOLE
|Abnormal Liver Function Tests
|METABOLIC AND NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS
|Creatine Phosphokinase Increased
|* Dosage equivalent to 150 mg Zigotrig
** Significantly different from placebo
The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of fenofibrate: myalgia, rhabdomyolysis, pancreatitis, acute renal failure, muscle spasm, hepatitis, cirrhosis, anemia, arthralgia, decreases in hemoglobin, decreases in hematocrit, white blood cell decreases, asthenia, and severely depressed HDL cholesterol levels. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
No case of overdosage has been reported. No specific antidote is known. If an overdose is suspected, treat symptomatically and institute appropriate supportive measures as required. Zigotrig cannot be eliminated by haemodialysis.
There is no specific treatment for overdose with Zigotrig. General supportive care of the patient is indicated, including monitoring of vital signs and observation of clinical status, should an overdose occur. If indicated, elimination of unabsorbed drug should be achieved by emesis or gastric lavage. The usual precautions should be observed to maintain the airway. Because fenofibrate is highly bound to plasma proteins, hemodialysis should not be considered.
Serum Lipid Reducing Agents / Cholesterol and Triglycerides Reducers / Fibrates.
ATC code: C10 AB 05
Zigotrig is a fibric acid derivative whose lipid modifying effects reported in humans are mediated via activation of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor type alpha (PPARÎ±).
Through activation of PPARÎ±, Zigotrig increases the lipolysis and elimination of atherogenic triglyceride-rich particles from plasma by activating lipoprotein lipase and reducing production of apoprotein CIII. Activation of PPARÎ± also induces an increase in the synthesis of apoproteins AI and AII.
The above stated effects of Zigotrig on lipoproteins lead to a reduction in very low- and low density fractions (VLDL and LDL) containing apoprotein B and an increase in the high density lipoprotein fraction (HDL) containing apoprotein AI and AII.
In addition, through modulation of the synthesis and the catabolism of VLDL fractions Zigotrig increases the LDL clearance and reduces small dense LDL, the levels of which are elevated in the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype, a common disorder in patients at risk for coronary heart disease.
During clinical trials with Zigotrig, total cholesterol was reduced by 20 to 25%, triglycerides by 40 to 55% and HDL cholesterol was increased by 10 to 30%.
In hypercholesterolaemic patients, where LDL cholesterol levels are reduced by 20 to 35%, the overall effect on cholesterol results in a decrease in the ratios of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, or Apo B to Apo AI, all of which are markers of atherogenic risk.
Because of its significant effect on LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, treatment with Zigotrig should be beneficial in hypercholesterolaemic patients with or without hypertriglyceridaemia, including secondary hyperlipoproteinaemia such as type 2 diabetes mellitus.
At the present time, no results of long-term controlled clinical trials are available to demonstrate the efficacy of Zigotrig in the primary or secondary prevention of atherosclerotic complications.
Extravascular deposits of cholesterol (tendinous and tuberous xanthoma) may be markedly reduced or even entirely eliminated during Zigotrig therapy.
Patients with raised levels of fibrinogen treated with Zigotrig have shown significant reductions in this parameter, as have those with raised levels of Lp (a). Other inflammatory markers such as C Reactive Protein are reduced with Zigotrig treatment.
The uricosuric effect of Zigotrig leading to reduction in uric acid levels of approximately 25% should be of additional benefit in those dyslipidaemic patients with hyperuricaemia.
Zigotrig has been shown to possess an anti-aggregatory effect on platelets in animals and in a clinical study, which showed a reduction in platelet aggregation induced by ADP, arachidonic acid and epinephrine.
There is evidence that treatment with fibrates may reduce coronary heart disease events but they have not been shown to decrease all cause mortality in the primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.
The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) lipid trial was a randomized placebo-controlled study of 5518 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with Zigotrig in addition to simvastatin. Zigotrig plus simvastatin therapy did not show any significant differences compared to simvastatin monotherapy in the composite primary outcome of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and cardiovascular death (hazard ratio [HR] 0.92, 95% CI 0.79-1.08, p = 0.32 ; absolute risk reduction: 0.74%). In the pre-specified subgroup of dyslipidaemic patients, defined as those in the lowest tertile of HDL-C (â‰¤34 mg/dl or 0.88 mmol/L) and highest tertile of TG (>204 mg/dl or 2.3 mmol/L) at baseline, Zigotrig plus simvastatin therapy demonstrated a 31% relative reduction compared to simvastatin monotherapy for the composite primary outcome (hazard ratio [HR] 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.97, p = 0.03 ; absolute risk reduction: 4.95%). Another prespecified subgroup analysis identified a statistically significant treatment-by-gender interaction (p = 0.01) indicating a possible treatment benefit of combination therapy in men (p=0.037) but a potentially higher risk for the primary outcome in women treated with combination therapy compared to simvastatin monotherapy (p=0.069). This was not observed in the aforementioned subgroup of patients with dyslipidaemia but there was also no clear evidence of benefit in dyslipidaemic women treated with Zigotrig plus simvastatin, and a possible harmful effect in this subgroup could not be excluded.
Elevated levels of total-c, LDL-C, and apo B and decreased levels of HDL-C and its transport complex, Apo AI and Apo AII, are risk factors for atherosclerosis. Epidemiologic investigations have established that cardiovascular morbidity and mortality vary directly with the level of total-c, LDL-C, and triglycerides, and inversely with the level of HDL-C. The independent effect of raising HDL-C or lowering triglycerides (TG) on the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has not been determined.
Fenofibric acid, the active metabolite of fenofibrate, produces reductions in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, total triglycerides and triglyceride rich lipoprotein (VLDL) in treated patients. In addition, treatment with fenofibrate results in increases in high density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoproteins AI and AII.
Zigotrig 160 mg is a tablet containing 160 mg of micronised Zigotrig and is suprabioavailable (larger bioavailability) compared to the previous formulations.
Absorption: Maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) occur within 4 to 5 hours after oral administration. Plasma concentrations are stable during continuous treatment in any given individual.
The absorption of Zigotrig is increased when administered with food.
Distribution: Fenofibric acid is strongly bound to plasma albumin (more than 99%).
Plasma half-life: The plasma elimination half-life of fenofibric acid is approximately 20 hours.
Metabolism and excretion: No unchanged Zigotrig can be detected in the plasma where the principal metabolite is fenofibric acid. The drug is excreted mainly in the urine. Practically all the drug is eliminated within 6 days. Zigotrig is mainly excreted in the form of fenofibric acid and its glucuronide conjugate. In elderly patients, the fenofibric acid apparent total plasma clearance is not modified.
Kinetic studies following the administration of a single dose and continuous treatment have demonstrated that the drug does not accumulate. Fenofibric acid is not eliminated by haemodialysis.
The extent and rate of absorption of fenofibric acid after administration of 150 mg Zigotrig capsules are equivalent under low-fat and high-fat fed conditions to 160 mg TriCor® tablets.
Fenofibrate is a pro-drug of the active chemical moiety fenofibric acid. Fenofibrate is converted by ester hydrolysis in the body to fenofibric acid which is the active constituent measurable in the circulation. In a bioavailability study with Zigotrig capsules 200 mg, following single-dose administration, the plasma concentration (AUC) for the parent compound fenofibrate was approximately 40 μg/mL compared to 204 μg/mL for the metabolite, fenofibric acid. In the same study, the half-life was observed to be 0.91 hrs for the parent compound versus 16.76 hrs for the metabolite.
The absolute bioavailability of fenofibrate cannot be determined as the compound is virtually insoluble in aqueous media suitable for injection. However, fenofibrate is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Following oral administration in healthy volunteers, approximately 60% of a single dose of radiolabeled fenofibrate appeared in urine, primarily as fenofibric acid and its glucuronate conjugate, and 25% was excreted in the feces. Peak plasma levels of fenofibric acid occur within approximately 5 hours after oral administration.
The absorption of fenofibrate is increased when administered with food. With Zigotrig, the extent of absorption is increased by approximately 58% and 25% under high-fat fed and low-fat fed conditions as compared to fasting conditions, respectively.
In a single dose and multiple dose bioavailability study with Zigotrig capsules 200 mg, the extent of absorption (AUC) of fenofibric acid, the principal metabolite of fenofibrate, was 42% larger at steady state compared to single-dose administration. The rate of absorption (Cmax) of fenofibric acid was 73% greater after multiple-dose than after single-dose administration.
The extent of absorption of Zigotrig in terms of AUC value of fenofibric acid increased in a less than proportional manner while the rate of absorption in terms of Cmax value of fenofibric acid increased proportionally related to dose.
Upon multiple dosing of fenofibrate, fenofibric acid steady state is achieved after 5 days. Plasma concentrations of fenofibric acid at steady state are slightly more than double those following a single dose. Serum protein binding was approximately 99% in normal and hyperlipidemic subjects.
Following oral administration, fenofibrate is rapidly hydrolyzed by esterases to the active metabolite, fenofibric acid; unchanged fenofibrate is detected at low concentrations in plasma compared to fenofibric acid over most of the single dose and multiple dosing periods.
Fenofibric acid is primarily conjugated with glucuronic acid and then excreted in urine. A small amount of fenofibric acid is reduced at the carbonyl moiety to a benzhydrol metabolite which is, in turn, conjugated with glucuronic acid and excreted in urine.
In vitro and in vivo metabolism data indicate that neither fenofibrate nor fenofibric acid undergo oxidative metabolism (e.g., cytochrome P450) to a significant extent.
After absorption, fenofibrate is mainly excreted in the urine in the form of metabolites, primarily fenofibric acid and fenofibric acid glucuronide. After administration of radiolabeled fenofibrate, approximately 60% of the dose appeared in the urine and 25% was excreted in feces.
Fenofibric acid is eliminated with a half-life of approximately 20 hours allowing once daily dosing.
In elderly volunteers 77 to 87 years of age, the apparent oral clearance of fenofibric acid following a single oral dose of fenofibrate was 1.2 L/h, which compares to 1.1 L/h in young adults. This indicates that an equivalent dose of Zigotrig can be used in elderly subjects with normal renal function, without increasing accumulation of the drug or metabolites.
Pharmacokinetics of Zigotrig has not been studied in pediatric patients.
No pharmacokinetic difference between males and females has been observed for fenofibrate.
The influence of race on the pharmacokinetics of fenofibrate has not been studied, however fenofibrate is not metabolized by enzymes known for exhibiting inter-ethnic variability.
The pharmacokinetics of fenofibric acid was examined in patients with mild, moderate and severe renal impairment. Patients with mild (estimated glomerular filtration rate eGFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73m²) to moderate (eGFR 30-59 mL/min/1.73m²) renal impairment had similar exposure but an increase in the half-life for fenofibric acid was observed as compared to that of healthy subjects. Patients with severe renal impairment (eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73m²) showed a 2.7-fold increase in exposure for fenofibric acid and increased accumulation of fenofibric acid during chronic dosing compared to that of healthy subjects. In patients with mild to moderate renal impairment, treatment with Zigotrig should be initiated at a dose of 50 mg per day, and increased only after evaluation of the effects on renal function and lipid levels at this dose. Based on these findings, the use of Zigotrig should be avoided in patients who have severe renal impairment.
No pharmacokinetic studies have been conducted in patients having hepatic impairment.
In vitro studies using human liver microsomes indicate that fenofibrate and fenofibric acid are not inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP1A2. They are weak inhibitors of CYP2C8, CYP2C19 and CYP2A6, and mild to moderate inhibitors of CYP2C9 at therapeutic concentrations.
Table 2 describes the effects of co-administered drugs on fenofibric acid systemic exposure. Table 3 describes the effects of fenofibrate on coadministered drugs.
Table 2: Effects of Co-Administered Drugs on Fenofibric Acid Systemic Exposure from Fenofibrate Administration
|Dosage Regimen of Co-Administered Drug
|Dosage Regimen of Fenofibrate
|Changes in Fenofibric Acid Exposure
|20 mg once daily for 10 days
|Fenofibrate 160 mg1 once daily for 10 days
|40 mg as a single dose
|Fenofibrate 3 x 67 mg2 as a single dose
|40 mg as a single dose
|Fenofibrate 160 mg1as a single dose
|1 mg as a single dose
|Fenofibrate 145 mg1once daily for 10 days
|850 mg three times daily for 10 days
|Fenofibrate 54 mg1 three times daily for 10 days
|8 mg once daily for 5 days
|Fenofibrate 145 mg1 once daily for 14 days
|1 TriCor (fenofibrate) oral tablet
2 TriCor (fenofibrate) oral micronized capsule
Table 3. Effects of Fenofibrate on Systemic Exposure of Co-Administered Drugs
|Dosage Regimen of Fenofibrate
|Dosage Regimen of Co-Administered Drug
|Change in Co-Administered Drug Exposure
|Fenofibrate 160 mg1 once daily for 10 days
|Atorvastatin, 20 mg once daily for 10 days
|Fenofibrate 3 x 67 mg2 as a single dose
|Pravastatin, 40 mg as a single dose
|Fenofibrate 160 mg1 as a single dose
|Fluvastatin, 40 mg as a single dose
|Fenofibrate 145 mg1 once daily for 10 days
|Glimepiride, 1 mg as a single dose
|Fenofibrate 54 mg1 three times daily for 10 days
|Metformin, 850 mg three times daily for 10 days
|Fenofibrate 145 mg1 once daily for 14 days
|Rosiglitazone, 8 mg once daily for 5 days
|1 TriCor (fenofibrate) oral tablet
2 TriCor (fenofibrate) oral micronized capsule
Chronic toxicity studies have yielded no relevant information about specific toxicity of Zigotrig.
Studies on mutagenicity of Zigotrig have been negative.
In rats and mice, liver tumours have been found at high dosages, which are attributable to peroxisome proliferation. These changes are specific to small rodents and have not been observed in other animal species. This is of no relevance to therapeutic use in man.
Studies in mice, rats and rabbits did not reveal any teratogenic effect. Embryotoxic effects were observed at doses in the range of maternal toxicity.
Prolongation of the gestation period and difficulties during delivery were observed at high doses. No sign of any effect on fertility has been detected.
No special requirements.
However, we will provide data for each active ingredient