Medically reviewed by Oliinyk Elizabeth Ivanovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2022-03-13
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Community acquired pneumonia
Zenix is indicated for the treatment of community acquired pneumonia and nosocomial pneumonia when known or suspected to be caused by susceptible Gram positive bacteria.).
Zenix is not active against infections caused by Gram negative pathogens. Specific therapy against Gram negative organisms must be initiated concomitantly if a Gram negative pathogen is documented or suspected.
Complicated skin and soft tissue infections
Zenix is indicated for the treatment of complicated skin and soft tissue infections only when microbiological testing has established that the infection is known to be caused by susceptible Gram positive bacteria.
Zenix is not active against infections caused by Gram negative pathogens. Zenix should only be used in patients with complicated skin and soft tissue infections with known or possible co-infection with Gram negative organisms if there are no alternative treatment options available. In these circumstances treatment against Gram negative organisms must be initiated concomitantly.
Zenix should only be initiated in a hospital environment and after consultation with a relevant specialist such as a microbiologist or infectious diseases specialist.
Consideration should be given to official guidance on the appropriate use of antibacterial agents.
Zenix solution for infusion, film-coated tablets or oral suspension may be used as initial therapy. Patients who commence treatment on the parenteral formulation may be switched to either oral presentation when clinically indicated. In such circumstances, no dose adjustment is required as Zenix has an oral bioavailability of approximately 100%.
Recommended dosage and duration of treatment for adults: The duration of treatment is dependent on the pathogen, the site of infection and its severity, and on the patient's clinical response.
The following recommendations for duration of therapy reflect those used in the clinical trials. Shorter treatment regimens may be suitable for some types of infection but have not been evaluated in clinical trials.
The maximum treatment duration is 28 days. The safety and effectiveness of Zenix when administered for periods longer than 28 days have not been established..
No increase in the recommended dosage or duration of treatment is required for infections associated with concurrent bacteraemia.
The dose recommendation for the solution for infusion and the tablets/granules for oral suspension are identicalare as follows:
Duration of treatment
600 mg twice daily
Community acquired pneumonia
10-14 Consecutive days
Complicated skin and soft tissue infections
600 mg twice daily
Paediatric population: There are insufficient data on the safety and efficacy of Zenix in children and adolescents (< 18 years old) to establish dosage recommendations. Therefore, until further data are available, use of Zenix in this age group is not recommended.
Elderly patients: No dose adjustment is required.
Patients with renal insufficiency: No dose adjustment is required.
Patients with severe renal insufficiency (i.e. CLCR < 30 ml/min): No dose adjustment is required. Due to the unknown clinical significance of higher exposure (up to 10 fold) to the two primary metabolites of Zenix in patients with severe renal insufficiency, Zenix should be used with special caution in these patients and only when the anticipated benefit is considered to outweigh the theoretical risk.
As approximately 30% of a Zenix dose is removed during 3 hours of haemodialysis, Zenix should be given after dialysis in patients receiving such treatment. The primary metabolites of Zenix are removed to some extent by haemodialysis, but the concentrations of these metabolites are still very considerably higher following dialysis than those observed in patients with normal renal function or mild to moderate renal insufficiency.
Therefore, Zenix should be used with special caution in patients with severe renal insufficiency who are undergoing dialysis and only when the anticipated benefit is considered to outweigh the theoretical risk.
To date, there is no experience of Zenix administration to patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or alternative treatments for renal failure (other than haemodialysis).
Patients with hepatic insufficiency: No dose adjustment is required. However, there are limited clinical data and it is recommended that Zenix should be used in such patients only when the anticipated benefit is considered to outweigh the theoretical risk.
Method of administration:
The recommended Zenix dosage should be administered intravenously or orally twice daily.
Route of administration: Oral use.
The film-coated tablets may be taken with or without food.
Zenix should not be used in patients taking any medicinal product which inhibits monoamine oxidases A or B (e.g. phenelzine, isocarboxazid, selegiline, moclobemide) or within two weeks of taking any such medicinal product.
Unless there are facilities available for close observation and monitoring of blood pressure, Zenix should not be administered to patients with the following underlying clinical conditions or on the following types of concomitant medications:
- Patients with uncontrolled hypertension, phaeochromocytoma, carcinoid, thyrotoxicosis, bipolar depression, schizoaffective disorder, acute confusional states.
- Patients taking any of the following medications: serotonin re-uptake inhibitors , tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin 5-HT1 receptor agonists (triptans), directly and indirectly acting sympathomimetic agents (including the adrenergic bronchodilators, pseudoephedrine and phenylpropanolamine), vasopressive agents (e.g. epinephrine, norepinephrine), dopaminergic agents (e.g. dopamine, dobutamine), pethidine or buspirone.
Animal data suggest that Zenix and its metabolites may pass into breast milk and, accordingly, breastfeeding should be discontinued prior to and throughout administration.
Myelosuppression (including anaemia, leucopenia, pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia) has been reported in patients receiving Zenix. In cases where the outcome is known, when Zenix was discontinued, the affected haematologic parameters have risen toward pretreatment levels. The risk of these effects appears to be related to the duration of treatment. Elderly patients treated with Zenix may be at greater risk of experiencing blood dyscrasias than younger patients. Thrombocytopenia may occur more commonly in patients with severe renal insufficiency, whether or not on dialysis. Therefore, close monitoring of blood counts is recommended in patients who: have pre-existing anaemia, granulocytopenia or thrombocytopenia; are receiving concomitant medications that may decrease haemoglobin levels, depress blood counts or adversely affect platelet count or function; have severe renal insufficiency; receive more than 10-14 days of therapy. Zenix should be administered to such patients only when close monitoring of haemoglobin levels, blood counts and platelet counts is possible.
If significant myelosuppression occurs during Zenix therapy, treatment should be stopped unless it is considered absolutely necessary to continue therapy, in which case intensive monitoring of blood counts and appropriate management strategies should be implemented.
In addition, it is recommended that complete blood counts (including haemoglobin levels, platelets, and total and differentiated leucocyte counts) should be monitored weekly in patients who receive Zenix regardless of baseline blood count.
In compassionate use studies, a higher incidence of serious anaemia was reported in patients receiving Zenix for more than the maximum recommended duration of 28 days. These patients more often required blood transfusion. Cases of anaemia requiring blood transfusion have also been reported post marketing, with more cases occurring in patients who received Zenix therapy for more than 28 days.
Cases of sideroblastic anaemia have been reported post-marketing. Where time of onset was known, most patients had received Zenix therapy for more than 28 days. Most patients fully or partially recovered following discontinuation of Zenix with or without treatment for their anaemia.
Mortality imbalance in a clinical trial in patients with catheter-related Gram positive bloodstream infections
Excess mortality was seen in patients treated with Zenix, relative to vancomycin/dicloxacillin/oxacillin, in an open-label study in seriously ill patients with intravascular catheter-related infections [78/363 (21.5%) vs 58/363 (16.0%)]. The main factor influencing the mortality rate was the Gram positive infection status at baseline. Mortality rates were similar in patients with infections caused purely by Gram positive organisms (odds ratio 0.96; 95% confidence interval: 0.58-1.59) but were significantly higher (p=0.0162) in the Zenix arm in patients with any other pathogen or no pathogen at baseline (odds ratio 2.48; 95% confidence interval: 1.38-4.46). The greatest imbalance occurred during treatment and within 7 days following discontinuation of study drug. More patients in the Zenix arm acquired Gram negative pathogens during the study and died from infection caused by Gram negative pathogens and polymicrobial infections. Therefore, in complicated skin and soft tissue infections Zenix should only be used in patients with known or possible co-infection with Gram negative organisms if there are no alternative treatment options available. In these circumstances treatment against Gram negative organisms must be initiated concomitantly.
Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and colitis
Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including Zenix. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhoea subsequent to the administration of any antibacterial agent. In cases of suspected or verified antibiotic-associated colitis, discontinuation of Zenix may be warranted. Appropriate management measures should be instituted.
Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and antibiotic-associated colitis, including pseudomembranous colitis and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea, has been reported in association with the use of nearly all antibiotics including Zenix and may range in severity from mild diarrhoea to fatal colitis. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who develop serious diarrhoea during or after the use of Zenix. If antibiotic-associated diarrhoea or antibiotic-associated colitis is suspected or confirmed, ongoing treatment with antibacterial agents, including Zenix, should be discontinued and adequate therapeutic measures should be initiated immediately. Drugs inhibiting peristalsis are contraindicated in this situation.
Lactic acidosis has been reported with the use of Zenix. Patients who develop signs and symptoms of metabolic acidosis including recurrent nausea or vomiting, abdominal pain, a low bicarbonate level, or hyperventilation while receiving Zenix should receive immediate medical attention. If lactic acidosis occurs, the benefits of continued use of Zenix should be weighed against the potential risks.
Zenix inhibits mitochondrial protein synthesis. Adverse events, such as lactic acidosis, anaemia and neuropathy (optic and peripheral), may occur as a result of this inhibition; these events are more common when the drug is used longer than 28 days.
Spontaneous reports of serotonin syndrome associated with the co-administration of Zenix and serotonergic agents, including antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been reported. Co-administration of Zenix and serotonergic agents is therefore contraindicated except where administration of Zenix and concomitant serotonergic agents is essential. In those cases patients should be closely observed for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome such as cognitive dysfunction, hyperpyrexia, hyperreflexia and incoordination. If signs or symptoms occur physicians should consider discontinuing either one or both agents; if the concomitant serotonergic agent is withdrawn, discontinuation symptoms can occur.
Peripheral and optic neuropathy
Peripheral neuropathy, as well as optic neuropathy and optic neuritis sometimes progressing to loss of vision, have been reported in patients treated with Zenix; these reports have primarily been in patients treated for longer than the maximum recommended duration of 28 days.
All patients should be advised to report symptoms of visual impairment, such as changes in visual acuity, changes in colour vision, blurred vision, or visual field defect. In such cases, prompt evaluation is recommended with referral to an ophthalmologist as necessary. If any patients are taking Zenix for longer than the recommended 28 days, their visual function should be regularly monitored.
If peripheral or optic neuropathy occurs, the continued use of Zenix should be weighed against the potential risks.
There may be an increased risk of neuropathies when Zenix is used in patients currently taking or who have recently taken antimycobacterial medications for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Convulsions have been reported to occur in patients when treated with Zenix. In most of these cases, a history of seizures or risk factors for seizures was reported. Patients should be advised to inform their physician if they have a history of seizures.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
Zenix is a reversible, non-selective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAOI); however, at the doses used for antibacterial therapy, it does not exert an anti-depressive effect. There are very limited data from drug interaction studies and on the safety of Zenix when administered to patients with underlying conditions and/or on concomitant medications which might put them at risk from MAO inhibition. Therefore, Zenix is not recommended for use in these circumstances unless close observation and monitoring of the recipient is possible.
Use with tyramine-rich foods
Patients should be advised against consuming large amounts of tyramine rich foods.
The effects of Zenix therapy on normal flora have not been evaluated in clinical trials.
The use of antibiotics may occasionally result in an overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms. For example, approximately 3% of patients receiving the recommended Zenix doses experienced drug-related candidiasis during clinical trials. Should superinfection occur during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken.
Zenix should be used with special caution in patients with severe renal insufficiency and only when the anticipated benefit is considered to outweigh the theoretical risk.
It is recommended that Zenix should be given to patients with severe hepatic insufficiency only when the perceived benefit outweighs the theoretical risk.
Impairment of fertility
Zenix reversibly decreased fertility and induced abnormal sperm morphology in adult male rats at exposure levels approximately equal to those expected in humans; possible effects of Zenix on the human male reproductive system are not known.
The safety and effectiveness of Zenix when administered for periods longer than 28 days have not been established.
Controlled clinical trials did not include patients with diabetic foot lesions, decubitus or ischaemic lesions, severe burns or gangrene. Therefore, experience in the use of Zenix in the treatment of these conditions is limited.
Lactose: The tablets contain lactose monohydrate. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.
The table below provides a listing of adverse drug reactions that occurred at frequencies > 0.1% or considered to be serious in clinical studies that enrolled more than 2,000 adult patients who received the recommended Zenix doses for up to 28 days.
Approximately 22% of patients experienced adverse reactions; those most commonly reported were headache (2.1%), diarrhoea (4.2%), nausea (3.3%) and candidiasis (particularly oral [0.8%] and vaginal [1.1%] candidiasis, see table below). The most commonly reported drug-related adverse events which led to discontinuation of treatment were headache, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting. About 3% of patients discontinued treatment because they experienced a drug-related adverse event.
Additional adverse reactions reported from post-marketing experience are included in the table with frequency category 'Not known', since the actual frequency cannot be estimated from the available data.
The following undesirable effects have been observed and reported during treatment with Zenix with the following frequencies: Very common (>1/10); common (>1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (>1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (>1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000); Not known (cannot be estimated from the available data)
System Organ Class
(>1/100 to <1/10)
(>1/1,000 to <1/100)
(>1/10,000 to <1/1,000)
Frequency not known (cannot be estimated from available data)
Infections and infestations
Candidiasis, oral candidiasis, vaginal candidiasis, fungal infections
Antibiotic-associated colitis, including pseudomembranous colitis*
Blood and the lymphatic system disorders
Leucopenia*, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia*, eosinophilia
Myelosuppression*, pancytopenia*, anaemia*â€ , sideroblastic anaemia*
Immune system disorders
Metabolism and nutrition disorders
Lactic acidosis*, hyponatraemia
Nervous system disorders
Headache, taste perversion (metallic taste)
Dizziness, hypoaesthesia, paraesthesia
Serotonin syndrome**, convulsions*, peripheral neuropathy*
Optic neuropathy*, optic neuritis*, loss of vision*, changes in visual acuity*, changes in colour vision*, changes in visual field defect*
Ear and labyrinth disorders
Hypertension, phlebitis, thrombophlebitis
Transient ischaemic attacks
Diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting.
Pancreatitis, gastritis, localised or general abdominal pain, constipation, dry mouth, dyspepsia, glossitis, loose stools, stomatitis, tongue discolouration or disorder
Superficial tooth discolouration
Abnormal liver function test; increased AST, ALT or alkaline phosphatase
Increased total bilirubin
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
Urticaria, dermatitis, diaphoresis, pruritus, rash
Bullous disorders such as those described as Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, angioedema, alopecia
Renal and urinary disorders
Polyuria, increased creatinine
Reproductive system and breast disorders
General disorders and administration site conditions
Chills, fatigue, fever, injection site pain, increased thirst, localised pain
Increased LDH, creatine kinase, lipase, amylase or non fasting glucose. Decreased total protein, albumin, sodium or calcium. Increased or decreased potassium or bicarbonate.
Increased neutrophils or eosinophils. Decreased haemoglobin, haematocrit or red blood cell count. Increased or decreased platelet or white blood cell counts.
Increased sodium or calcium. Decreased non fasting glucose. Increased or decreased chloride.
Increased reticulocyte count.
â€ See below
The following adverse reactions to Zenix were considered to be serious in rare cases: localised abdominal pain, transient ischaemic attacks and hypertension.
â€ In controlled clinical trials where Zenix was administered for up to 28 days, less than 0.1% of the patients reported anaemia. In a compassionate use program of patients with life-threatening infections and underlying co-morbidities, the percentage of patients who developed anaemia when receiving Zenix for â‰¤ 28 days was 2.5% (33/1326) as compared with 12.3% (53/430) when treated for>28 days. The proportion of cases reporting drug-related serious anaemia and requiring blood transfusion was 9% (3/33) in patients treated for â‰¤ 28 days and 15% (8/53) in those treated for>28 days.
Safety data from clinical studies based on more than 500 paediatric patients (from birth to 17 years) do not indicate that the safety profile of Zenix for paediatric patients differs from that for adult patients.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.
No specific antidote is known.
No cases of overdose have been reported. However, the following information may prove useful:
Supportive care is advised together with maintenance of glomerular filtration. Approximately 30% of a Zenix dose is removed during 3 hours of haemodialysis, but no data are available for the removal of Zenix by peritoneal dialysis or haemoperfusion. The two primary metabolites of Zenix are also removed to some extent by haemodialysis.
Signs of toxicity in rats following doses of 3000 mg/kg/day Zenix were decreased activity and ataxia whilst dogs treated with 2000 mg/kg/day experienced vomiting and tremors.
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Other antibacterials, ATC code: J01XX08
Zenix is a synthetic, antibacterial agent that belongs to a new class of antimicrobials, the oxazolidinones. It has in vitro activity against aerobic Gram positive bacteria and anaerobic micro-organisms. Zenix selectively inhibits bacterial protein synthesis via a unique mechanism of action. Specifically, it binds to a site on the bacterial ribosome (23S of the 50S subunit) and prevents the formation of a functional 70S initiation complex which is an essential component of the translation process.
The in vitro postantibiotic effect (PAE) of Zenix for Staphylococcus aureus was approximately 2 hours. When measured in animal models, the in vivo PAE was 3.6 and 3.9 hours for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, respectively. In animal studies, the key pharmacodynamic parameter for efficacy was the time for which the Zenix plasma level exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the infecting organism.
Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints established by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) for staphylococci and enterococci are Susceptible â‰¤ 4mg/L and Resistant>4 mg/L. For streptococci (including S. pneumoniae) the breakpoints are Susceptible â‰¤ 2 mg/L and Resistant>4 mg/L.
Non-species related MIC breakpoints are Susceptible â‰¤ 2 mg/L and Resistant> 4 mg/L. Non-species related breakpoints have been determined mainly on the basis of PK/PD data and are independent of MIC distributions of specific species. They are for use only for organisms that have not been given a specific breakpoint and not for those species where susceptibility testing is not recommended.
The prevalence of acquired resistance may vary geographically and with time for selected species and local information on resistance is desirable, particularly when treating severe infections. As necessary, expert advice should be sought when local prevalence of resistance is such that the utility of the agent in at least some types of infections is questionable.
Gram positive aerobes:
Staphylococcus aureus *
Coagulase negative staphylococci
Group C streptococci
Group G streptococci
Gram positive anaerobes:
*Clinical efficacy has been demonstrated for susceptible isolates in approved clinical indications.
Whereas Zenix shows some in vitro activity against Legionella, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, there are insufficient data to demonstrate clinical efficacy.
Zenix's mechanism of action differs from those of other antibiotic classes. In vitro studies with clinical isolates (including methicillin-resistant staphylococci, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and penicillin- and erythromycin-resistant streptococci) indicate that Zenix is usually active against organisms which are resistant to one or more other classes of antimicrobial agents.
Resistance to Zenix is associated with point mutations in the 23S rRNA.
As documented with other antibiotics when used in patients with difficult to treat infections and/or for prolonged periods, emergent decreases in susceptibility have been observed with Zenix. Resistance to Zenix has been reported in enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci. This generally has been associated with prolonged courses of therapy and the presence of prosthetic materials or undrained abscesses. When antibiotic-resistant organisms are encountered in the hospital it is important to emphasize infection control policies.
Information from clinical trials
Studies in the paediatric population:
In an open study, the efficacy of Zenix (10 mg/kg q8h) was compared to vancomycin (10- 15mg/kg q6- 24h) in treating infections due to suspected or proven resistant gram-positive pathogens(including nosocomial pneumonia, complicated skin and skin structure infections, catheter related bacteraemia, bacteraemia of unknown source, and other infections), in children from birth to 11 years. Clinical cure rates in the clinically evaluable population were 89.3% (134/150) and 84.5%(60/71) for Zenix and vancomycin, respectively (95%CI: -4.9, 14.6).
Zenix primarily contains (s)-Zenix which is biologically active and is metabolised to form inactive derivatives.
Zenix is rapidly and extensively absorbed following oral dosing. Maximum plasma concentrations are reached within 2 hours of dosing. Absolute oral bioavailability of Zenix (oral and intravenous dosing in a crossover study) is complete (approximately 100%). Absorption is not significantly affected by food and absorption from the oral suspension is similar to that achieved with the film-coated tablets.
Plasma Zenix Cmax and Cmin (mean and [SD]) at steady-state following twice daily intravenous dosing of 600 mg have been determined to be 15.1 [2.5] mg/l and 3.68 [2.68] mg/l, respectively.
In another study following oral dosing of 600 mg twice daily to steady-state, Cmax and Cmin were determined to be 21.2 [5.8] mg/l and 6.15 [2.94] mg/l, respectively. Steady-state conditions are achieved by the second day of dosing.
Volume of distribution at steady-state averages at about 40-50 litres in healthy adults and approximates to total body water. Plasma protein binding is about 31% and is not concentration dependent.
Zenix concentrations have been determined in various fluids from a limited number of subjects in volunteer studies following multiple dosing. The ratio of Zenix in saliva and sweat relative to plasma was 1.2:1.0 and 0.55:1.0, respectively. The ratio for epithelial lining fluid and alveolar cells of the lung was 4.5:1.0 and 0.15:1.0, when measured at steady-state Cmax, respectively. In a small study of subjects with ventricular-peritoneal shunts and essentially non-inflamed meninges, the ratio of Zenix in cerebrospinal fluid to plasma at Cmax was 0.7:1.0 after multiple Zenix dosing.
Zenix is primarily metabolised by oxidation of the morpholine ring resulting mainly in the formation of two inactive open-ring carboxylic acid derivatives; the aminoethoxyacetic acid metabolite (PNU-142300) and the hydroxyethyl glycine metabolite (PNU-142586). The hydroxyethyl glycine metabolite (PNU-142586) is the predominant human metabolite and is believed to be formed by a non-enzymatic process. The aminoethoxyacetic acid metabolite (PNU-142300) is less abundant. Other minor, inactive metabolites have been characterised.
In patients with normal renal function or mild to moderate renal insufficiency, Zenix is primarily excreted under steady-state conditions in the urine as PNU-142586 (40%), parent drug (30%) and PNU-142300 (10%). Virtually no parent drug is found in the faeces whilst approximately 6% and 3% of each dose appears as PNU-142586 and PNU-142300, respectively. The elimination half-life of Zenix averages at about 5-7 hours.
Non-renal clearance accounts for approximately 65% of the total clearance of Zenix. A small degree of non-linearity in clearance is observed with increasing doses of Zenix. This appears to be due to lower renal and non-renal clearance at higher Zenix concentrations. However, the difference in clearance is small and is not reflected in the apparent elimination half-life.
Patients with renal insufficiency: After single doses of 600 mg, there was a 7-8 fold increase in exposure to the two primary metabolites of Zenix in the plasma of patients with severe renal insufficiency (i.e. creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min). However, there was no increase in AUC of parent drug. Although there is some removal of the major metabolites of Zenix by haemodialysis, metabolite plasma levels after single 600 mg doses were still considerably higher following dialysis than those observed in patients with normal renal function or mild to moderate renal insufficiency.
In 24 patients with severe renal insufficiency, 21 of whom were on regular haemodialysis, peak plasma concentrations of the two major metabolites after several days dosing were about 10 fold those seen in patients with normal renal function. Peak plasma levels of Zenix were not affected.
The clinical significance of these observations has not been established as limited safety data are currently available.
Patients with hepatic insufficiency: Limited data indicate that the pharmacokinetics of Zenix, PNU-142300 and PNU-142586 are not altered in patients with mild to moderate hepatic insufficiency (i.e. Child-Pugh class A or B). The pharmacokinetics of Zenix in patients with severe hepatic insufficiency (i.e. Child-Pugh class C) have not been evaluated. However, as Zenix is metabolised by a non-enzymatic process, impairment of hepatic function would not be expected to significantly alter its metabolism.
Children and adolescents (< 18 years old): There are insufficient data on the safety and efficacy of Zenix in children and adolescents (< 18 years old) and therefore, use of Zenix in this age group is not recommended.. Further studies are needed to establish safe and effective dosage recommendations. Pharmacokinetic studies indicate that after single and multiple doses in children (1 week to 12 years), Zenix clearance (based on kg body weight) was greater in paediatric patients than in adults, but decreased with increasing age.
In children 1 week to 12 years old, administration of 10 mg/kg every 8 hours daily gave exposure approximating to that achieved with 600 mg twice daily in adults.
In neonates up to 1 week of age, the systemic clearance of Zenix (based on kg body weight) increases rapidly in the first week of life. Therefore, neonates given 10 mg/kg every 8 hours daily will have the greatest systemic exposure on the first day after delivery. However, excessive accumulation is not expected with this dosage regimen during the first week of life as clearance increases rapidly over that period.
In adolescents (12 to 17 years old), Zenix pharmacokinetics were similar to that in adults following a 600mg dose. Therefore, adolescents administered 600 mg every 12 hours daily will have similar exposure to that observed in adults receiving the same dosage.
In paediatric patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts who were administered Zenix 10mg/kg either 12 hourly or 8 hourly, variable cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Zenix concentrations were observed following either single or multiple dosing of Zenix. Therapeutic concentrations were not consistently achieved or maintained in the CSF. Therefore, the use of Zenix for the empirical treatment of paediatric patients with central nervous system infections is not recommended.
Elderly patients: The pharmacokinetics of Zenix are not significantly altered in elderly patients aged 65 and over.
Female patients: Females have a slightly lower volume of distribution than males and the mean clearance is reduced by approximately 20% when corrected for body weight. Plasma concentrations are higher in females and this can partly be attributed to body weight differences. However, because the mean half life of Zenix is not significantly different in males and females, plasma concentrations in females are not expected to substantially rise above those known to be well tolerated and, therefore, dose adjustments are not required.
Zenix decreased fertility and reproductive performance of male rats at exposure levels approximately equal to those expected in humans. In sexually mature animals these effects were reversible. However, these effects did not reverse in juvenile animals treated with Zenix for nearly the entire period of sexual maturation. Abnormal sperm morphology in testis of adult male rats, and epithelial cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia in the epididymis were noted. Zenix appeared to affect the maturation of rat spermatozoa. Supplementation of testosterone had no effect on Zenix-mediated fertility effects. Epididymal hypertrophy was not observed in dogs treated for 1 month, although changes in the weights of prostate, testes and epididymis were apparent.
Reproductive toxicity studies in mice and rats showed no evidence of a teratogenic effect at exposure levels 4 times or equivalent, respectively, to those expected in humans. The same Zenix concentrations caused maternal toxicity in mice and were related to increased embryo death including total litter loss, decreased fetal body weight and an exacerbation of the normal genetic predisposition to sternal variations in the strain of mice. In rats, slight maternal toxicity was noted at exposures lower than expected clinical exposures. Mild fetal toxicity, manifested as decreased fetal body weights, reduced ossification of sternebrae, reduced pup survival and mild maturational delays were noted. When mated, these same pups showed evidence of a reversible dose-related increase in pre-implantation loss with a corresponding decrease in fertility. In rabbits, reduced fetal body weight occurred only in the presence of maternal toxicity (clinical signs, reduced body weight gain and food consumption) at low exposure levels 0.06 times compared to the expected human exposure based on AUCs. The species is known to be sensitive to the effects of antibiotics.
Zenix and its metabolites are excreted into the milk of lactating rats and the concentrations observed were higher than those in maternal plasma.
Zenix produced reversible myelosuppression in rats and dogs.
In rats administered Zenix orally for 6 months, non-reversible, minimal to mild axonal degeneration of sciatic nerves was observed at 80 mg/kg/day; minimal degeneration of the sciatic nerve was also observed in 1 male at this dose level at a 3-month interim necropsy. Sensitive morphologic evaluation of perfusion-fixed tissues was conducted to investigate evidence of optic nerve degeneration. Minimal to moderate optic nerve degeneration was evident in 2 of 3 male rats after 6 months of dosing, but the direct relationship to drug was equivocal because of the acute nature of the finding and its asymmetrical distribution. The optic nerve degeneration observed was microscopically comparable to spontaneous unilateral optic nerve degeneration reported in aging rats and may be an exacerbation of common background change.
Preclinical data, based on conventional studies of repeated-dose toxicity and genotoxicity, revealed no special hazard for humans beyond those addressed in other sections of this Summary of Product Characteristics. Carcinogenicity / oncogenicity studies have not been conducted in view of the short duration of dosing and lack of genotoxicity in the standard battery of studies.
Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
However, we will provide data for each active ingredient