Medically reviewed by Oliinyk Elizabeth Ivanovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2020-03-27
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Treatment Of Asthma
Zenhale is indicated for the treatment of asthma in patients 12 years of age and older.
Long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists, such as formoterol, one of the active ingredients in Zenhale, increase the risk of asthma-related death. Available data from controlled clinical trials suggest that LABA increase the risk of asthma-related hospitalization in pediatric and adolescent patients. Therefore, when treating patients with asthma, Zenhale should only be used for patients not adequately controlled on a long-term asthma control medication, such as an inhaled corticosteroid or whose disease severity clearly warrants initiation of treatment with both an inhaled corticosteroid and LABA. Once asthma control is achieved and maintained, assess the patient at regular intervals and step down therapy (e.g., discontinue Zenhale) if possible without loss of asthma control, and maintain the patient on a long-term asthma control medication, such as an inhaled corticosteroid. Do not use Zenhale for patients whose asthma is adequately controlled on low or medium dose inhaled corticosteroids.
Important Limitation Of Use
- Zenhale is NOT indicated for the relief of acute bronchospasm.
Zenhale should be administered as two inhalations twice daily every day (morning and evening) by the orally inhaled route (see Patient Instructions for Use in the Medication Guide). Shake well prior to each inhalation. After each dose, the patient should be advised to rinse his/her mouth with water without swallowing.
The cap from the mouthpiece of the actuator should be removed before using Zenhale.
Zenhale should be primed before using for the first time by releasing 4 test sprays into the air, away from the face, shaking well before each spray. In cases where the inhaler has not been used for more than 5 days, prime the inhaler again by releasing 4 test sprays into the air, away from the face, shaking well before each spray.
The Zenhale canister should only be used with the Zenhale actuator. The Zenhale actuator should not be used with any other inhalation drug product. Actuators from other products should not be used with the Zenhale canister.
Adults And Adolescents 12 Years Of Age And Older
The dosage is either 2 inhalations twice daily of Zenhale 100 mcg/5 mcg or Zenhale 200 mcg/5 mcg. The maximum recommended dosage is two inhalations of Zenhale 200 mcg/5 mcg twice daily (maximum daily dosage 800 mcg/20 mcg).
When choosing the starting dosage strength of Zenhale, consider the patients' disease severity, based on their previous asthma therapy, including the inhaled corticosteroid dosage, as well as the patients' current control of asthma symptoms and risk of future exacerbation.
The maximum benefit may not be achieved for 1 week or longer after beginning treatment. Individual patients may experience a variable time to onset and degree of symptom relief. For patients who do not respond adequately after 2 weeks of therapy with two inhalations of Zenhale 100 mcg/5 mcg twice daily (morning and evening), increasing the dosage to two inhalations of Zenhale 200 mcg/5 mcg twice daily (morning and evening) may provide additional asthma control.
Do not use more than two inhalations twice daily of the prescribed strength of Zenhale as some patients are more likely to experience adverse effects with higher doses of formoterol. If symptoms arise between doses, an inhaled short-acting beta2-agonist should be taken for immediate relief.
If a previously effective dosage regimen of Zenhale fails to provide adequate control of asthma, the therapeutic regimen should be re-evaluated and additional therapeutic options, e.g., replacing the current strength of Zenhale with a higher strength, adding additional inhaled corticosteroid, or initiating oral corticosteroids, should be considered.
Zenhale is contraindicated in the primary treatment of status asthmaticus or other acute episodes of asthma where intensive measures are required.
Zenhale is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to mometasone furoate, formoterol fumarate, or any of the ingredients in Zenhale.
Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.
Long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists, such as formoterol, one of the active ingredients in Zenhale, increase the risk of asthma-related death. Currently available data are inadequate to determine whether concurrent use of inhaled corticosteroids or other long-term asthma control drugs mitigates the increased risk of asthma-related death from LABA. Available data from controlled clinical trials suggest that LABA increase the risk of asthma-related hospitalization in pediatric and adolescent patients. Therefore, when treating patients with asthma, physicians should only prescribe Zenhale for patients with asthma not adequately controlled on a long-term asthma control medication, such as an inhaled corticosteroid or whose disease severity clearly warrants initiation of treatment with both an inhaled corticosteroid and LABA. Once asthma control is achieved and maintained, assess the patient at regular intervals and step down therapy (e.g., discontinue Zenhale) if possible without loss of asthma control, and maintain the patient on a long-term asthma control medication, such as an inhaled corticosteroid. Do not use Zenhale for patients whose asthma is adequately controlled on low or medium dose inhaled corticosteroids.
A 28-week, placebo-controlled US study comparing the safety of salmeterol with placebo, each added to usual asthma therapy, showed an increase in asthma-related deaths in patients receiving salmeterol (13/13,176 in patients treated with salmeterol vs. 3/13,179 in patients treated with placebo; RR 4.37, 95% CI 1.25, 15.34). This finding with salmeterol is considered a class effect of the LABAs, including formoterol, one of the active ingredients in Zenhale. No study adequate to determine whether the rate of asthma-related death is increased with Zenhale has been conducted.
Clinical studies with formoterol suggested a higher incidence of serious asthma exacerbations in patients who received formoterol fumarate than in those who received placebo. The sizes of these studies were not adequate to precisely quantify the differences in serious asthma exacerbation rates between treatment groups.
Deterioration Of Disease And Acute Episodes
Zenhale should not be initiated in patients during rapidly deteriorating or potentially life-threatening episodes of asthma. Zenhale has not been studied in patients with acutely deteriorating asthma. The initiation of Zenhale in this setting is not appropriate.
Increasing use of inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonists is a marker of deteriorating asthma. In this situation, the patient requires immediate re-evaluation with reassessment of the treatment regimen, giving special consideration to the possible need for replacing the current strength of Zenhale with a higher strength, adding additional inhaled corticosteroid, or initiating systemic corticosteroids. Patients should not use more than 2 inhalations twice daily (morning and evening) of Zenhale.
Zenhale is not indicated for the relief of acute symptoms, i.e., as rescue therapy for the treatment of acute episodes of bronchospasm. An inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonist, not Zenhale, should be used to relieve acute symptoms such as shortness of breath. When prescribing Zenhale, the physician must also provide the patient with an inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonist (e.g., albuterol) for treatment of acute symptoms, despite regular twice-daily (morning and evening) use of Zenhale.
When beginning treatment with Zenhale, patients who have been taking oral or inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonists on a regular basis (e.g., 4 times a day) should be instructed to discontinue the regular use of these drugs.
Excessive Use Of Zenhale And Use With Other Long-Acting Beta2-Agonists
As with other inhaled drugs containing beta2-adrenergic agents, Zenhale should not be used more often than recommended, at higher doses than recommended, or in conjunction with other medications containing long-acting beta2-agonists, as an overdose may result. Clinically significant cardiovascular effects and fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs. Patients using Zenhale should not use an additional long-acting beta2-agonist (e.g., salmeterol, formoterol fumarate, arformoterol tartrate) for any reason, including prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) or the treatment of asthma.
In clinical trials, the development of localized infections of the mouth and pharynx with Candida albicans have occurred in patients treated with Zenhale. If oropharyngeal candidiasis develops, it should be treated with appropriate local or systemic (i.e., oral) antifungal therapy while remaining on treatment with Zenhale therapy, but at times therapy with Zenhale may need to be interrupted. Advise patients to rinse the mouth after inhalation of Zenhale.
Persons who are using drugs that suppress the immune system are more susceptible to infections than healthy individuals.
Chickenpox and measles, for example, can have a more serious or even fatal course in susceptible children or adults using corticosteroids. In such children or adults who have not had these diseases or who are not properly immunized, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. How the dose, route, and duration of corticosteroid administration affect the risk of developing a disseminated infection is not known. The contribution of the underlying disease and/or prior corticosteroid treatment to the risk is also not known. If exposed to chickenpox, prophylaxis with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) or pooled intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may be indicated. If exposed to measles, prophylaxis with pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin (IG) may be indicated. (See the respective package inserts for complete VZIG and IG prescribing information.) If chickenpox develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered.
Zenhale should be used with caution, if at all, in patients with active or quiescent tuberculosis infection of the respiratory tract, untreated systemic fungal, bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections; or ocular herpes simplex.
Transferring Patients From Systemic Corticosteroid Therapy
Particular care is needed for patients who are transferred from systemically active corticosteroids to Zenhale because deaths due to adrenal insufficiency have occurred in asthmatic patients during and after transfer from systemic corticosteroids to less systemically available inhaled corticosteroids. After withdrawal from systemic corticosteroids, a number of months are required for recovery of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function.
Patients who have been previously maintained on 20 mg or more per day of prednisone (or its equivalent) may be most susceptible, particularly when their systemic corticosteroids have been almost completely withdrawn. During this period of HPA suppression, patients may exhibit signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency when exposed to trauma, surgery, or infection (particularly gastroenteritis) or other conditions associated with severe electrolyte loss. Although Zenhale may improve control of asthma symptoms during these episodes, in recommended doses it supplies less than normal physiological amounts of corticosteroid systemically and does NOT provide the mineralocorticoid activity necessary for coping with these emergencies.
During periods of stress or severe asthma attack, patients who have been withdrawn from systemic corticosteroids should be instructed to resume oral corticosteroids (in large doses) immediately and to contact their physicians for further instruction. These patients should also be instructed to carry a medical identification card indicating that they may need supplementary systemic corticosteroids during periods of stress or severe asthma attack.
Patients requiring systemic corticosteroids should be weaned slowly from systemic corticosteroid use after transferring to Zenhale. Lung function (FEV1 or PEF), beta-agonist use, and asthma symptoms should be carefully monitored during withdrawal of systemic corticosteroids. In addition to monitoring asthma signs and symptoms, patients should be observed for signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency such as fatigue, lassitude, weakness, nausea and vomiting, and hypotension.
Transfer of patients from systemic corticosteroid therapy to Zenhale may unmask allergic conditions previously suppressed by the systemic corticosteroid therapy, e.g., rhinitis, conjunctivitis, eczema, arthritis, and eosinophilic conditions.
During withdrawal from oral corticosteroids, some patients may experience symptoms of systemically active corticosteroid withdrawal, e.g., joint and/or muscular pain, lassitude, and depression, despite maintenance or even improvement of respiratory function.
Hypercorticism And Adrenal Suppression
Mometasone furoate, a component of Zenhale, will often help control asthma symptoms with less suppression of HPA function than therapeutically equivalent oral doses of prednisone. Since mometasone furoate is absorbed into the circulation and can be systemically active at higher doses, the beneficial effects of Zenhale in minimizing HPA dysfunction may be expected only when recommended dosages are not exceeded and individual patients are titrated to the lowest effective dose.
Because of the possibility of systemic absorption of inhaled corticosteroids, patients treated with Zenhale should be observed carefully for any evidence of systemic corticosteroid effects. Particular care should be taken in observing patients postoperatively or during periods of stress for evidence of inadequate adrenal response.
It is possible that systemic corticosteroid effects such as hypercorticism and adrenal suppression (including adrenal crisis) may appear in a small number of patients, particularly when mometasone furoate is administered at higher than recommended doses over prolonged periods of time. If such effects occur, the dosage of Zenhale should be reduced slowly, consistent with accepted procedures for reducing systemic corticosteroids and for management of asthma symptoms.
Drug Interactions With Strong Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibitors
Caution should be exercised when considering the coadministration of Zenhale with ketoconazole, and other known strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir, atazanavir, clarithromycin, indinavir, itraconazole, nefazodone, nelfinavir, saquinavir, telithromycin) because adverse effects related to increased systemic exposure to mometasone furoate may occur.
Paradoxical Bronchospasm And Upper Airway Symptoms
Zenhale may produce inhalation induced bronchospasm with an immediate increase in wheezing after dosing that may be life-threatening. If inhalation induced bronchospasm occurs, it should be treated immediately with an inhaled, short-acting bronchodilator. Zenhale should be discontinued immediately and alternative therapy instituted.
Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions
Immediate hypersensitivity reactions may occur after administration of Zenhale, as demonstrated by cases of urticaria, flushing, allergic dermatitis, and bronchospasm.
Cardiovascular And Central Nervous System Effects
Excessive beta-adrenergic stimulation has been associated with seizures, angina, hypertension or hypotension, tachycardia with rates up to 200 beats/min, arrhythmias, nervousness, headache, tremor, palpitation, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, malaise, and insomnia. Therefore, Zenhale should be used with caution in patients with cardiovascular disorders, especially coronary insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension.
Formoterol fumarate, a component of Zenhale, can produce a clinically significant cardiovascular effect in some patients as measured by pulse rate, blood pressure, and/or symptoms. Although such effects are uncommon after administration of Zenhale at recommended doses, if they occur, the drug may need to be discontinued. In addition, beta-agonists have been reported to produce ECG changes, such as flattening of the T wave, prolongation of the QTc interval, and ST segment depression. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs.
Reduction In Bone Mineral Density
Decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) have been observed with long-term administration of products containing inhaled corticosteroids, including mometasone furoate, one of the components of Zenhale. The clinical significance of small changes in BMD with regard to long-term outcomes, such as fracture, is unknown. Patients with major risk factors for decreased bone mineral content, such as prolonged immobilization, family history of osteoporosis, or chronic use of drugs that can reduce bone mass (e.g., anticonvulsants and corticosteroids) should be monitored and treated with established standards of care.
In a 2-year double-blind study in 103 male and female asthma patients 18 to 50 years of age previously maintained on bronchodilator therapy (Baseline FEV1 85%-88% predicted), treatment with mometasone furoate dry powder inhaler 200 mcg twice daily resulted in significant reductions in lumbar spine (LS) BMD at the end of the treatment period compared to placebo. The mean change from Baseline to Endpoint in the lumbar spine BMD was -0.015 (-1.43%) for the mometasone furoate group compared to 0.002 (0.25%) for the placebo group. In another 2-year double-blind study in 87 male and female asthma patients 18 to 50 years of age previously maintained on bronchodilator therapy (Baseline FEV1 82%-83% predicted), treatment with mometasone furoate 400 mcg twice daily demonstrated no statistically significant changes in lumbar spine BMD at the end of the treatment period compared to placebo. The mean change from Baseline to Endpoint in the lumbar spine BMD was -0.018 (-1.57%) for the mometasone furoate group compared to -0.006 (-0.43%) for the placebo group.
Effect On Growth
Orally inhaled corticosteroids, including Zenhale, may cause a reduction in growth velocity when administered to pediatric patients. Monitor the growth of pediatric patients receiving Zenhale routinely (e.g., via stadiometry). To minimize the systemic effects of orally inhaled corticosteroids, including Zenhale, titrate each patient's dose to the lowest dosage that effectively controls his/her symptoms.
Glaucoma And Cataracts
Glaucoma, increased intraocular pressure, and cataracts have been reported following the use of long-term administration of inhaled corticosteroids, including mometasone furoate, a component of Zenhale. Therefore, close monitoring is warranted in patients with a change in vision or with a history of increased intraocular pressure, glaucoma, and/or cataracts.
Zenhale, like other medications containing sympathomimetic amines, should be used with caution in patients with aneurysm, pheochromocytoma, convulsive disorders, or thyrotoxicosis; and in patients who are unusually responsive to sympathomimetic amines. Doses of the related beta2-agonist albuterol, when administered intravenously, have been reported to aggravate preexisting diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis.
Hypokalemia And Hyperglycemia
Beta2-agonist medications may produce significant hypokalemia in some patients, possibly through intracellular shunting, which has the potential to produce adverse cardiovascular effects. The decrease in serum potassium is usually transient, not requiring supplementation. Clinically significant changes in blood glucose and/or serum potassium were seen infrequently during clinical studies with Zenhale at recommended doses.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-Approved Patient Labeling (Medication Guide).
Patients should be informed that formoterol, one of the active ingredients in Zenhale, increases the risk of asthma-related death. In pediatric and adolescent patients, formoterol may increase the risk of asthma-related hospitalization. They should also be informed that data are not adequate to determine whether the concurrent use of inhaled corticosteroids, the other component of Zenhale, or other long-term asthma-control therapy mitigates or eliminates this risk.
Not For Acute Symptoms
Zenhale is not indicated to relieve acute asthma symptoms and extra doses should not be used for that purpose. Acute symptoms should be treated with an inhaled, short-acting, beta2-agonist (the health care provider should prescribe the patient with such medication and instruct the patient in how it should be used).
Patients should be instructed to seek medical attention immediately if they experience any of the following:
- If their symptoms worsen
- Significant decrease in lung function as outlined by the physician
- If they need more inhalations of a short-acting beta2-agonist than usual
Patients should be advised not to increase the dose or frequency of Zenhale. The daily dosage of Zenhale should not exceed two inhalations twice daily. If they miss a dose, they should be instructed to take their next dose at the same time they normally do. Zenhale provides bronchodilation for up to 12 hours.
Patients should not stop or reduce Zenhale therapy without physician/provider guidance since symptoms may recur after discontinuation.
Do Not Use Additional Long-Acting Beta2-Agonists
When patients are prescribed Zenhale, other long-acting beta2-agonists should not be used.
Risks Associated With Corticosteroid Therapy
Local Effects: Patients should be advised that localized infections with Candida albicans occurred in the mouth and pharynx in some patients. If oropharyngeal candidiasis develops, it should be treated with appropriate local or systemic (i.e., oral) antifungal therapy while still continuing with Zenhale therapy, but at times therapy with Zenhale may need to be temporarily interrupted under close medical supervision. Rinsing the mouth after inhalation is advised.
Immunosuppression: Patients who are on immunosuppressant doses of corticosteroids should be warned to avoid exposure to chickenpox or measles and, if exposed, to consult their physician without delay. Patients should be informed of potential worsening of existing tuberculosis, fungal, bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections, or ocular herpes simplex.
Hypercorticism and Adrenal Suppression: Patients should be advised that Zenhale may cause systemic corticosteroid effects of hypercorticism and adrenal suppression. Additionally, patients should be instructed that deaths due to adrenal insufficiency have occurred during and after transfer from systemic corticosteroids. Patients should taper slowly from systemic corticosteroids if transferring to Zenhale.
Reduction in Bone Mineral Density: Patients who are at an increased risk for decreased BMD should be advised that the use of corticosteroids may pose an additional risk and should be monitored and, where appropriate, be treated for this condition.
Reduced Growth Velocity: Patients should be informed that orally inhaled corticosteroids, a component of Zenhale, may cause a reduction in growth velocity when administered to pediatric patients. Physicians should closely follow the growth of pediatric patients taking corticosteroids by any route.
Glaucoma and Cataracts: Long-term use of inhaled corticosteroids may increase the risk of some eye problems (glaucoma or cataracts); regular eye examinations should be considered.
Risks Associated With Beta-Agonist Therapy
Patients should be informed that treatment with beta2-agonists may lead to adverse events which include palpitations, chest pain, rapid heart rate, tremor or nervousness.
Instructions For Use
Patients should be instructed regarding the following:
- Read the Medication Guide before use and follow the Instructions for Use carefully.
- Patients should be reminded to:
- Remove the cap from the mouthpiece of the actuator before use.
- Not remove the canister from the actuator.
- Not wash inhaler in water. The mouthpiece should be cleaned using a dry wipe after every 7 days of use.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Mometasone furoate: In a 2-year carcinogenicity study in Sprague Dawley® rats, mometasone furoate demonstrated no statistically significant increase in the incidence of tumors at inhalation doses up to 67 mcg/kg (approximately 14 times the MRHD on an AUC basis). In a 19-month carcinogenicity study in Swiss CD-1 mice, mometasone furoate demonstrated no statistically significant increase in the incidence of tumors at inhalation doses up to 160 mcg/kg (approximately 9 times the MRHD on an AUC basis).
Mometasone furoate increased chromosomal aberrations in an in vitro Chinese hamster ovary cell assay, but did not have this effect in an in vitro Chinese hamster lung cell assay. Mometasone furoate was not mutagenic in the Ames test or mouse lymphoma assay, and was not clastogenic in an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, a rat bone marrow chromosomal aberration assay, or a mouse male germ-cell chromosomal aberration assay. Mometasone furoate also did not induce unscheduled DNA synthesis in vivo in rat hepatocytes.
In reproductive studies in rats, impairment of fertility was not produced by subcutaneous doses up to 15 mcg/kg (approximately 8 times the MRHD on an AUC basis).
Formoterol fumarate: The carcinogenic potential of formoterol fumarate has been evaluated in 2-year drinking water and dietary studies in both rats and mice. In rats, the incidence of ovarian leiomyomas was increased at doses of 15 mg/kg and above in the drinking water study and at 20 mg/kg in the dietary study, but not at dietary doses up to 5 mg/kg (AUC exposure approximately 265 times human exposure at the MRHD). In the dietary study, the incidence of benign ovarian theca-cell tumors was increased at doses of 0.5 mg/kg and above (AUC exposure at the low dose of 0.5 mg/kg was approximately 27 times human exposure at the MRHD). This finding was not observed in the drinking water study, nor was it seen in mice (see below).
In mice, the incidence of adrenal subcapsular adenomas and carcinomas was increased in males at doses of 69 mg/kg and above in the drinking water study, but not at doses up to 50 mg/kg (AUC exposure approximately 350 times human exposure at the MRHD) in the dietary study. The incidence of hepatocarcinomas was increased in the dietary study at doses of 20 and 50 mg/kg in females and 50 mg/kg in males, but not at doses up to 5 mg/kg in either males or females (AUC exposure approximately 35 times human exposure at the MRHD). Also in the dietary study, the incidence of uterine leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas was increased at doses of 2 mg/kg and above (AUC exposure at the low dose of 2 mg/kg was approximately 14 times human exposure at the MRHD). Increases in leiomyomas of the rodent female genital tract have been similarly demonstrated with other beta-agonist drugs.
Formoterol fumarate was not mutagenic or clastogenic in the following tests: mutagenicity tests in bacterial and mammalian cells, chromosomal analyses in mammalian cells, unscheduled DNA synthesis repair tests in rat hepatocytes and human fibroblasts, transformation assay in mammalian fibroblasts and micronucleus tests in mice and rats.
Reproduction studies in rats revealed no impairment of fertility at oral doses up to 3 mg/kg (approximately 1200 times the MRHD on a mcg/m² basis).
Use In Specific Populations
Zenhale: Teratogenic Effects
Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Zenhale, mometasone furoate only or formoterol fumarate only in pregnant women. Animal reproduction studies of mometasone furoate and formoterol in mice, rats, and/or rabbits revealed evidence of Â teratogenicity as well as other developmental toxic effects. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, Zenhale should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Mometasone Furoate: Teratogenic Effects
When administered to pregnant mice, rats, and rabbits, mometasone furoate increased fetal malformations and decreased fetal growth (measured by lower fetal weights and/or delayed ossification). Dystocia and related complications were also observed when mometasone furoate was administered to rats late in gestation. However, experience with oral corticosteroids suggests that rodents are more prone to teratogenic effects from corticosteroid exposure than humans.
In a mouse reproduction study, subcutaneous mometasone furoate produced cleft palate at approximately one-third of the maximum recommended daily human dose (MRHD) on a mcg/m² basis and decreased fetal survival at approximately 1 time the MRHD. No toxicity was observed at approximately one-tenth of the MRHD on a mcg/m² basis.
In a rat reproduction study, mometasone furoate produced umbilical hernia at topical dermal doses approximately 6 times the MRHD on a mcg/m² basis and delays in ossification at approximately 3 times the MRHD on a mcg/m² basis.
In another study, rats received subcutaneous doses of mometasone furoate throughout pregnancy or late in gestation. Treated animals had prolonged and difficult labor, fewer live births, lower birth weight, and reduced early pup survival at a dose that was approximately 8 times the MRHD on an area under the curve (AUC) basis. Similar effects were not observed at approximately 4 times MRHD on an AUC basis.
In rabbits, mometasone furoate caused multiple malformations (e.g., flexed front paws, gallbladder agenesis, umbilical hernia, hydrocephaly) at topical dermal doses approximately 3 times the MRHD on a mcg/m² basis. In an oral study, mometasone furoate increased resorptions and caused cleft palate and/or head malformations (hydrocephaly and domed head) at a dose less than the MRHD based on AUC. At a dose approximately 2 times the MRHD based on AUC, most litters were aborted or resorbed.
Hypoadrenalism may occur in infants born to women receiving corticosteroids during pregnancy. Infants born to mothers taking substantial corticosteroid doses during pregnancy should be monitored for signs of hypoadrenalism.
Formoterol Fumarate: Teratogenic Effects
Formoterol fumarate administered throughout organogenesis did not cause malformations in rats or rabbits following oral administration. When given to rats throughout organogenesis, oral doses of approximately 80 times the MRHD on a mcg/m² basis and above delayed ossification of the fetus, and doses of approximately 2400 times the MRHD on a mcg/m² basis and above decreased fetal weight. Formoterol fumarate has been shown to cause stillbirth and neonatal mortality at oral doses of approximately 2400 times the MRHD on a mcg/m² basis and above in rats receiving the drug during the late stage of pregnancy. These effects, however, were not produced at a dose of approximately 80 times the MRHD on a mcg/m² basis.
In another testing laboratory, formoterol was shown to be teratogenic in rats and rabbits. Umbilical hernia, a malformation, was observed in rat fetuses at oral doses approximately 1200 times and greater than the MRHD on a mcg/m² basis. Brachygnathia, a skeletal malformation, was observed in rat fetuses at an oral dose approximately 6100 times the MRHD on a mcg/m² basis. In another study in rats, no teratogenic effects were seen at inhalation doses up to approximately 500 times the MRHD on a mcg/m² basis. Subcapsular cysts on the liver were observed in rabbit fetuses at an oral dose approximately 49,000 times the MRHD on a mcg/m² basis. No teratogenic effects were observed at oral doses up to approximately 3000 times the MRHD on a mcg/m² basis.
Labor And Delivery
There are no adequate and well-controlled human studies that have studied the effects of Zenhale during labor and delivery.
Because beta-agonists may potentially interfere with uterine contractility, Zenhale should be used during labor only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk.
Zenhale: It is not known whether Zenhale is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Zenhale is administered to a nursing woman.
Since there are no data from well-controlled human studies on the use of Zenhale on nursing mothers, based on data for the individual components, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue Zenhale, taking into account the importance of Zenhale to the mother.
Mometasone Furoate: It is not known if mometasone furoate is excreted in human milk. However, other corticosteroids are excreted in human milk.
Formoterol Fumarate: In reproductive studies in rats, formoterol was excreted in the milk. It is not known whether formoterol is excreted in human milk.
The safety and effectiveness of Zenhale have been established in patients 12 years of age and older in 3 clinical trials up to 52 weeks in duration. In the 3 clinical trials, 101 patients 12 to 17 years of age were treated with Zenhale. Patients in this age-group demonstrated efficacy results similar to those observed in patients 18 years of age and older. There were no obvious differences in the type or frequency of adverse drug reactions reported in this age group compared to patients 18 years of age and older. Similar efficacy and safety results were observed in an additional 22 patients 12 to 17 years of age who were treated with Zenhale in another clinical trial. The safety and efficacy of Zenhale have not been established in children less than 12 years of age.
Controlled clinical studies have shown that inhaled corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth velocity in pediatric patients. In these studies, the mean reduction in growth velocity was approximately 1 cm per year (range 0.3 to 1.8 per year) and appears to depend upon dose and duration of exposure. This effect was observed in the absence of laboratory evidence of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression, suggesting that growth velocity is a more sensitive indicator of systemic corticosteroid exposure in pediatric patients than some commonly used tests of HPA axis function. The long-term effects of this reduction in growth velocity associated with orally inhaled corticosteroids, including the impact on final adult height, are unknown. The potential for “catch up” growth following discontinuation of treatment with orally inhaled corticosteroids has not been adequately studied.
The growth of children and adolescents receiving orally inhaled corticosteroids, including Zenhale, should be monitored routinely (e.g., v
LABA use may result in the following:
- Serious asthma-related events - hospitalizations, intubations, and death.
- Cardiovascular and central nervous system effects.
Systemic and local corticosteroid use may result in the following:
- Candida albicans infection
- Hypercorticism and adrenal suppression
- Growth effects in pediatrics
- Glaucoma and cataracts
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Clinical Trials Experience
The safety data described below is based on 3 clinical trials which randomized 1913 patients 12 years of age and older with asthma, including 679 patients exposed to Zenhale for 12 to 26 weeks and 271 patients exposed for 1 year. Zenhale was studied in two placebo-and active-controlled trials (n=781 and n=728, respectively) and in a long-term 52-week safety trial (n=404). In the 12 to 26week clinical trials, the population was 12 to 84 years of age, 41% male and 59% female, 73% Caucasians, 27% non-Caucasians. Patients received two inhalations twice daily of Zenhale (100 mcg/5 mcg or 200 mcg/5 mcg), mometasone furoate MDI (100 mcg or 200 mcg), formoterol MDI (5 mcg) or placebo. In the long-term 52-week active-comparator safety trial, the population was 12 years to 75 years of age with asthma, 37% male and 63% female, 47% Caucasians, 53% non-Caucasians and received two inhalations twice daily of Zenhale 100 mcg/5 mcg or 200 mcg/5 mcg, or an active comparator.
The incidence of treatment emergent adverse reactions associated with Zenhale in Table 2 below is based upon pooled data from 2 clinical trials 12 to 26 weeks in duration in patients 12 years and older treated with two inhalations twice daily of Zenhale (100 mcg/5 mcg or 200 mcg/5 mcg), mometasone furoate MDI (100 mcg or 200 mcg), formoterol MDI (5mcg) or placebo.
Table 2: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions in Zenhale Groups Occurring at an Incidence of ≥3% and More Commonly than Placebo
|Adverse Reactions||Zenhale*||Mometasone Furoate*||Formoterol*||Placebo* |
|100 mcg/5 mcg |
|200 mcg/5 mcg |
|100 mcg |
|200 mcg |
|5 mcg |
|Nasopharyngitis||20 (4.7)||12 (4.7)||15 (7.8)||13 (5.4)||13 (6.4)||7 (3.6)|
|Sinusitis||14 (3.3)||5 (2.0)||6 (3.1)||4 (1.7)||7 (3.5)||2 (1.0)|
|Headache||19 (4.5)||5 (2.0)||10 (5.2)||8 (3.3)||6 (3.0)||7 (3.6)|
|Average Duration of Exposure (days)||116||81||165||79||131||138|
|*All treatments were administered as two inhalations twice daily.|
Oral candidiasis has been reported in clinical trials at an incidence of 0.7% in patients using Zenhale 100 mcg/5 mcg, 0.8% in patients using Zenhale 200 mcg/5 mcg and 0.5% in the placebo group.
Long-Term Clinical Trial Experience
In a long-term safety trial in patients 12 years and older treated for 52 weeks with Zenhale 100 mcg/5 mcg (n=141), Zenhale 200 mcg/5 mcg (n=130) or an active comparator (n=133), safety outcomes in general were similar to those observed in the shorter 12 to 26 week controlled trials. No asthma-related deaths were observed. Dysphonia was observed at a higher frequency in the longer term treatment trial at a reported incidence of 7/141 (5%) patients receiving Zenhale 100 mcg/5 mcg and 5/130 (3.8%) patients receiving Zenhale 200 mcg/5 mcg. No clinically significant changes in blood chemistry, hematology, or ECG were observed.
The following adverse reactions have been reported during post-approval use of Zenhale or post-approval use with inhaled mometasone furoate or inhaled formoterol fumarate. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Cardiac disorders: angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmias, e.g., atrial fibrillation, ventricular extrasystoles, tachyarrhythmia Immune system disorders: immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylactic reaction, angioedema, severe hypotension, rash, pruritus
Investigations: electrocardiogram QT prolonged, blood pressure increased (including hypertension)
Metabolism and nutrition disorders: hypokalemia, hyperglycemia
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: asthma aggravation, which may include cough, dyspnea, wheezing and bronchospasm
Signs And Symptoms
Zenhale: Zenhale contains both mometasone furoate and formoterol fumarate; therefore, the risks associated with overdosage for the individual components described below apply to Zenhale.
Mometasone Furoate: Chronic overdosage may result in signs/symptoms of hypercorticism. Single oral doses up to 8000 mcg of mometasone furoate have been studied on human volunteers with no adverse reactions reported.
Formoterol Fumarate: The expected signs and symptoms with overdosage of formoterol are those of excessive beta-adrenergic stimulation and/or occurrence or exaggeration of any of the following signs and symptoms: angina, hypertension or hypotension, tachycardia, with rates up to 200 beats/min., arrhythmias, nervousness, headache, tremor, seizures, muscle cramps, dry mouth, palpitation, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, malaise, hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, and insomnia. Metabolic acidosis may also occur. Cardiac arrest and even death may be associated with an overdose of formoterol.
The minimum acute lethal inhalation dose of formoterol fumarate in rats is 156 mg/kg (approximately 63,000 times the MRHD on a mcg/m² basis). The median lethal oral doses in Chinese hamsters, rats, and mice provide even higher multiples of the MRHD.
Zenhale: Treatment of overdosage consists of discontinuation of Zenhale together with institution of appropriate symptomatic and/or supportive therapy. The judicious use of a cardioselective beta-receptor blocker may be considered, bearing in mind that such medication can produce bronchospasm. There is insufficient evidence to determine if dialysis is beneficial for overdosage of Zenhale. Cardiac monitoring is recommended in cases of overdosage.
Zenhale: In a single-dose, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial in 25 patients with asthma, single-dose treatment of 10 mcg formoterol fumarate in combination with 400 mcg of mometasone furoate delivered via Zenhale 200 mcg/5 mcg were compared to formoterol fumarate 10 mcg MDI, formoterol fumarate 12 mcg dry powder inhaler (DPI; nominal dose of formoterol fumarate delivered 10 mcg), or placebo. The degree of bronchodilation at 12 hours after dosing with Zenhale was similar to formoterol fumarate delivered alone via MDI or DPI.
ECGs and blood samples for glucose and potassium were obtained prior to dosing and post dose. No downward trend in serum potassium was observed and values were within the normal range and appeared to be similar across all treatments over the 12 hour period. Mean blood glucose appeared similar across all groups for each time point. There was no evidence of significant hypokalemia or hyperglycemia in response to formoterol treatment.
No relevant changes in heart rate or changes in ECG data were observed with Zenhale in the trial. No patients had a QTcB (QTc corrected by Bazett's formula) ≥ 500 msec during treatment.
In a single-dose crossover trial involving 24 healthy subjects, single dose of formoterol fumarate 10, 20, or 40 mcg in combination with 400 mcg of mometasone furoate delivered via Zenhale were evaluated for safety (ECG, blood potassium and glucose changes). ECGs and blood samples for glucose and potassium were obtained at baseline and post dose. Decrease in mean serum potassium was similar across all three treatment groups (approximately 0.3 mmol/L) and values were within the normal range. No clinically significant increases in mean blood glucose values or heart rate were observed. No subjects had a QTcB > 500 msec during treatment.
Three active-and placebo-controlled trials (study duration ranging from 12, 26, and 52 weeks) evaluated 1913 patients 12 years of age and older with asthma. No clinically meaningful changes were observed in potassium and glucose values, vital signs, or ECG parameters in patients receiving Zenhale.
HPA Axis Effects
The effects of inhaled mometasone furoate administered via Zenhale on adrenal function were evaluated in two clinical trials in patients with asthma. HPA-axis function was assessed by 24-hour plasma cortisol AUC. Although both these trials have open-label design and contain small number of subjects per treatment arm, results from these trials taken together demonstrated suppression of 24-hour plasma cortisol AUC for Zenhale 200 mcg/5 mcg compared to placebo consistent with the known systemic effects of inhaled corticosteroid.
In a 42-day, open-label, placebo and active-controlled study 60 patients with asthma 18 years of age and older were randomized to receive two inhalations twice daily of 1 of the following treatments: Zenhale 100 mcg/5 mcg, Zenhale 200 mcg/5 mcg, fluticasone propionate/salmeterol xinafoate 230 mcg/21 mcg, or placebo. At Day 42, the mean change from baseline plasma cortisol AUC(0-24 hr) was 8%, 22% and 34% lower compared to placebo for the Zenhale 100 mcg/5 mcg (n=13), Zenhale 200 mcg/5 mcg (n=15) and fluticasone propionate/salmeterol xinafoate 230 mcg/21 mcg (n=16) treatment groups, respectively.
In a 52-week, open-label safety study, primary analysis of the plasma cortisol 24-hour AUC was performed on 57 patients with asthma who received 2 inhalations twice daily of Zenhale 100 mcg/5 mcg, Zenhale 200 mcg/5 mcg, fluticasone propionate/salmeterol xinafoate 125/25 mcg, or fluticasone propionate/salmeterol xinafoate 250/25 mcg. At Week 52, the mean plasma cortisol AUC(0-24 hr) was 2.2%, 29.6%, 16.7%, and 32.2% lower from baseline for the Zenhale 100 mcg/5 mcg (n=18), Zenhale 200 mcg/5 mcg (n=20), fluticasone propionate/salmeterol xinafoate 125/25 mcg (n=8), and fluticasone propionate/salmeterol xinafoate 250/25 mcg (n=11) treatment groups, respectively.
Other Mometasone Products
HPA Axis Effects
The potential effect of mometasone furoate via a dry powder inhaler (DPI) on the HPA axis was assessed in a 29-day study. A total of 64 adult patients with mild to moderate asthma were randomized to one of 4 treatment groups: mometasone furoate DPI 440 mcg twice daily, mometasone furoate DPI 880 mcg twice daily, oral prednisone 10 mg once daily, or placebo. The 30-minute post-Cosyntropin stimulation serum cortisol concentration on Day 29 was 23.2 mcg/dl for the mometasone furoate DPI 440 mcg twice daily group and 20.8 mcg/dl for the mometasone furoate DPI 880 mcg twice daily group, compared to 14.5 mcg/dl for the oral prednisone 10 mg group and 25 mcg/dl for the placebo group. The difference between mometasone furoate DPI 880 mcg twice daily (twice the maximum recommended dose) and placebo was statistically significant.
Mometasone furoate: Healthy Subjects: The systemic exposures to mometasone furoate from Zenhale versus mometasone furoate delivered via DPI were compared. Following oral inhalation of single and multiple doses of the Zenhale, mometasone furoate was absorbed in healthy subjects with median Tmax values ranging from 0.50 to 4 hours. Following single-dose administration of higher than recommended dose of Zenhale (4 inhalations of Zenhale 200 mcg/5 mcg) in healthy subjects, the arithmetic mean (CV%) Cmax and AUC(0-12 hr) values for MF were 67.8 (49) pg/mL and 650 (51) pg•hr/mL, respectively while the corresponding estimates following 5 days of BID dosing of Zenhale 800 mcg/20 mcg were 241 (36) pg/mL and 2200 (35) pg•hr/mL. Exposure to mometasone furoate increased with increasing inhaled dose of Zenhale 100 mcg/5 mcg to 200 mcg/5 mcg. Studies using oral dosing of labeled and unlabeled drug have demonstrated that the oral systemic bioavailability of mometasone furoate is negligible ( < 1%).
The above study demonstrated that the systemic exposure to mometasone furoate (based on AUC) was approximately 52% and 25% lower on Day 1 and Day 5, respectively, following Zenhale administration compared to mometasone furoate via a DPI.
Asthma Patients: Following oral inhalation of single and multiple doses of the Zenhale, mometasone furoate was absorbed in asthma patients with median Tmax values ranging from 1 to 2 hours. Following single-dose administration of Zenhale 400 mcg/10 mcg, the arithmetic mean (CV%) Cmax and AUC(0-12 hr) values for MF were 20 (88) pg/mL and 170 (94) pg•hr/mL, respectively while the corresponding estimates following BID dosing of Zenhale 400 mcg/10 mcg at steady-state were 60 (36) pg/mL and 577 (40) pg•hr/mL.
Formoterol fumarate: Healthy Subjects: When Zenhale was administered to healthy subjects, formoterol was absorbed with median Tmax values ranging from 0.167 to 0.5 hour. In a single-dose study with Zenhale 400 mcg/10 mcg in healthy subjects, arithmetic mean (CV%) Cmax and AUC for formoterol were 15 (50) pmol/L and 81 (51) pmol*h/L, respectively. Over the dose range of 10 to 40 mcg for formoterol from Zenhale, the exposure to formoterol was dose proportional.
Asthma Patients: When Zenhale was administered to patients with asthma, formoterol was absorbed with median Tmax values ranging from 0.58 to 1.97 hours. In a single-dose study with Zenhale 400 mcg/10 mcg in patients with asthma, arithmetic mean (CV%) Cmax and AUC(0-12 hr) for formoterol were 22 (29) pmol/L and 125 (42) pmol*h/L, respectively. Following multiple-dose administration of Zenhale 400 mcg/10 mcg, the steady-state arithmetic mean (CV%) Cmax and AUC(0-12 hr) for formoterol were 41 (59) pmol/L and 226 (54) pmol*hr/L.
Mometasone furoate: Based on the study employing a 1000 mcg inhaled dose of tritiated mometasone furoate inhalation powder in humans, no appreciable accumulation of mometasone furoate in the red blood cells was found. Following an intravenous 400 mcg dose of mometasone furoate, the plasma concentrations showed a biphasic decline, with a mean steady-state volume of distribution of 152 liters. The in vitro protein binding for mometasone furoate was reported to be 98% to 99% (in a concentration range of 5 to 500 ng/mL).
Formoterol fumarate: The binding of formoterol to human plasma proteins in vitro was 61% to 64% at concentrations from 0.1 to 100 ng/mL. Binding to human serum albumin in vitro was 31% to 38% over a range of 5 to 500 ng/mL. The concentrations of formoterol used to assess the plasma protein binding were higher than those achieved in plasma following inhalation of a single 120 mcg dose.
Mometasone furoate: Studies have shown that mometasone furoate is primarily and extensively metabolized in the liver of all species investigated and undergoes extensive metabolism to multiple metabolites. In-vitro studies have confirmed the primary role of human liver cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4) in the metabolism of this compound, however, no major metabolites were identified. Human liver CYP3A4 metabolizes mometasone furoate to 6-beta hydroxy mometasone furoate.
Formoterol fumarate: Formoterol is metabolized primarily by direct glucuronidation at either the phenolic or aliphatic hydroxyl group and O-demethylation followed by glucuronide conjugation at either phenolic hydroxyl groups. Minor pathways involve sulfate conjugation of formoterol and deformylation followed by sulfate conjugation. The most prominent pathway involves direct conjugation at the phenolic hydroxyl group. The second major pathway involves O-demethylation followed by conjugation at the phenolic 2'-hydroxyl group. Four cytochrome P450 isozymes (CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and CYP2A6) are involved in the Odemethylation of formoterol. Formoterol did not inhibit CYP450 enzymes at therapeutically relevant concentrations. Some patients may be deficient in CYP2D6 or 2C19 or both. Whether a deficiency in one or both of these isozymes results in elevated systemic exposure to formoterol or systemic adverse effects has not been adequately explored.
Mometasone furoate: Following an intravenous dosing, the terminal half-life was reported to be about 5 hours. Following the inhaled dose of tritiated 1000 mcg mometasone furoate, the radioactivity is excreted mainly in the feces (a mean of 74%), and to a small extent in the urine (a mean of 8%) up to 7 days. No radioactivity was associated with unchanged mometasone furoate in the urine. Absorbed mometasone furoate is cleared from plasma at a rate of approximately 12.5 mL/min/kg, independent of dose. The effective t½ for mometasone furoate following inhalation with Zenhale was 25 hours in healthy subjects and in patients with asthma.
Formoterol fumarate: Following oral administration of 80 mcg of radiolabeled formoterol fumarate to 2 healthy subjects, 59% to 62% of the radioactivity was eliminated in the urine and 32% to 34% in the feces over a period of 104 hours. In an oral inhalation study with Zenhale, renal clearance of formoterol from the blood was 217 mL/min. In single-dose studies, the mean t½ values for formoterol in plasma were 9.1 hours and 10.8 hours from the urinary excretion data. The accumulation of formoterol in plasma after multiple dose administration was consistent with the increase expected with a drug having a terminal t½ of 9 to 11 hour.
Following single inhaled doses ranging from 10 to 40 mcg to healthy subjects from the MFF MDI, 6.2% to 6.8% of the formoterol dose was excreted in urine unchanged. The (R,R) and (S,S)-enantiomers accounted, respectively, for 37% and 63% of the formoterol recovered in urine. From urinary excretion rates measured in healthy subjects, the mean terminal elimination half-lives for the (R,R)and (S,S)-enantiomers were determined to be 13 and 9.5 hours, respectively. The relative proportion of the two enantiomers remained constant over the dose range studied.