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Oxycodone Hydrochloride
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Medically reviewed by Kovalenko Svetlana Olegovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2020.04.01

Name of the medicinal product

Xtampza Er

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Oxycodone Hydrochloride

Pharmaceutical form

Capsule; Capsule, Extended Release

Therapeutic indications

The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Xtampza Er is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Xtampza Er of the medicine (Oxycodone Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Therapeutic indications in the instructions to the drug Xtampza Er directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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For the treatment of moderate to severe pain in patients with cancer and post-operative pain. For the treatment of severe pain requiring the use of a strong opioid.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administration of Xtampza Er is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Xtampza Er of the medicine (Oxycodone Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Xtampza Er directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Prolonged-release tablet; Syrup
Eye drops, solution

Adults over 18 years:

Xtampza Er tablets should be taken at 12-hourly intervals. The dosage is dependent on the severity of the pain, and the patient's previous history of analgesic requirements.

Xtampza Er is not intended for use as a prn analgesic.

Increasing severity of pain will require an increased dosage of Xtampza Er tablets, using the 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg or 80 mg tablet strengths, either alone or in combination, to achieve pain relief. The correct dosage for any individual patient is that which controls the pain and is well tolerated for a full 12 hours. Patients should be titrated to pain relief unless unmanageable adverse drug reactions prevent this. If higher doses are necessary, increases should be made in 25% - 50% increments. The need for escape medication more than twice a day indicates that the dosage of Xtampza Er tablets should be increased.

The usual starting dose for opioid naïve patients or patients presenting with severe pain uncontrolled by weaker opioids is 10 mg, 12-hourly. Some patients may benefit from a starting dose of 5 mg to minimise the incidence of side effects. The dose should then be carefully titrated, as frequently as once a day if necessary, to achieve pain relief. For the majority of patients, the maximum dose is 200 mg 12-hourly. However, a few patients may require higher doses. Doses in excess of 1000 mg daily have been recorded.

Conversion from oral morphine:

Patients receiving oral morphine before Xtampza Er therapy should have their daily dose based on the following ratio: 10 mg of oral oxycodone is equivalent to 20 mg of oral morphine. It must be emphasised that this is a guide to the dose of Xtampza Er tablets required. Inter-patient variability requires that each patient is carefully titrated to the appropriate dose.

Elderly patients:

A dose adjustment is not usually necessary in elderly patients.

Controlled pharmacokinetic studies in elderly patients (aged over 65 years) have shown that, compared with younger adults, the clearance of oxycodone is only slightly reduced. No untoward adverse drug reactions were seen based on age, therefore adult doses and dosage intervals are appropriate.

Paediatric population

Xtampza Er should not be used in patients under 18 years of age.

Patients with renal or hepatic impairment:

The plasma concentration in this population may be increased. The dose initiation should follow a conservative approach in these patients. The recommended adult starting dose should be reduced by 50% (for example a total daily dose of 10 mg orally in opioid naïve patients), and each patient should be titrated to adequate pain control according to their clinical situation.

Use in non-malignant pain:

Opioids are not first-line therapy for chronic non-malignant pain, nor are they recommended as the only treatment. Types of chronic pain which have been shown to be alleviated by strong opioids include chronic osteoarthritic pain and intervertebral disc disease. The need for continued treatment in non-malignant pain should be assessed at regular intervals.

Method of administration

Xtampza Er tablets are for oral use.

Xtampza Er tablets must be swallowed whole and not broken, chewed or crushed.

Duration of treatment

Oxycodone should not be used for longer than necessary.

Discontinuation of treatment

When a patient no longer requires therapy with oxycodone, it may be advisable to taper the dose gradually to prevent symptoms of withdrawal.

Adults over 18 years:

Xtampza Er capsules should be taken at 4-6 hourly intervals. The dosage is dependent on the severity of the pain, and the patient's previous history of analgesic requirements.

Increasing severity of pain will require an increased dosage of Xtampza Er capsules. The correct dosage for any individual patient is that which controls the pain and is well tolerated throughout the dosing period. Patients should be titrated to pain relief unless unmanageable adverse drug reactions prevent this.

The usual starting dose for opioid naive patients or patients presenting with severe pain uncontrolled by weaker opioids is 5 mg, 4-6 hourly. The dose should then be carefully titrated, as frequently as once a day if necessary, to achieve pain relief. The majority of patients will not require a daily dose greater than 400 mg. However, a few patients may require higher doses.

Conversion from oral morphine:

Patients receiving oral morphine before oxycodone therapy should have their daily dose based on the following ratio: 10 mg of oral oxycodone is equivalent to 20 mg of oral morphine. It must be emphasised that this is a guide to the dose of Xtampza Er capsules required. Inter-patient variability requires that each patient is carefully titrated to the appropriate dose.

Elderly patients:

A dose adjustment is not usually necessary in elderly patients.

Controlled pharmacokinetic studies in elderly patients (aged over 65 years) have shown that, compared with younger adults, the clearance of oxycodone is only slightly reduced. No untoward adverse drug reactions were seen based on age, therefore adult doses and dosage intervals are appropriate.

Patients with renal or hepatic impairment:

The plasma concentration in this patient population may be increased. The dose initiation should follow a conservative approach in these patients. The recommended adult starting dose should be reduced by 50% (for example a total daily dose of 10 mg orally in opioid naïve patients), and each patient should be titrated to adequate pain control according to their clinical situation.

Paediatric population:

Xtampza Er capsules should not be used in patients under 18 years.

Use in non-malignant pain:

Opioids are not first-line therapy for chronic non-malignant pain, nor are they recommended as the only treatment. Types of chronic pain which have been shown to be alleviated by strong opioids include chronic osteoarthritic pain and intervertebral disc disease. The need for continued treatment in non-malignant pain should be assessed at regular intervals.

Method of administration

Xtampza Er capsules are for oral use.

Duration of treatment

Oxycodone should not be used for longer than necessary. In common with other strong opioids, the need for continued treatment should be assessed at regular intervals.

Discontinuation of treatment

When a patient no longer requires therapy with oxycodone, it may be advisable to taper the dose gradually to prevent symptoms of withdrawal.

Contraindications

The information provided in Contraindications of Xtampza Er is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Xtampza Er of the medicine (Oxycodone Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Xtampza Er directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Prolonged-release tablet; Syrup
Eye drops, solution
< Oxycodone must not be used in any situation where opioids are contraindicated: severe respiratory depression with hypoxia, paralytic ileus, acute abdomen, delayed gastric emptying, severe chronic obstructive lung disease, cor pulmonale, severe bronchial asthma, elevated carbon dioxide levels in the blood, moderate to severe hepatic impairment, , chronic constipation.

Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.

< Oxycodone must not be used in any situation where opioids are contraindicated: severe respiratory depression with hypoxia, paralytic ileus, acute abdomen, delayed gastric emptying, severe chronic obstructive lung disease, cor pulmonale, severe bronchial asthma, elevated carbon dioxide levels in the blood , moderate to severe hepatic impairment, chronic constipation.

Special warnings and precautions for use

The information provided in Special warnings and precautions for use of Xtampza Er is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Xtampza Er of the medicine (Oxycodone Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special warnings and precautions for use in the instructions to the drug Xtampza Er directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Prolonged-release tablet; Syrup
Eye drops, solution

The major risk of opioid excess is respiratory depression. Caution must be exercised when administering oxycodone to the debilitated elderly; patients with severely impaired pulmonary function, patients with impaired hepatic or renal function; patients with myxedema, hypothyroidism, Addison's disease, toxic psychosis, prostate hypertrophy, adrenocortical insufficiency, alcoholism, delirium tremens, diseases of the biliary tract, pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disorders, hypotension, hypovolaemia, raised intracranial pressure, head injury (due to risk of increased intracranial pressure) or patients taking benzodiazepines, other CNS depressants (including alcohol) or MAO inhibitors.

Concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids may result in sedation, respiratory depression, coma and death. Because of these risks, concomitant prescribing of sedative medicines such as benzodiazepines or related drugs with opioids should be reserved for patients for whom alternative treatment options are not possible.

The patients should be followed closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. In this respect, it is strongly recommended to inform patients and their environment to be aware of these symptoms.

Xtampza Er tablets should not be used where there is a possibility of paralytic ileus occurring. Should paralytic ileus be suspected or occur during use, Xtampza Er tablets should be discontinued immediately.

Xtampza Er tablets are not recommended for pre-operative use or within the first 12-24 hours post-operatively.

As with all opioid preparations, oxycodone products should be used with caution following abdominal surgery as opioids are known to impair intestinal motility and should not be used until the physician is assured of normal bowel function.

Patients about to undergo additional pain relieving procedures (e.g. surgery, plexus blockade) should not receive Xtampza Er tablets for 12 hours prior to the intervention. If further treatment with Xtampza Er tablets is indicated then the dosage should be adjusted to the new post-operative requirement.

For appropriate patients who suffer with chronic non-malignant pain, opioids should be used as part of a comprehensive treatment programme involving other medications and treatment modalities. A crucial part of the assessment of a patient with chronic non-malignant pain is the patient's addiction and substance abuse history.

If opioid treatment is considered appropriate for the patient, then the main aim of treatment is not to minimise the dose of opioid but rather to achieve a dose, which provides adequate pain relief with a minimum of side effects. There must be frequent contact between physician and patient so that dosage adjustments can be made. It is strongly recommended that the physician defines treatment outcomes in accordance with pain management guidelines. The physician and patient can then agree to discontinue treatment if these objectives are not met.

The patient may develop tolerance to the drug with chronic use and require progressively higher doses to maintain pain control. Prolonged use of this product may lead to physical dependence and a withdrawal syndrome may occur upon abrupt cessation of therapy. When a patient no longer requires therapy with oxycodone, it may be advisable to taper the dose gradually to prevent symptoms of withdrawal. The opioid abstinence or withdrawal syndrome is characterised by some or all of the following: restlessness, lacrimation, rhinorrhoea, yawning, perspiration, chills, myalgia, mydriasis and palpitations. Other symptoms also may develop, including: irritability, anxiety, backache, joint pain, weakness, abdominal cramps, insomnia, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhoea, or increased blood pressure, respiratory rate or heart rate.

Hyperalgesia that will not respond to a further dose increase of oxycodone may occur, particularly in high doses. An oxycodone dose reduction or change to an alternative opioid may be required.

Oxycodone has an abuse profile similar to other strong opioids. Oxycodone may be sought and abused by people with latent or manifest addiction disorders. There is potential for development of psychological dependence [addiction] to opioid analgesics, including oxycodone. Xtampza Er should be used with particular care in patients with a history of alcohol and drug abuse.

As with other opioids, infants who are born to dependent mothers may exhibit withdrawal symptoms and may have respiratory depression at birth.

Xtampza Er tablets must be swallowed whole, and not broken, chewed or crushed. The administration of broken, chewed, or crushed Xtampza Er tablets leads to a rapid release and absorption of a potentially fatal dose of oxycodone.

Concomitant use of alcohol and Xtampza Er may increase the undesirable effects of Xtampza Er; concomitant use should be avoided.

Abuse of oral dosage forms by parenteral administration can be expected to result in serious adverse events, such as local tissue necrosis, infection, pulmonary granulomas, increased risk of endocarditis, and valvular heart injury, which may be fatal.

Empty matrix (tablets) may be seen in the stools.

Opioids may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal or - gonadal axes. Some changes that can be seen include an increase in serum prolactin, and decreases in plasma cortisol and testosterone. Clinical symptoms may manifest from these hormonal changes.

The major risk of opioid excess is respiratory depression. Caution must be exercised when administering oxycodone to the debilitated elderly; opioid-dependent patients; patients with severely impaired pulmonary function, patients with impaired hepatic or renal function; patients with myxedema, hypothyroidism, Addison's disease, toxic psychosis, prostate hypertrophy, adrenocortical insufficiency, alcoholism, delirium tremens, diseases of the biliary tract, pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disorders, hypotension, hypovolaemia, raised increased intracranial pressure, head injury (due to risk of increased intracranial pressure) or patients taking benzodiazepines, other CNS depressants (including alcohol) or MAO inhibitors.

Concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids may result in sedation, respiratory depression, coma and death.

Because of these risks, concomitant prescribing of sedative medicines such as benzodiazepines or related drugs with opioids should be reserved for patients for whom alternative treatment options are not possible.

The patients should be followed closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. In this respect, it is strongly recommended to inform patients and their environment to be aware of these symptoms.

Xtampza Er capsules should not be used where there is a possibility of paralytic ileus occurring. Should paralytic ileus be suspected or occur during use, Xtampza Er capsules should be discontinued immediately.

Xtampza Er capsules should be used with caution pre-operatively and within the first 12-24 hours post-operatively.

As with all opioid preparations, oxycodone products should be used with caution following abdominal surgery as opioids are known to impair intestinal motility and should not be used until the physician is assured of normal bowel function.

Patients about to undergo additional pain relieving procedures (e.g. surgery, plexus blockade) should not receive Xtampza Er capsules for 6 hours prior to the intervention. If further treatment with oxycodone is indicated then the dosage should be adjusted to the new post-operative requirement.

For appropriate patients who suffer with chronic non-malignant pain, opioids should be used as part of a comprehensive treatment programme involving other medications and treatment modalities. A crucial part of the assessment of a patient with chronic non-malignant pain is the patient's addiction and substance abuse history.

If opioid treatment is considered appropriate for the patient, then the main aim of treatment is not to minimise the dose of opioid, but rather to achieve a dose which provides adequate pain relief with a minimum of side effects. There must be frequent contact between physician and patient so that dosage adjustments can be made. It is strongly recommended that the physician defines treatment outcomes in accordance with pain management guidelines. The physician and patient can then agree to discontinue treatment if these objectives are not met.

The patient may develop tolerance to the drug with chronic use and require progressively higher doses to maintain pain control. Prolonged use of this product may lead to physical dependence and a withdrawal syndrome may occur upon abrupt cessation of therapy. When a patient no longer requires therapy with oxycodone, it may be advisable to taper the dose gradually to prevent symptoms of withdrawal. The opioid abstinence or withdrawal syndrome is characterised by some or all of the following: restlessness, lacrimation, rhinorrhoea, yawning, perspiration, chills, myalgia, mydriasis and palpitations. Other symptoms also may develop, including: irritability, anxiety, backache, joint pain, weakness, abdominal cramps, insomnia, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhoea, or increased blood pressure, respiratory rate or heart rate.

Hyperalgesia that will not respond to a further dose increase of oxycodone may occur, particularly in high doses. An oxycodone dose reduction or change to an alternative opioid may be required.

Oxycodone has an abuse profile similar to other strong agonist opioids. Oxycodone may be sought and abused by people with latent or manifest addiction disorders. There is potential for development of psychological dependence [addiction] to opioid analgesics, including oxycodone. Xtampza Er should be used with particular care in patients with a history of alcohol and drug abuse.

As with other opioids, infants who are born to dependent mothers may exhibit withdrawal symptoms and may have respiratory depression at birth.

The capsules should be swallowed whole, and not chewed or crushed.

Abuse of oral dosage forms by parenteral administration can be expected to result in serious adverse events, which may be fatal.

Concomitant use of alcohol and Xtampza Er capsules may increase the undesirable effects of Xtampza Er capsules; concomitant use should be avoided.

Sunset yellow, a constituent of the 5mg capsule, can cause allergic-type reactions such as asthma. This is more common in people who are allergic to aspirin.

Opioids, such as oxycodone hydrochloride. may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal or - gonadal axes. Some changes that can be seen include an increase in serum prolactin, and decreases in plasma cortisol and testosterone. Clinical symptoms may manifest from these hormonal changes.

Effects on ability to drive and use machines

The information provided in Effects on ability to drive and use machines of Xtampza Er is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Xtampza Er of the medicine (Oxycodone Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Effects on ability to drive and use machines in the instructions to the drug Xtampza Er directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Prolonged-release tablet; Syrup
Eye drops, solution

Oxycodone may impair the ability to drive and use machines. Oxycodone may modify patients' reactions to a varying extent depending on the dosage and individual susceptibility. Therefore, patients should not drive or operate machinery if affected.

This medicine can impair cognitive function and can affect a patient's ability to drive safely. This class of medicine is in the list of drugs included in regulations under 5a of the Road Traffic Act 1988. When prescribing this medicine, patients should be told:

â–ª The medicine is likely to affect your ability to drive.

â–ª Do not drive until you know how the medicine affects you.

â–ª It is an offence to drive while you have this medicine in your body over a specified limit unless you have a defence (called the 'statutory defence').

â–ª This defence applies when:

â–ª The medicine has been prescribed to treat a medical or dental problem; and

â–ª You have taken it according to the instructions given by the prescriber and in the information provided with the medicine.

▪ Please note that it is still an offence to drive if you are unfit because of the medicine (i.e. your ability to drive is being affected).”

Details regarding a new driving offence concerning driving after drugs have been taken in the UK may be found here: https://www.gov.uk/drug-driving-law

Oxycodone may impair the ability to drive and use machines. Oxycodone may modify patients' reactions to a varying extent depending on the dosage and individual susceptibility. Therefore, patients should not drive or operate machinery if affected.

This medicine can impair cognitive function and can affect a patient's ability to drive safely. This class of medicine is in the list of drugs included in regulations under 5a of the Road Traffic Act 1988. When prescribing this medicine, patients should be told:

- The medicine is likely to affect your ability to drive.

- Do not drive until you know how the medicine affects you.

- It is an offence to drive while you have this medicine in your body over a specified limit unless you have a defence (called the 'statutory defence').

- This defence applies when:

o The medicine has been prescribed to treat a medical or dental problem; and

o You have taken it according to the instructions given by the prescriber and in the information provided with the medicine.

- Please note that it is still an offence to drive if you are unfit because of the medicine (i.e. your ability to drive is being affected).”

Details regarding a new driving offence concerning driving after drugs have been taken in the UK may be found here: https://www.gov.uk/drug-driving-law

Undesirable effects

The information provided in Undesirable effects of Xtampza Er is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Xtampza Er of the medicine (Oxycodone Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Undesirable effects in the instructions to the drug Xtampza Er directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Prolonged-release tablet; Syrup
Eye drops, solution

Adverse drug reactions are typical of full opioid agonists. Tolerance and dependence may occur. Constipation may be prevented with an appropriate laxative. If nausea and vomiting are troublesome, oxycodone may be combined with an anti-emetic.

The following frequency categories form the basis for classification of the undesirable effects:

Term

Frequency

Very common

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Very rare

Frequency not known

> 1/10

> 1/100 to <1/10

> 1/1,000 to <1/100

>1/10,000 to <1/1,000

<1/10,000

Cannot be estimated from the available data

Immune system disorders:

Uncommon: hypersensitivity.

Frequency not known: anaphylactic reaction, anaphylactoid reaction.

Metabolism and nutrition disorders:

Common: decreased appetite.

Uncommon: dehydration.

Psychiatric disorders:

Common: anxiety, confusional state, depression, insomnia, nervousness, abnormal thinking, abnormal dreams

Uncommon: agitation, affect lability, euphoric mood, hallucinations, decreased libido, drug dependence , disorientation, mood altered, restlessness, dysphoria

Frequency not known: aggression.

Nervous system disorders:

Very common: somnolence, dizziness, headache.

Common: tremor, lethargy, sedation.

Uncommon: amnesia, convulsion, hypertonia, hypoaesthesia, involuntary muscle contractions, speech disorder, syncope, paraesthesia, dysgeusia, hypotonia.

Frequency not known: hyperalgesia.

Eye disorders:

Uncommon: visual impairment, miosis.

Ear and labyrinth disorders:

Uncommon: vertigo.

Cardiac disorders:

Uncommon: palpitations (in the context of withdrawal syndrome), supraventricular tachycardia.

Vascular disorders:

Uncommon: vasodilatation, facial flushing.

Rare: hypotension, orthostatic hypotension.

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders:

Common: dyspnoea, bronchospasm, cough decreased.

Uncommon: respiratory depression, hiccups.

Gastrointestinal disorders:

Very common: constipation, nausea, vomiting.

Common: abdominal pain, diarrhoea, dry mouth, dyspepsia.

Uncommon: dysphagia, flatulence, eructation, ileus, gastritis.

Frequency not known: dental caries

Hepato-biliary disorders:

Uncommon: increased hepatic enzymes, biliary colic.

Frequency not known: cholestasis

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders:

Very common: pruritus.

Common: rash, hyperhidrosis.

Uncommon: dry skin, exfoliative dermatitis.

Rare: urticaria

Renal and urinary disorders:

Uncommon: urinary retention, ureteral spasm.

Reproductive system and breast disorders:

Uncommon: erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism.

Frequency not known: amenorrhoea

General disorders and administration site conditions:

Common: asthenia, fatigue.

Uncommon: drug withdrawal syndrome, malaise, oedema, peripheral oedema, drug tolerance, thirst, pyrexia, chills.

Frequency not known: drug withdrawal syndrome neonatal

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.

Adverse drug reactions are typical of full opioid agonists. Tolerance and dependence may occur. Constipation may be prevented with an appropriate laxative. If nausea and vomiting are troublesome, oxycodone may be combined with an anti-emetic.

The following frequency categories form the basis for classification of the undesirable effects:

Term

Frequency

Very common

> 1/10

Common

> 1/100 to <1/10

Uncommon

> 1/1,000 to <1/100

Rare

>1/10,000 to <1/1,000

Very rare

<1/10,000

Frequency not known

Cannot be estimated from the available data

Immune system disorders:

Uncommon: hypersensitivity.

Frequency not known: anaphylactic reaction, anaphylactoid reaction.

Metabolism and nutrition disorders:

Common: decreased appetite.

Uncommon: dehydration.

Psychiatric disorders:

Common: anxiety, confusional state, depression, insomnia, nervousness, abnormal thinking, abnormal dreams

Uncommon: agitation, affect lability, euphoric mood, hallucinations, decreased libido, drug dependence , disorientation, mood altered, restlessness, dysphoria

Frequency not known: aggression.

Nervous system disorders:

Very common: somnolence, dizziness, headache.

Common: tremor, lethargy, sedation.

Uncommon: amnesia, convulsion, hypertonia, hypoaesthesia, involuntary muscle contractions, speech disorder, syncope, paraesthesia, dysgeusia, hypotonia.

Frequency not known: hyperalgesia.

Eye disorders:

Uncommon: visual impairment, miosis.

Ear and labyrinth disorders:

Uncommon: vertigo.

Cardiac disorders:

Uncommon: palpitations (in the context of withdrawal syndrome), supraventricular tachycardia.

Vascular disorders:

Uncommon: vasodilatation, facial flushing.

Rare: hypotension, orthostatic hypotension.

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders:

Common: dyspnoea, bronchospasm, cough decreased.

Uncommon: respiratory depression, hiccups.

Gastrointestinal disorders:

Very common: constipation, nausea, vomiting.

Common: abdominal pain, diarrhoea, dry mouth, dyspepsia.

Uncommon: dysphagia, flatulence, eructation, ileus, gastritis.

Frequency not known: dental caries.

Hepato-biliary disorders:

Uncommon: increased hepatic enzymes, biliary colic.

Frequency not known: cholestasis.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders:

Very common: pruritus.

Common: rash, hyperhidrosis.

Uncommon: dry skin, exfoliative dermatitis.

Rare: urticaria.

Renal and urinary disorders:

Uncommon: urinary retention, ureteral spasm.

Reproductive system and breast disorders:

Uncommon: erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism.

Frequency not known: amenorrhoea.

General disorders and administration site conditions:

Common: asthenia, fatigue.

Uncommon: drug withdrawal syndrome, malaise, oedema, peripheral oedema, drug tolerance, thirst, pyrexia, chills.

Frequency not known: drug withdrawal syndrome neonatal

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MRHA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.

Overdose

The information provided in Overdose of Xtampza Er is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Xtampza Er of the medicine (Oxycodone Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Overdose in the instructions to the drug Xtampza Er directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Prolonged-release tablet; Syrup
Eye drops, solution

Acute overdose with oxycodone can be manifested by miosis, respiratory depression, hypotension and hallucinations. Circulatory failure and somnolence progressing to stupor or deepening coma, hypotonia, bradycardia, pulmonary oedema and death may occur in more severe cases.

The effects of overdosage will be potentiated by the simultaneous ingestion of alcohol or other psychotropic drugs.

Treatment of oxycodone overdosage: primary attention should be given to the establishment of a patent airway and institution of assisted or controlled ventilation. The pure opioid antagonists such as naloxone are specific antidotes against symptoms from opioid overdose. Other supportive measures should be employed as needed.

In the case of massive overdosage, administer naloxone intravenously (0.4 to 2 mg for an adult and 0.01 mg/kg body weight for children) if the patient is in a coma or respiratory depression is present. Repeat the dose at 2 minute intervals if there is no response. If repeated doses are required an infusion of 60% of the initial dose per hour is a useful starting point. A solution of 10 mg made up in 50 ml dextrose will produce 200 micrograms/ml for infusion using an IV pump (dose adjusted to the clinical response). Infusions are not a substitute for frequent review of the patient's clinical state. Intramuscular naloxone is an alternative in the event that IV access is not possible. As the duration of action of naloxone is relatively short, the patient must be carefully monitored until spontaneous respiration is reliably re-established. Naloxone is a competitive antagonist and large doses (4 mg) may be required in seriously poisoned patients.

For less severe overdosage, administer naloxone 0.2 mg intravenously followed by increments of 0.1 mg every 2 minutes if required.

The patient should be observed for at least 6 hours after the last dose of naloxone.

Naloxone should not be administered in the absence of clinically significant respiratory or circulatory depression secondary to oxycodone overdosage. Naloxone should be administered cautiously to persons who are known, or suspected, to be physically dependent on oxycodone. In such cases, an abrupt or complete reversal of opioid effects may precipitate pain and an acute withdrawal syndrome.

Additional/other considerations:

- Consider activated charcoal (50 g for adults, 10-15 g for children), if a substantial amount has been ingested within 1 hour, provided the airway can be protected. It may be reasonable to assume that late administration of activated charcoal may be beneficial for prolonged release preparations; however, there is no evidence to support this.

- Xtampza Er tablets will continue to release and add to the oxycodone load for up to 12 hours after administration and the management of oxycodone overdosage should be modified accordingly. Gastric contents may therefore need to be emptied as this can be useful in removing unabsorbed drug, particularly when a prolonged release formulation has been taken.

Acute overdose with oxycodone can be manifested by miosis, respiratory depression, hypotension and hallucinations. Circulatory failure and somnolence progressing to stupor or deepening coma, hypotonia, bradycardia, pulmonary oedema and death may occur in more severe cases.

Treatment of oxycodone overdosage: primary attention should be given to the establishment of a patent airway and institution of assisted or controlled ventilation. The pure opioid antagonists such as naloxone are specific antidotes against symptoms from opioid overdose. Other supportive measures should be employed as needed.

In the case of massive overdosage, administer naloxone intravenously (0.4 to 2 mg for an adult and 0.01 mg/kg body weight for children) if the patient is in a coma or respiratory depression is present. Repeat the dose at 2minute intervals if there is no response. If repeated doses are required then an infusion of 60% of the initial dose per hour is a useful starting point. A solution of 10 mg made up in 50 ml dextrose will produce 200 micrograms/ml for infusion using an IV pump (dose adjusted to the clinical response). Infusions are not a substitute for frequent review of the patient's clinical state. Intramuscular naloxone is an alternative in the event that IV access is not possible. As the duration of action of naloxone is relatively short, the patient must be carefully monitored until spontaneous respiration is reliably re-established. Naloxone is a competitive antagonist and large doses (4 mg) may be required in seriously poisoned patients.

For less severe overdosage, administer naloxone 0.2 mg intravenously followed by increments of 0.1 mg every 2 minutes if required.

Naloxone should not be administered in the absence of clinically significant respiratory or circulatory depression secondary to oxycodone overdosage. Naloxone should be administered cautiously to persons who are known, or suspected, to be physically dependent on oxycodone. In such cases, an abrupt or complete reversal of opioid effects may precipitate pain and an acute withdrawal syndrome.

Additional/other considerations:

- Consider activated charcoal (50 g for adults, 10-15 g for children), if a substantial amount has been ingested within 1 hour, provided the airway can be protected.

- Gastric contents may need to be emptied as this can be useful in removing unabsorbed drug.

Pharmacodynamic properties

The information provided in Pharmacodynamic properties of Xtampza Er is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Xtampza Er of the medicine (Oxycodone Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacodynamic properties in the instructions to the drug Xtampza Er directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Prolonged-release tablet; Syrup
Eye drops, solution

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Natural opium alkaloids

ATC code: N02A A05

Oxycodone is a full opioid agonist with no antagonist properties. It has an affinity for kappa, mu and delta opiate receptors in the brain and spinal cord. Oxycodone is similar to morphine in its action. The therapeutic effect is mainly analgesic, anxiolytic, antitussive and sedative.

Gastrointestinal System

Opioids may induce spasm of the sphincter of Oddi.

Endocrine system

Other pharmacological effects

In- vitro and animal studies indicate various effects of natural opioids, such as morphine, on components of the immune system; the clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Whether oxycodone, a semisynthetic opioid, has immunological effects similar to morphine is unknown.

Clinical studies

The efficacy of Xtampza Er tablets has been demonstrated in cancer pain, post-operative pain and severe non-malignant pain such as diabetic neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, low back pain and osteoarthritis. In the latter indication, treatment was continued for up to 18 months and proved effective in many patients for whom NSAIDs alone provided inadequate relief. The efficacy of Xtampza Er tablets in neuropathic pain was confirmed by three placebo-controlled studies.

In patients with chronic non-malignant pain, maintenance of analgesia with stable dosing was demonstrated for up to three years.

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Natural opium alkaloids

ATC code: N02A A05

Oxycodone is a full opioid agonist with no antagonist properties. It has an affinity for kappa, mu and delta opiate receptors in the brain and spinal cord. The therapeutic effect is mainly analgesic, anxiolytic and sedative.

Gastrointestinal System

Opioids may induce spasm of the sphincter of Oddi.

Endocrine system

Other pharmacological effects

In- vitro and animal studies indicate various effects of natural opioids, such as morphine, on components of the immune system; the clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Whether oxycodone, a semisynthetic opioid, has immunological effects similar to morphine is unknown.

Pharmacokinetic properties

The information provided in Pharmacokinetic properties of Xtampza Er is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Xtampza Er of the medicine (Oxycodone Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacokinetic properties in the instructions to the drug Xtampza Er directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Prolonged-release tablet; Syrup
Eye drops, solution

Compared with morphine, which has an absolute bioavailability of approximately 30%, oxycodone has a high absolute bioavailability of up to 87% following oral administration. Oxycodone has an elimination half-life of approximately 3 hours and is metabolised principally to noroxycodone and oxymorphone. Oxymorphone has some analgesic activity, but is present in the plasma in low concentrations and is not considered to contribute to oxycodone's pharmacological effect.

The release of oxycodone from Xtampza Er tablets is biphasic with an initial relatively fast release providing an early onset of analgesia followed by a more controlled release, which determines the 12 hour duration of action. The mean apparent elimination half-life of Xtampza Er is 4.5 hours, which leads to steady-state being achieved in about one day.

Release of oxycodone from Xtampza Er tablets is independent of pH.

Xtampza Er tablets have an oral bioavailability comparable with conventional oral oxycodone, but the former achieve maximal plasma concentrations at about 3 hours rather than about 1 to 1.5 hours. Peak and trough concentrations of oxycodone from Xtampza Er tablets 10 mg administered 12-hourly are equivalent to those achieved from conventional oxycodone 5 mg administered 6-hourly.

All strengths of Xtampza Er tablets are bioequivalent in terms of both rate and extent of absorption. Ingestion of a standard high-fat meal does not alter the peak oxycodone concentration or the extent of oxycodone absorption from Xtampza Er tablets.

Elderly

The AUC in elderly subjects is 15% greater when compared with young subjects.

Gender

Female subjects have, on average, plasma oxycodone concentrations up to 25% higher than males on a body weight adjusted basis. The reason for this difference is unknown.

Patients with renal impairment

Preliminary data from a study of patients with mild to moderate renal dysfunction show peak plasma oxycodone and noroxycodone concentrations approximately 50% and 20% higher, respectively and AUC values for oxycodone, noroxycodone and oxymorphone approximately 60%, 60% and 40% higher than normal subjects, respectively. There was an increase in t½ of elimination for oxycodone of only 1 hour.

Patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment

Patients with mild to moderate hepatic dysfunction showed peak plasma oxycodone and noroxycodone concentrations approximately 50% and 20% higher, respectively, than normal subjects. AUC values were approximately 95% and 75% higher, respectively. Oxymorphone peak plasma concentrations and AUC values were lower by 15% to 50%. The t½ elimination for oxycodone increased by 2.3 hours.

Compared with morphine, which has an absolute bioavailability of approximately 30%, oxycodone has a high absolute bioavailability of up to 87% following oral administration. Oxycodone has an elimination half-life of approximately 3 hours and is metabolised principally to noroxycodone via CYP450-3A and oxymorphone via CYP450-2D6. Oxymorphone has some analgesic activity but is present in the plasma in low concentrations and is not considered to contribute to oxycodone's pharmacological effect.

Pharmacotherapeutic group

The information provided in Pharmacotherapeutic group of Xtampza Er is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Xtampza Er of the medicine (Oxycodone Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacotherapeutic group in the instructions to the drug Xtampza Er directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Natural opium alkaloids

Preclinical safety data

The information provided in Preclinical safety data of Xtampza Er is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Xtampza Er of the medicine (Oxycodone Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Preclinical safety data in the instructions to the drug Xtampza Er directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Prolonged-release tablet; Syrup
Eye drops, solution

Teratogenicity

Oxycodone had no effect on fertility or early embryonic development in male and female rats at doses as high as 8 mg/kg/d. Also, oxycodone did not induce any deformities in rats at doses as high as 8 mg/kg/d or in rabbits at doses as high as 125 mg/kg/d. Dose-related increases in developmental variations (increased incidences of extra (27) presacral vertebrae and extra pairs of ribs) were observed in rabbits when the data for individual foetuses were analyzed. However, when the same data were analyzed using litters as opposed to individual foetuses, there was no dose-related increase in developmental variations although the incidence of extra presacral vertebrae remained significantly higher in the 125 mg/kg/d group compared to the control group. Since this dose level was associated with severe pharmacotoxic effects in the pregnant animals, the foetal findings may have been a secondary consequence of severe maternal toxicity.

In a study of peri- and postnatal development in rats, maternal body weight and food intake parameters were reduced for doses > 2 mg/kg/d compared to the control group. Body weights were lower in the F1 generation from maternal rats in the 6 mg/kg/d dosing group. There were no effects on physical, reflexological, or sensory developmental parameters or on behavioural and reproductive indices in the F1 pups (the NOEL for F1 pups was 2 mg/kg/d based on body weight effects seen at 6 mg/kg/d). There were no effects on the F2 generation at any dose in the study.

Carcinogenicity

Studies of oxycodone in animals to evaluate its carcinogenic potential have not been conducted owing to the length of clinical experience with the drug substance.

Mutagenicity

The results of in-vitro and in-vivo studies indicate that the genotoxic risk of oxycodone to humans is minimal or absent at the systemic oxycodone concentrations that are achieved therapeutically.

Oxycodone was not genotoxic in a bacterial mutagenicity assay or in an in-vivo micronucleus assay in the mouse. Oxycodone produced a positive response in the in-vitro mouse lymphoma assay in the presence of rat liver S9 metabolic activation at dose levels greater than 25 μg/mL. Two in-vitro chromosomal aberrations assays with human lymphocytes were conducted. In the first assay, oxycodone was negative without metabolic activation but was positive with S9 metabolic activation at the 24 hour time point but not at other time points or at 48 hour after exposure. In the second assay, oxycodone did not show any clastogenicity either with or without metabolic activation at any concentration or time point.

Oxycodone was not mutagenic in the following assays: Ames Salmonella and E. coli test with and without metabolic activation at doses of up to 5000 μg, chromosomal aberration test in human lymphocytes (in the absence of metabolic activation and with activation after 48 hours of exposure) at doses of up to 1500 μg/ml, and in the in vivo bone marrow micronucleus assay in mice (at plasma levels of up to 48 μg/ml). Mutagenic results occurred in the presence of metabolic activation in the human chromosomal aberration test (at greater than or equal to 1250 μg/ml) at 24 but not 48 hours of exposure and in the mouse lymphoma assay at doses of 50 μg/ml or greater with metabolic activation and at 400 μg/ml or greater without metabolic activation. The data from these tests indicate that the genotoxic risk to humans may be considered low.

Studies of oxycodone in animals to evaluate its carcinogenic potential have not been conducted owing to the length of clinical experience with the drug substance.

Incompatibilities

The information provided in Incompatibilities of Xtampza Er is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Xtampza Er of the medicine (Oxycodone Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Incompatibilities in the instructions to the drug Xtampza Er directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Not applicable.

Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The information provided in Special precautions for disposal and other handling of Xtampza Er is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Xtampza Er of the medicine (Oxycodone Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special precautions for disposal and other handling in the instructions to the drug Xtampza Er directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Prolonged-release tablet; Syrup
Eye drops, solution

None.

None stated.

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