Medically reviewed by Fedorchenko Olga Valeryevna, PharmD. Last updated on 2022-04-06
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Xigduo (dapagliflozin and metformin HCl extended-release) is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus when treatment with both dapagliflozin and metformin is appropriate.
Limitations Of Use
Xigduo is not recommended for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus or diabetic ketoacidosis.
- Healthcare providers should individualize the starting dose of Xigduo based on the patient's current treatment.
Patients With Renal Impairment
Assess renal function before initiating Xigduo therapy and periodically thereafter.
Xigduo is contraindicated in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) below 60 mL/min/1.73 m².
No dose adjustment for Xigduo is needed in patients with mild renal impairment (eGFR of 60 mL/min/1.73 m² or greater).
Discontinuation For Iodinated Contrast Imaging Procedures
Discontinue Xigduo at the time of, or prior to, an iodinated contrast imaging procedure in patients with a history of liver disease, alcoholism or heart failure; or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Reevaluate eGFR 48 hours after the imaging procedure; restart Xigduo if renal function is stable.
Xigduo is contraindicated in patients with:
- Moderate to severe renal impairment (eGFR below 60 mL/min/1.73 m²), end stage renal disease or patients on dialysis.
- History of a serious hypersensitivity reaction to dapagliflozin or hypersensitivity to metformin hydrochloride.
- Acute or chronic metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, with or without coma. Diabetic ketoacidosis should be treated with insulin.
Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.
There have been post-marketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis, including fatal cases. These cases had a subtle onset and were accompanied by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, abdominal pain, respiratory distress, or increased somnolence; however, hypothermia, hypotension and resistant bradyarrhythmias have occurred with severe acidosis.
Metformin-associated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate concentrations ( > 5 mmol/Liter), anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia), and an increased lactate: pyruvate ratio; metformin plasma levels generally > 5 mcg/mL. Metformin decreases liver uptake of lactate increasing lactate blood levels which may increase the risk of lactic acidosis, especially in patients at risk.
If metformin-associated lactic acidosis is suspected, general supportive measures should be instituted promptly in a hospital setting, along with immediate discontinuation of Xigduo.
In Xigduo-treated patients with a diagnosis or strong suspicion of lactic acidosis, prompt hemodialysis is recommended to correct the acidosis and remove accumulated metformin (metformin hydrochloride is dialyzable, with a clearance of up to 170 mL/minute under good hemodynamic conditions). Hemodialysis has often resulted in reversal of symptoms and recovery.
Educate patients and their families about the symptoms of lactic acidosis and if these symptoms occur instruct them to discontinue XIGDUO XR and report these symptoms to their healthcare provider.
For each of the known and possible risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis, recommendations to reduce the risk of and manage metformin-associated lactic acidosis are provided below:
The postmarketing metformin-associated lactic acidosis cases primarily occurred in patients with significant renal impairment. The risk of metformin accumulation and metformin-associated lactic acidosis increases with the severity of renal impairment because metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney. Clinical recommendations based upon the patient's renal function include :
Before initiating Xigduo, obtain an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).
Xigduo is contraindicated in patients with an eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m².
Obtain an eGFR at least annually in all patients taking Xigduo. In patients at increased risk for the development of renal impairment (e.g., the elderly), renal function should be assessed more frequently.
The concomitant use of Xigduo with specific drugs may increase the risk of metforminassociated lactic acidosis: those that impair renal function, result in significant hemodynamic change, interfere with acid-base balance or increase metformin accumulation (e.g. cationic drugs). Therefore, consider more frequent monitoring of patients.
Age 65 Or Greater
The risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis increases with the patient's age because elderly patients have a greater likelihood of having hepatic, renal, or cardiac impairment than younger patients. Assess renal function more frequently in elderly patients.
Radiological Studies with Contrast: Administration of intravascular iodinated contrast agents in metformin-treated patients has led to an acute decrease in renal function and the occurrence of lactic acidosis. Stop Xigduo at the time of, or prior to, an iodinated contrast imaging procedure in patients with a history of hepatic impairment, alcoholism, or heart failure; or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Re-evaluate eGFR 48 hours after the imaging procedure, and restart Xigduo if renal function is stable.
Surgery and Other Procedures
Withholding of food and fluids during surgical or other procedures may increase the risk for volume depletion, hypotension and renal impairment. Xigduo should be temporarily discontinued while patients have restricted food and fluid intake.
Several of the postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis occurred in the setting of acute congestive heart failure (particularly when accompanied by hypoperfusion and hypoxemia). Cardiovascular collapse (shock), acute myocardial infarction, sepsis, and other conditions associated with hypoxemia have been associated with lactic acidosis and may also cause prerenal azotemia. When such events occur, discontinue Xigduo.
Excessive Alcohol Intake
Alcohol potentiates the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism and this may increase the risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis. Warn patients against excessive alcohol intake while receiving XIGDUO XR.
Patients with hepatic impairment have developed with cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis. This may be due to impaired lactate clearance resulting in higher lactate blood levels. Therefore, avoid use of Xigduo in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease.
Dapagliflozin causes intravascular volume contraction. Symptomatic hypotension can occur after initiating dapagliflozin , particularly in patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m²), elderly patients, or patients on loop diuretics.
Before initiating Xigduo in patients with one or more of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension after initiating therapy.
Reports of ketoacidosis, a serious life-threatening condition requiring urgent hospitalization have been identified in postmarketing surveillance in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus taking sodium-glucose co transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, including dapagliflozin. Fatal cases of ketoacidosis have been reported in patients taking dapagliflozin. Xigduo is not indicated for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Patients treated with Xigduo who present with signs and symptoms consistent with severe metabolic acidosis should be assessed for ketoacidosis regardless of blood glucose levels as ketoacidosis associated with Xigduo may be present even if blood glucose levels are less than 250 mg/dL. If ketoacidosis is suspected, Xigduo should be discontinued, the patient should be evaluated and prompt treatment should be instituted. Treatment of ketoacidosis may require insulin, fluid and carbohydrate replacement.
In many of the postmarketing reports, and particularly in patients with type 1 diabetes, the presence of ketoacidosis was not immediately recognized and institution of treatment was delayed because presenting blood glucose levels were below those typically expected for diabetic ketoacidosis (often less than 250 mg/dL). Signs and symptoms at presentation were consistent with dehydration and severe metabolic acidosis and included nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, generalized malaise, and shortness of breath. In some but not all cases, factors predisposing to ketoacidosis such as insulin dose reduction, acute febrile illness, reduced caloric intake due to illness or surgery, pancreatic disorders suggesting insulin deficiency (e.g., type 1 diabetes, history of pancreatitis or pancreatic surgery), and alcohol abuse were identified.
Before initiating Xigduo, consider factors in the patient history that may predispose to ketoacidosis including pancreatic insulin deficiency from any cause, caloric restriction and alcohol abuse. In patients treated with Xigduo consider monitoring for ketoacidosis and temporarily discontinuing Xigduo in clinical situations known to predispose to ketoacidosis (e.g., prolonged fasting due to acute illness or surgery).
Acute Kidney Injury And Impairment In Renal Function
Dapagliflozin causes intravascular volume contraction , and can cause renal impairment. There have been postmarketing reports of acute kidney injury, some requiring hospitalization and dialysis, in patients receiving dapagliflozin: some reports involved patients younger than 65 years of age.
Before initiating Xigduo, consider factors that may predispose patients to acute kidney injury including hypovolemia, chronic renal insufficiency, congestive heart failure, and concomitant medications (diuretics, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, NSAIDs). Consider temporarily discontinuing Xigduo in any setting of reduced oral intake (such as acute illness or fasting) or fluid losses (gastrointestinal illness or excessive heat exposure); monitor patients for signs and symptoms of acute kidney injury. If acute kidney injury occurs, discontinue Xigduo promptly and institute treatment.
Dapagliflozin increases serum creatinine and decreases eGFR. Elderly patients and patients with impaired renal function may be more susceptible to these changes. Adverse reactions related to renal function can occur after initiating Xigduo. Renal function should be evaluated prior to initiation of Xigduo and monitored periodically thereafter. Xigduo is contraindicated in patients with an eGFR below 60 mL/min/1.73 m².
Urosepsis And Pyelonephritis
There have been postmarketing reports of serious urinary tract infections including urosepsis and pyelonephritis requiring hospitalization in patients receiving SGLT2 inhibitors, including dapagliflozin. Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors increases the risk for urinary tract infections. Evaluate patients for signs and symptoms of urinary tract infections and treat promptly, if indicated.
Use With Medications Known To Cause Hypoglycemia
Insulin and insulin secretagogues are known to cause hypoglycemia. Dapagliflozin can increase the risk of hypoglycemia when combined with insulin or an insulin secretagogue. Therefore, a lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogue may be required to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia when these agents are used in combination with Xigduo.
Hypoglycemia does not occur in patients receiving metformin alone under usual circumstances of use, but could occur when caloric intake is deficient, when strenuous exercise is not compensated by caloric supplementation, or during concomitant use with other glucose-lowering agents (such as sulfonylureas and insulin) or ethanol. Elderly, debilitated, or malnourished patients, and those with adrenal or pituitary insufficiency or alcohol intoxication are particularly susceptible to hypoglycemic effects. Hypoglycemia may be difficult to recognize in the elderly and in people who are taking betaadrenergic blocking drugs.
Vitamin B12 Concentrations
In controlled clinical trials of metformin of 29-week duration, a decrease to subnormal levels of previously normal serum vitamin B12 levels, without clinical manifestations, was observed in approximately 7% of patients. This decrease, possibly due to interference with B12 absorption from the B12-intrinsic factor complex is, however, very rarely associated with anemia and appears to be rapidly reversible with discontinuation of metformin or vitamin B12 supplementation. Measurement of hematologic parameters on an annual basis is advised in patients on Xigduo and any apparent abnormalities should be appropriately investigated and managed.
Certain individuals (those with inadequate vitamin B12 or calcium intake or absorption) appear to be predisposed to developing subnormal vitamin B12 levels. In these patients, routine serum vitamin B12 measurements at 2-to 3-year intervals may be useful.
Genital Mycotic Infections
Dapagliflozin increases the risk of genital mycotic infections. Patients with a history of genital mycotic infections were more likely to develop genital mycotic infections. Monitor and treat appropriately.
Increases In Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C)
Increases in LDL-C occur with dapagliflozin. Monitor LDL-C and treat per standard of care after initiating Xigduo.
Across 22 clinical studies, newly diagnosed cases of bladder cancer were reported in 10/6045 patients (0.17%) treated with dapagliflozin and 1/3512 patient (0.03%) treated with placebo/comparator. After excluding patients in whom exposure to study drug was less than one year at the time of diagnosis of bladder cancer, there were 4 cases with dapagliflozin and no cases with placebo/comparator. Bladder cancer risk factors and hematuria (a potential indicator of pre-existing tumors) were balanced between treatment arms at baseline. There were too few cases to determine whether the emergence of these events is related to dapagliflozin.
There are insufficient data to determine whether dapagliflozin has an effect on pre-existing bladder tumors. Consequently, XIGDUO XR should not be used in patients with active bladder cancer. In patients with prior history of bladder cancer, the benefits of glycemic control versus unknown risks for cancer recurrence with Xigduo should be considered.
There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with Xigduo.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved Patient Labeling (Medication Guide).
Instruct patients to read the Medication Guide before starting treatment with Xigduo and to reread it each time the prescription is renewed.
Inform patients of the potential risks and benefits of Xigduo and of alternative modes of therapy. Also inform patients about the importance of adherence to dietary instructions, regular physical activity, periodic blood glucose monitoring and HbA1c testing, recognition and management of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and assessment of diabetes complications. Advise patients to seek medical advice promptly during periods of stress such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery, as medication requirements may change.
Inform patients that the incidence of hypoglycemia may be increased when Xigduo is added to an insulin secretagogue (e.g., sulfonylurea) or insulin.
Instruct patient to immediately inform her healthcare provider if she is pregnant or plans to become pregnant. Based on animal data, Xigduo may cause fetal harm in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.
Instruct patient to immediately inform her healthcare provider if she is breastfeeding or planning to breastfeed. It is not known if Xigduo is excreted in breast milk; however, based on animal data, Xigduo may cause harm to nursing infants.
Inform patients that the most common adverse reactions associated with use of Xigduo are female genital mycotic infections, nasopharyngitis, urinary tract infections, diarrhea, headache, nausea, and vomiting.
Instruct patients that XIGDUO XR must be swallowed whole and not crushed or chewed, and that the inactive ingredients may occasionally be eliminated in the feces as a soft mass that may resemble the original tablet.
Instruct patients to take Xigduo only as prescribed. If a dose is missed, advise patients to take it as soon as it is remembered unless it is almost time for the next dose, in which case patients should skip the missed dose and take the medicine at the next regularly scheduled time. Advise patients not to take 2 tablets of XIGDUO XR at the same time, unless otherwise instructed by their healthcare provider.
Inform patients of the risks of lactic acidosis due to the metformin component and its symptoms and conditions that predispose to its development. Advise patients to discontinue Xigduo immediately and to promptly notify their healthcare provider if unexplained hyperventilation, myalgia, malaise, unusual somnolence, dizziness, slow or irregular heartbeat, sensation of feeling cold (especially in the extremities), or other nonspecific symptoms occur. Gastrointestinal symptoms are common during initiation of metformin treatment and may occur during initiation of Xigduo therapy; however, inform patients to consult their physician if they develop unexplained symptoms. Although gastrointestinal symptoms that occur after stabilization are unlikely to be drug related, such an occurrence of symptoms should be evaluated to determine if it may be due to lactic acidosis or other serious disease.
Counsel patients against excessive alcohol intake while receiving Xigduo.
Inform patients about the importance of regular testing of renal function and hematological parameters when receiving treatment with Xigduo.
Instruct patients to inform their doctor that they are taking Xigduo prior to any surgical or radiological procedure, as temporary discontinuation of Xigduo may be required until renal function has been confirmed to be normal.
Inform patients that symptomatic hypotension may occur with Xigduo and advise them to contact their healthcare provider if they experience such symptoms. Inform patients that dehydration may increase the risk for hypotension, and to have adequate fluid intake.
Inform patients that ketoacidosis is a serious life-threatening condition. Cases of ketoacidosis have been reported during use of dapagliflozin. Instruct patients to check ketones (when possible) if symptoms consistent with ketoacidosis occur even if blood glucose is not elevated. If symptoms of ketoacidosis (including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, tiredness, and labored breathing) occur, instruct patients to discontinue Xigduo and seek medical advice immediately.
Acute Kidney Injury
Inform patients that acute kidney injury has been reported during use of dapagliflozin. Advise patients to seek medical advice immediately if they have reduced oral intake (due to acute illness or fasting) or increased fluid losses (due to vomiting, diarrhea, or excessive heat exposure), as it may be appropriate to temporarily discontinue Xigduo use in those settings.
Serious Urinary Tract Infections
Inform patients of the potential for urinary tract infections, which may be serious. Provide them with information on the symptoms of urinary tract infections. Advise them to seek medical advice promptly if such symptoms occur.
Genital Mycotic Infections in Females (e.g., Vulvovaginitis)
Inform female patients that vaginal yeast infections may occur and provide them with information on the signs and symptoms of vaginal yeast infections. Advise them of treatment options and when to seek medical advice.
Genital Mycotic Infections in Males (e.g., Balanitis)
Inform male patients that yeast infections of the penis (e.g., balanitis or balanoposthitis) may occur, especially in patients with prior history. Provide them with information on the signs and symptoms of balanitis and balanoposthitis (rash or redness of the glans or foreskin of the penis). Advise them of treatment options and when to seek medical advice.
Inform patients that serious hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., urticaria and angioedema) have been reported with the components of XIGDUO XR. Advise patients to immediately report any signs or symptoms suggesting allergic reaction or angioedema, and to take no more of the drug until they have consulted prescribing physicians.
Inform patients to promptly report any signs of macroscopic hematuria or other symptoms potentially related to bladder cancer.
Due to the mechanism of action of dapagliflozin, patients taking Xigduo will test positive for glucose in their urine.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
No animal studies have been conducted with Xigduo to evaluate carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, or impairment of fertility. The following data are based on the findings in the studies with dapagliflozin and metformin individually.
Dapagliflozin did not induce tumors in either mice or rats at any of the doses evaluated in 2-year carcinogenicity studies. Oral doses in mice consisted of 5, 15, and 40 mg/kg/day in males and 2, 10, and 20 mg/kg/day in females, and oral doses in rats were 0.5, 2, and 10 mg/kg/day for both males and females. The highest doses evaluated in mice were approximately 72 times (males) and 105 times (females) the clinical dose of 10 mg/day based on AUC exposure. In rats, the highest dose was approximately 131 times (males) and 186 times (females) the clinical dose of 10 mg/day based on AUC exposure.
Dapagliflozin was negative in the Ames mutagenicity assay and was positive in a series of in vitro clastogenicity assays in the presence of S9 activation and at concentrations ≥ 100 μg/mL. Dapagliflozin was negative for clastogenicity in a series of in vivo studies evaluating micronuclei or DNA repair in rats at exposure multiples > 2100 times the clinical dose.
There was no carcinogenicity or mutagenicity signal in animal studies, suggesting that dapagliflozin does not represent a genotoxic risk to humans.
Dapagliflozin had no effects on mating, fertility, or early embryonic development in treated male or female rats at exposure multiples ≤ 1708 and 998 times the maximum recommended human doses in males and females, respectively.
Long-term carcinogenicity studies have been performed in rats (dosing duration of 104 weeks) and mice (dosing duration of 91 weeks) at doses up to and including 900 and 1500 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are both approximately 4 times the MRHD of 2000 mg based on body surface area comparisons. No evidence of carcinogenicity with metformin was found in either male or female mice. Similarly, there was no tumorigenic potential observed with metformin in male rats. There was, however, an increased incidence of benign stromal uterine polyps in female rats treated with 900 mg/kg/day.
There was no evidence of a mutagenic potential of metformin in the following in vitro tests: Ames test (S. typhimurium), gene mutation test (mouse lymphoma cells), or chromosomal aberrations test (human lymphocytes). Results in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test were also negative.
Fertility of male or female rats was unaffected by metformin when administered at doses as high as 600 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 3 times the MRHD based on body surface area comparisons.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Xigduo or its individual components in pregnant women. Based on results of reproductive and developmental toxicity studies in animals, dapagliflozin, a component of Xigduo, may affect renal development and maturation. In a juvenile rat study, increased incidence and/or severity of renal pelvic and tubular dilatations were evident at the lowest tested dose which was approximately 15 times clinical exposure from a 10 mg dose.
These outcomes occurred with drug exposures during periods of animal development that correlate with the late second and third trimesters of human pregnancy. During pregnancy, consider appropriate alternative therapies, especially during the second and third trimesters. Xigduo should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
In a juvenile toxicity study, when dapagliflozin was dosed directly to young rats from postnatal day (PND) 21 until PND 90 at doses of 1, 15, or 75 mg/kg/day, increased kidney weights and renal pelvic and tubular dilatations were reported at all levels. Exposure at the lowest tested dose was 15 times the maximum clinical dose, based on AUC. The renal pelvic and tubular dilatations observed in juvenile animals did not fully reverse within the approximate 1-month recovery period.
In a prenatal and postnatal development study, maternal rats were dosed from gestation day 6 through lactation day 21 at doses of 1, 15, or 75 mg/kg/day, and pups were indirectly exposed in utero and throughout lactation. Increased incidence or severity of renal pelvic dilatation was observed in adult offspring of treated dams at 75 mg/kg/day (maternal and pup dapagliflozin exposures were 1415 times and 137 times, respectively, the human values at the clinical dose). Dose-related reductions in pup body weights were observed at doses ≥ 1 mg/kg/day (approximately ≥ 19 times the clinical dose). No adverse effects on developmental endpoints were noted at 1 mg/kg/day, or approximately 19 times the clinical dose.
In embryo-fetal development studies in rats and rabbits, dapagliflozin was administered for intervals coinciding with the first trimester period of organogenesis in humans. No developmental toxicities were observed in rabbits at any dose tested. In rats, dapagliflozin was neither embryolethal nor teratogenic at doses up to 75 mg/kg/day or 1441 times the maximum clinical dose of 10 mg. At higher doses in rats, malformations of blood vessels, ribs, vertebrae, manubria, and skeletal variations in fetuses at ≥ 150 mg/kg or 2344 times the 10 mg clinical dose were observed.
Metformin was not teratogenic in rats and rabbits at doses up to 600 mg/kg/day. This represents an exposure of about 2 and 6 times the MRHD of 2000 mg based on body surface area comparisons for rats and rabbits, respectively. Determination of fetal concentrations demonstrated a partial placental barrier to metformin.
It is not known whether Xigduo is excreted in human milk. In studies performed with the individual components, both dapagliflozin (reaching levels 0.49 times that found in maternal plasma) and metformin are excreted in the milk of lactating rats.
Data in juvenile rats directly exposed to dapagliflozin showed risk to the developing kidney (renal pelvic and tubular dilatations) during maturation. Since human kidney maturation occurs in utero and in the first 2 years of life when lactational exposure may occur, there may be risk to the developing human kidney. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from dapagliflozin, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue Xigduo, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness of Xigduo in pediatric patients under 18 years of age have not been established.
No Xigduo dosage change is recommended based on age. More frequent assessment of renal function is recommended in elderly patients.
A total of 1424 (24%) of the 5936 dapagliflozin-treated patients were 65 years and over and 207 (3.5%) patients were 75 years and older in a pool of 21 double-blind, controlled, clinical safety and efficacy studies of dapagliflozin. After controlling for level of renal function (eGFR), efficacy was similar for patients under age 65 years and those 65 years and older. In patients ≥ 65 years of age, a higher proportion of patients treated with dapagliflozin had adverse reactions related to volume depletion and renal impairment or failure compared to patients treated with placebo.
Controlled clinical studies of metformin did not include sufficient numbers of elderly patients to determine whether they respond differently than younger patients, although other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and young patients. Metformin is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney and because the risk of lactic acidosis with metformin is greater in patients with moderately to severely impaired renal function. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy and the higher risk of lactic acidosis. Assess renal function more frequently in elderly patients.
Patients With Mild Renal Impairment (eGFR ≥ 60 to < 90 mL/min/1.73 m²)
The pool of 21 double-blind, active-and placebo-controlled clinical safety and efficacy studies (dapagliflozin as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic therapies) included 53% (4906/9339) of patients with mild renal impairment. The safety profile in patients with mild renal impairment is similar to that in the overall population.
Use of metformin in patients with hepatic impairment has been associated with some cases of lactic acidosis. Xigduo is not recommended in patients with hepatic impairment.
The following important adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in the labeling:
- Lactic Acidosis
- Acute Kidney Injury and Impairment in Renal Function
- Urosepsis and Pyelonephritis
- Use with Medications Known to Cause Hypoglycemia
- Vitamin B12 Concentrations
- Genital Mycotic Infections
- Increases in Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C)
- Bladder Cancer
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
Dapagliflozin And Metformin Hydrochloride
Data from a prespecified pool of patients from 8 short-term, placebo-controlled studies of dapagliflozin coadministered with metformin immediate-or extended-release was used to evaluate safety. This pool included several add-on studies (metformin alone and in combination with a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 [DPP4] inhibitor and metformin, or insulin and metformin, 2 initial combination with metformin studies, and 2 studies of patients with cardiovascular disease [CVD] and type 2 diabetes who received their usual treatment [with metformin as background therapy]). For studies that included background therapy with and without metformin, only patients who received metformin were included in the 8-study placebo-controlled pool. Across these 8 studies 983 patients were treated once daily with dapagliflozin 10 mg and metformin and 1185 were treated with placebo and metformin. These 8 studies provide a mean duration of exposure of 23 weeks. The mean age of the population was 57 years and 2% were older than 75 years. Fifty-four percent (54%) of the population was male; 88% White, 6% Asian, and 3% Black or African American. At baseline, the population had diabetes for an average of 8 years, mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was 8.4%, and renal function was normal or mildly impaired in 90% of patients and moderately impaired in 10% of patients.
The overall incidence of adverse events for the 8-study, short-term, placebo-controlled pool in patients treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg and metformin was 60.3% compared to 58.2% for the placebo and metformin group. Discontinuation of therapy due to adverse events in patients who received dapagliflozin 10 mg and metformin was 4% compared to 3.3% for the placebo and metformin group. The most commonly reported events leading to discontinuation and reported in at least 3 patients treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg and metformin were renal impairment (0.7%), increased blood creatinine (0.2%), decreased renal creatinine clearance (0.2%), and urinary tract infection (0.2%).
Table 1 shows common adverse reactions associated with the use of dapagliflozin and metformin. These adverse reactions were not present at baseline, occurred more commonly on dapagliflozin and metformin than on placebo, and occurred in at least 2% of patients treated with either dapagliflozin 5 mg or dapagliflozin 10 mg.
Table 1: Adverse Reactions in Placebo-Controlled Studies Reported in ≥ 2% of Patients Treated with Dapagliflozin and Metformin
|Adverse Reaction||% of Patients|
|Pool of 8 Placebo-Controlled Studies|
|Placebo and Metformin |
|Dapagliflozin 5 mg and Metformin |
|Dapagliflozin 10 mg and Metformin |
|Female genital mycotic infections1||1.5||9.4||9.3|
|Urinary tract infections2||3.6||6.1||5.5|
|Male genital mycotic infections3||0||4.3||3.6|
|Discomfort with urination||1.1||2.2||1.6|
|1Genital mycotic infections include the following adverse reactions, listed in order of frequency reported for females: vulvovaginal mycotic infection, vaginal infection, genital infection, vulvovaginitis, fungal genital infection, vulvovaginal candidiasis, vulval abscess, genital candidiasis, and vaginitis bacterial. (N for females: Placebo and metformin=534, dapagliflozin 5 mg and metformin=223, dapagliflozin 10 mg and metformin=430). |
2Urinary tract infections include the following adverse reactions, listed in order of frequency reported: urinary tract infection, cystitis, pyelonephritis, urethritis, and prostatitis.
3Genital mycotic infections include the following adverse reactions, listed in order of frequency reported for males: balanitis, fungal genital infection, balanitis candida, genital candidiasis, genital infection, posthitis, balanoposthitis. (N for males: Placebo and metformin=651, dapagliflozin 5 mg and metformin=187, dapagliflozin 10 mg and metformin=553).
4Increased urination includes the following adverse reactions, listed in order of frequency reported: pollakiuria, polyuria, and urine output increased.
In placebo-controlled monotherapy trials of metformin extended-release, diarrhea and nausea/vomiting were reported in > 5% of metformin-treated patients and more commonly than in placebo-treated patients (9.6% versus 2.6% for diarrhea and 6.5% versus 1.5% for nausea/vomiting). Diarrhea led to discontinuation of study medication in 0.6% of the patients treated with metformin extended-release.
Pool Of 12 Placebo-Controlled Studies For Dapagliflozin 5 And 10 mg
The data in Table 2 are derived from 12 placebo-controlled studies ranging from 12 to 24 weeks. In 4 studies dapagliflozin was used as monotherapy, and in 8 studies dapagliflozin was used as add-on to background antidiabetic therapy or as combination therapy with metformin.
These data reflect exposure of 2338 patients to dapagliflozin with a mean exposure duration of 21 weeks. Patients received placebo (N=1393), dapagliflozin 5 mg (N=1145), or dapagliflozin 10 mg (N=1193) once daily. The mean age of the population was 55 years and 2% were older than 75 years of age. Fifty percent (50%) of the population were male; 81% were White, 14% were Asian, and 3% were Black or African American. At baseline, the population had diabetes for an average of 6 years, had a mean HbA1c of 8.3%, and 21% had established microvascular complications of diabetes. Baseline renal function was normal or mildly impaired in 92% of patients and moderately impaired in 8% of patients (mean eGFR 86 mL/min/1.73 m²).
Table 2 shows common adverse reactions associated with the use of dapagliflozin. These adverse reactions were not present at baseline, occurred more commonly on dapagliflozin than on placebo, and occurred in at least 2% of patients treated with either dapagliflozin 5 mg or dapagliflozin 10 mg.
Table 2: Adverse Reactions in Placebo-Controlled Studies Reported in ≥ 2% of Patients Treated with Dapagliflozin
|Adverse Reaction||% of Patients|
|Pool of 12 Placebo-Controlled Studies|
|Dapagliflozin 5 mg |
|Dapagliflozin 10 mg |
|Female genital mycotic infections1||1.5||8.4||6.9|
|Urinary tract infections2||3.7||5.7||4.3|
|Male genital mycotic infections4||0.3||2.8||2.7|
|Discomfort with urination||0.7||1.6||2.1|
|Pain in extremity||1.4||2.0||1.7|
|1Genital mycotic infections include the following adverse reactions, listed in order of frequency reported for females: vulvovaginal mycotic infection, vaginal infection, vulvovaginal candidiasis, vulvovaginitis, genital infection, genital candidiasis, fungal genital infection, vulvitis, genitourinary tract infection, vulval abscess, and vaginitis bacterial. (N for females: Placebo=677, dapagliflozin 5 mg=581, dapagliflozin 10 mg=598). |
2Urinary tract infections include the following adverse reactions, listed in order of frequency reported: urinary tract infection, cystitis, Escherichia urinary tract infection, genitourinary tract infection, pyelonephritis, trigonitis, urethritis, kidney infection, and prostatitis.
3Increased urination includes the following adverse reactions, listed in order of frequency reported: pollakiuria, polyuria, and urine output increased.
4Genital mycotic infections include the following adverse reactions, listed in order of frequency reported for males: balanitis, fungal genital infection, balanitis candida, genital candidiasis, genital infection male, penile infection, balanoposthitis, balanoposthitis infective, genital infection, posthitis. (N for males: Placebo=716, dapagliflozin 5 mg=564, dapagliflozin 10 mg=595).
Pool Of 13 Placebo-Controlled Studies For Dapagliflozin 10 mg
The safety and tolerability of dapagliflozin 10 mg was also evaluated in a larger placebo-controlled study pool. This pool combined 13 placebo-controlled studies, including 3 monotherapy studies, 9 add-on to background antidiabetic therapy studies, and an initial combination with metformin study. Across these 13 studies, 2360 patients were treated once daily with dapagliflozin 10 mg for a mean duration of exposure of 22 weeks. The mean age of the population was 59 years and 4% were older than 75 years. Fifty-eight percent (58%) of the population were male; 84% were White, 9% were Asian, and 3% were Black or African American. At baseline, the population had diabetes for an average of 9 years, had a mean HbA1c of 8.2%, and 30% had established microvascular disease. Baseline renal function was normal or mildly impaired in 88% of patients and moderately impaired in 11% of patients (mean eGFR 82 mL/min/1.73 m²).
Dapagliflozin causes an osmotic diuresis, which may lead to reductions in intravascular volume. Adverse reactions related to volume depletion (including reports of dehydration, hypovolemia, orthostatic hypotension, or hypotension) are shown in Table 3 for the 12-study and 13-study, short-term, placebo-controlled pools.
Table 3: Adverse Reactions of Volume Depletion1 in Clinical Studies with Dapagliflozin
|Pool of 12 Placebo-Controlled Studies||Pool of 13 Placebo-Controlled Studies|
|Placebo||Dapagliflozin 5 mg||Dapagliflozin 10 mg||Placebo||Dapagliflozin 10 mg|
|Overall population N (%)||N=1393||N=1145||N=1193||N=2295||N=2360|
|5 (0.4%)||7 (0.6%)||9 (0.8%)||17 (0.7%)||27 (1.1%)|
|Patient Subgroup n (%)|
|Patients on loop diuretics||n=55||n=40||n=31||n=267||n=236|
|1 (1.8%)||0||3 (9.7%)||4 (1.5%)||6 (2.5%)|
|Patients with moderate renal impairment with eGFR ≥ 30 and < 60 mL/min/1.73 m²||n=107||n=107||n=89||n=268||n=265|
|2 (1.9%)||1 (0.9%)||1 (1.1%)||4 (1.5%)||5 (1.9%)|
|Patients ≥ 65 years of age||n=276||n=216||n=204||n=711||n=665|
|1 (0.4%)||1 (0.5%)||3 (1.5%)||6 (0.8%)||11 (1.7%)|
|1 Volume depletion includes reports of dehydration, hypovolemia, orthostatic hypotension, or hypotension.|
Impairment Of Renal Function
Use of dapagliflozin was associated with increases in serum creatinine and decreases in eGFR (see Table 4). In patients with normal or mildly impaired renal function at baseline, serum creatinine and eGFR returned to baseline values at Week 24. Renal-related adverse reactions, including renal failure and blood creatinine increase, were more frequent in patients treated with dapagliflozin (see Table 5). Elderly patients and patients with impaired renal function were more susceptible to these adverse reactions (see Table 5). Sustained decreases in eGFR were seen in patients with moderate renal impairment (eGFR 30 to less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m²).
Table 4: Changes in Serum Creatinine and eGFR Associated with Dapagliflozin in the Pool of 12 Placebo-Controlled Studies and Moderate Renal Impairment Study
|Pool of 12 Placebo-Controlled Studies|
|Dapagliflozin 5 mg |
|Dapagliflozin 10 mg |
|Baseline Mean||Serum Creatinine (mg/dL)||0.853||0.860||0.847|
|eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m²)||86.0||85.3||86.7|
|Week 1 Change||Serum Creatinine (mg/dL)||-0.003||0.029||0.041|
|eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m²)||0.4||-2.9||-4.1|
|Week 24 Change||Serum Creatinine (mg/dL)||-0.005||-0.001||0.001|
|eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m²)||0.8||0.8||0.3|
|Moderate Renal Impairment Study|
|Placebo N=84||Dapagliflozin 5 mg N=83||Dapagliflozin 10 mg N=85|
|Baseline Mean||Serum Creatinine (mg/dL)||1.46||1.53||1.52|
|eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m²)||45.6||44.2||43.9|
|Week 1 Change||Serum Creatinine (mg/dL)||0.01||0.13||0.18|
|eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m²)||0.5||-3.8||-5.5|
|Week 24 Change||Serum Creatinine (mg/dL)||0.02||0.08||0.16|
|eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m²)||0.03||-4.0||-7.4|
|Week 52 Change||Serum Creatinine (mg/dL)||0.10||0.06||0.15|
|eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m²)||-2.6||-4.2||-7.3|
Table 5: Proportion of Patients with at Least One Renal Impairment-Related Adverse Reaction
|Baseline Characteristic||Pool of 6 Placebo-Controlled Studies (up to 104 weeks) 1||Pool of 9 Placebo-Controlled Studies (up to 104 weeks)2|
|Placebo||Dapagliflozin 5 mg||Dapagliflozin 10 mg||Placebo||Dapagliflozin 10 mg|
|Overall population Patients (%) with at least one event||n=785 13 (1.7%)||n=767 14 (1.8%)||n=859 16 (1.9%)||n=1956 82 (4.2%)||n=2026 136 (6.7%)|
|65 years of age and older Patients (%) with at least one event||n=190 4 (2.1%)||n=162 5 (3.1%)||n=159 6 (3.8%)||n=655 52 (7.9%)||n=620 87 (14.0%)|
|eGFR ≥ 30 and < 60 mL/min/1.73 m² Patients (%) with at least one event||n=77 5 (6.5%)||n=88 7 (8.0%)||n=75 9 (12.0%)||n=249 40 (16.1%)||n=251 71 (28.3%)|
|65 years of age and older and eGFR ≥ 30 and < 60 mL/min/1.73 m² Patients (%) with at least one event||n=41 2 (4.9%)||n=43 3 (7.0%)||n=35 4 (11.4%)||n=141 27 (19.1%)||n=134 47 (35.1%)|
|1Subset of patients from the pool of 12 placebo-controlled studies with long-term extensions. |
2Subset of patients from the pool of 13 placebo-controlled studies with long-term extensions.
The safety of dapagliflozin was evaluated in a study of patients with moderate renal impairment (eGFR 30 to less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m²). In this study 13 patients experienced bone fractures for treatment durations up to 104 weeks. No fractures occurred in the placebo group, 5 occurred in the dapagliflozin 5 mg group, and 8 occurred in the dapagliflozin 10 mg group. Eight of these 13 fractures were in patients who had a baseline eGFR of 30 to 45 mL/min/1.73 m². Eleven of the 13 fractures were reported within the first 52 weeks. There was no apparent pattern with respect to the anatomic site of fracture.
The frequency of hypoglycemia by study is shown in Table 6. Hypoglycemia was more frequent when dapagliflozin was added to sulfonylurea or insulin.
Table 6: Incidence of Major1 and Minor2 Hypoglycemia in Placebo-Controlled Studies
|Placebo||Dapagliflozin 5 mg||Dapagliflozin 10 mg|
|Add-on to Metformin 1 (24 weeks)||N=137||N=137||N=135|
|Major [n (%)]||0||0||0|
|Minor [n (%)]||0||2 (1.5)||1 (0.7)|
|Active Control Add-on to Metformin versus Glipizide (52 weeks)||N=408||-||N=406|
|Major [n (%)]||3 (0.7)||-||0|
|Minor [n (%)]||147 (36.0)||-||7 (1.7)|
|Add-on to DPP4 inhibitor (with or without Metformin) (24 weeks)||N=226||-||N=225|
|Major [n (%)]||0||-||1 (0.4)|
|Minor [n (%)]||3 (1.3)||-||4 (1.8)|
|Add-on to Insulin with or without other OADs3 (24 weeks)||N=197||N=212||N=196|
|Major [n (%)]||1 (0.5)||1 (0.5)||1 (0.5)|
|Minor [n (%)]||67 (34.0)||92 (43.4)||79 (40.3)|
|1Major episodes of hypoglycemia were defined as symptomatic episodes requiring external (third party) assistance due to severe impairment in consciousness or behavior with a capillary or plasma glucose value < 54 mg/dL and prompt recovery after glucose or glucagon administration. |
2Minor episodes of hypoglycemia were defined as either a symptomatic episode with a capillary or plasma glucose measurement < 63 mg/dL regardless of need for external assistance, or an asymptomatic capillary or plasma glucose measurement < 63 mg/dL that does not qualify as a major episode.
3OAD = oral antidiabetic therapy.
Genital Mycotic Infections
Genital mycotic infections were more frequent with dapagliflozin treatment. Genital mycotic infections were reported in 0.9% of patients on placebo, 5.7% on dapagliflozin 5 mg, and 4.8% on dapagliflozin 10 mg, in the 12-study placebo-controlled pool. Discontinuation from study due to genital infection occurred in 0% of placebo-treated patients and 0.2% of patients treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg. Infections were more frequently reported in females than in males (see Table 2). The most frequently reported genital mycotic infections were vulvovaginal mycotic infections in females and balanitis in males. Patients with a history of genital mycotic infections were more likely to have a genital mycotic infection during the study than those with no prior history (10.0%, 23.1%, and 25.0% versus 0.8%, 5.9%, and 5.0% on placebo, dapagliflozin 5 mg, and dapagliflozin 10 mg, respectively).
Hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., angioedema, urticaria, hypersensitivity) were reported with dapagliflozin treatment. Across the clinical program, serious anaphylactic reactions and severe cutaneous adverse reactions and angioedema were reported in 0.2% of comparator-treated patients and 0.3% of dapagliflozin-treated patients. If hypersensitivity reactions occur, discontinue use of dapagliflozin; treat per standard of care and monitor until signs and symptoms resolve.
Increase in Hematocrit
In the pool of 13 placebo-controlled studies, increases from baseline in mean hematocrit values were observed in dapagliflozin-treated patients starting at Week 1 and continuing up to Week 16, when the maximum mean difference from baseline was observed. At Week 24, the mean changes from baseline in hematocrit were -0.33% in the placebo group and 2.30% in the dapagliflozin 10 mg group. By Week 24, hematocrit values > 55% were reported in 0.4% of placebo-treated patients and 1.3% of dapagliflozin 10 mg-treated patients.
Increase in Serum Inorganic Phosphorus
In the pool of 13 placebo-controlled studies, increases from baseline in mean serum phosphorus levels were reported at Week 24 in dapagliflozin 10 mg-treated patients compared with placebo-treated patients (mean increases of 0.13 mg/dL versus -0.04 mg/dL, respectively). Higher proportions of patients with marked laboratory abnormalities of hyperphosphatemia ( ≥ 5.6 mg/dL if age 17-65 or ≥ 5.1 mg/dL if age ≥ 66) were reported in the dapagliflozin 10 mg group versus the placebo group at Week 24 (1.7% versus 0.9%, respectively).
Increase in Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Dapagliflozin
In the pool of 13 placebo-controlled studies, changes from baseline in mean lipid values were reported in dapagliflozintreated patients compared to placebo-treated patients. Mean percent change from baseline at Week 24 were 0.0% versus 2.5% for total cholesterol and -1.0% versus 2.9% for LDL cholesterol in the placebo and dapagliflozin 10 mg groups, respectively.
Vitamin B12 Concentrations
Metformin may lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. Measurement of hematologic parameters on an annual basis is advised in patients on Xigduo and any apparent abnormalities should be appropriately investigated and managed.
Additional adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of dapagliflozin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
- Acute Kidney Injury and Impairment in Renal Function
- Urosepsis and Pyelonephritis
- Cholestatic, hepatocellular, and mixed hepatocellular liver injury
There were no reports of overdose during the clinical development program for dapagliflozin. In the event of an overdose, contact the Poison Control Center. It is also reasonable to employ supportive measures as dictated by the patient's clinical status. The removal of dapagliflozin by hemodialysis has not been studied.
Overdose of metformin hydrochloride has occurred, including ingestion of amounts > 50 grams. Hypoglycemia was reported in approximately 10% of cases, but no causal association with metformin hydrochloride has been established. Lactic acidosis has been reported in approximately 32% of metformin overdose cases. Metformin is dialyzable with a clearance of up to 170 mL/min under good hemodynamic conditions. Therefore, hemodialysis may be useful for removal of accumulated drug from patients in whom metformin overdosage is suspected.
Increases in the amount of glucose excreted in the urine were observed in healthy subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus following the administration of dapagliflozin (see Figure 1). Dapagliflozin doses of 5 or 10 mg per day in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for 12 weeks resulted in excretion of approximately 70 grams of glucose in the urine per day. A near maximum glucose excretion was observed at the dapagliflozin daily dose of 20 mg. This urinary glucose excretion with dapagliflozin also results in increases in urinary volume.
Figure 1: Scatter Plot and Fitted Line of Change from Baseline in 24-Hour Urinary Glucose Amount versus Dapagliflozin Dose in Healthy Subjects and Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) (Semi-Log Plot)
Dapagliflozin was not associated with clinically meaningful prolongation of QTc interval at daily doses up to 150 mg (15 times the recommended dose) in a study of healthy subjects. In addition, no clinically meaningful effect on QTc interval was observed following single doses of up to 500 mg (50 times the recommended dose) dapagliflozin in healthy subjects.
Xigduo combination tablets are considered to be bioequivalent to coadministration of corresponding doses of dapagliflozin (FARXIGA®) and metformin hydrochloride extended-release (GLUCOPHAGE® XR) administered together as individual tablets.
The administration of Xigduo in healthy subjects after a standard meal compared to the fasted state resulted in the same extent of exposure for both dapagliflozin and metformin extended-release. Compared to the fasted state, the standard meal resulted in 35% reduction and a delay of 1 to 2 hours in the peak plasma concentrations of dapagliflozin. This effect of food is not considered to be clinically meaningful. Food has no relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of metformin when administered as Xigduo combination tablets.
Following oral administration of dapagliflozin, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) is usually attained within 2 hours under fasting state. The Cmax and AUC values increase dose proportionally with increase in dapagliflozin dose in the therapeutic dose range. The absolute oral bioavailability of dapagliflozin following the administration of a 10 mg dose is 78%. Administration of dapagliflozin with a high-fat meal decreases its Cmax by up to 50% and prolongs Tmax by approximately 1 hour, but does not alter AUC as compared with the fasted state. These changes are not considered to be clinically meaningful and dapagliflozin can be administered with or without food.
Following a single oral dose of metformin extended-release, Cmax is achieved with a median value of 7 hours and a range of 4 to 8 hours. The extent of metformin absorption (as measured by AUC) from the metformin extended-release tablet increased by approximately 50% when given with food. There was no effect of food on Cmax and Tmax of metformin.
Dapagliflozin is approximately 91% protein bound. Protein binding is not altered in patients with renal or hepatic impairment.
Distribution studies with extended-release metformin have not been conducted; however, the apparent volume of distribution (V/F) of metformin following single oral doses of immediate-release metformin 850 mg averaged 654 Â± 358 L. Metformin is negligibly bound to plasma proteins, in contrast to sulfonylureas, which are more than 90% protein bound. Metformin partitions into erythrocytes.
The metabolism of dapagliflozin is primarily mediated by UGT1A9; CYP-mediated metabolism is a minor clearance pathway in humans. Dapagliflozin is extensively metabolized, primarily to yield dapagliflozin 3-O-glucuronide, which is an inactive metabolite. Dapagliflozin 3-O-glucuronide accounted for 61% of a 50 mg [14C]-dapagliflozin dose and is the predominant drug-related component in human plasma.
Intravenous single-dose studies in healthy subjects demonstrate that metformin is excreted unchanged in the urine and does not undergo hepatic metabolism (no metabolites have been identified in humans) or biliary excretion.
Metabolism studies with extended-release metformin tablets have not been conducted.
Dapagliflozin and related metabolites are primarily eliminated via the renal pathway. Following a single 50 mg dose of [14C]-dapagliflozin, 75% and 21% total radioactivity is excreted in urine and feces, respectively. In urine, less than 2% of the dose is excreted as parent drug. In feces, approximately 15% of the dose is excreted as parent drug. The mean plasma terminal half-life (t½) for dapagliflozin is approximately 12.9 hours following a single oral dose of dapagliflozin 10 mg.
Renal clearance is approximately 3.5 times greater than creatinine clearance, which indicates that tubular secretion is the major route of metformin elimination. Following oral administration, approximately 90% of the absorbed drug is eliminated via the renal route within the first 24 hours, with a plasma elimination half-life of approximately 6.2 hours. In blood, the elimination half-life is approximately 17.6 hours, suggesting that the erythrocyte mass may be a compartment of distribution.