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Medically reviewed by Oliinyk Elizabeth Ivanovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2020-03-29
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Monotherapy And Combination Therapy
Xelevia® is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Important Limitations Of Use
Xelevia should not be used in patients with type 1 diabetes or for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis, as it would not be effective in these settings.
Xelevia has not been studied in patients with a history of pancreatitis. It is unknown whether patients with a history of pancreatitis are at increased risk for the development of pancreatitis while using Xelevia.
The recommended dose of Xelevia is 100 mg once daily. Xelevia can be taken with or without food.
Patients With Renal Insufficiency
For patients with mild renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance [CrCl] greater than or equal to 50 mL/min, approximately corresponding to serum creatinine levels of less than or equal to 1.7 mg/dL in men and less than or equal to 1.5 mg/dL in women), no dosage adjustment for Xelevia is required.
For patients with moderate renal insufficiency (CrCl greater than or equal to 30 to less than 50 mL/min, approximately corresponding to serum creatinine levels of greater than 1.7 to less than or equal to 3.0 mg/dL in men and greater than 1.5 to less than or equal to 2.5 mg/dL in women), the dose of Xelevia is 50 mg once daily.
For patients with severe renal insufficiency (CrCl less than 30 mL/min, approximately corresponding to serum creatinine levels of greater than 3.0 mg/dL in men and greater than 2.5 mg/dL in women) or with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, the dose of Xelevia is 25 mg once daily. Xelevia may be administered without regard to the timing of dialysis.
Because there is a need for dosage adjustment based upon renal function, assessment of renal function is recommended prior to initiation of Xelevia and periodically thereafter. Creatinine clearance can be estimated from serum creatinine using the Cockcroft-Gault formula. There have been postmarketing reports of worsening renal function in patients with renal insufficiency, some of whom were prescribed inappropriate doses of sitagliptin.
Concomitant Use With An Insulin Secretagogue (e.g., Sulfonylurea) Or With Insulin
When Xelevia is used in combination with an insulin secretagogue (e.g., sulfonylurea) or with insulin, a lower dose of the insulin secretagogue or insulin may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia.
History of a serious hypersensitivity reaction to sitagliptin, such as anaphylaxis or angioedema.
Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.
There have been postmarketing reports of acute pancreatitis, including fatal and non-fatal hemorrhagic or necrotizing pancreatitis, in patients taking Xelevia. After initiation of Xelevia, patients should be observed carefully for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis. If pancreatitis is suspected, Xelevia should promptly be discontinued and appropriate management should be initiated. It is unknown whether patients with a history of pancreatitis are at increased risk for the development of pancreatitis while using Xelevia.
An association between dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor treatment and heart failure has been observed in cardiovascular outcomes trials for two other members of the DPP-4 inhibitor class. These trials evaluated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
Consider the risks and benefits of Xelevia prior to initiating treatment in patients at risk for heart failure, such as those with a prior history of heart failure and a history of renal impairment, and observe these patients for signs and symptoms of heart failure during therapy. Advise patients of the characteristic symptoms of heart failure and to immediately report such symptoms. If heart failure develops, evaluate and manage according to current standards of care and consider discontinuation of Xelevia.
Assessment of renal function is recommended prior to initiating Xelevia and periodically thereafter. A dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with moderate or severe renal insufficiency and in patients with ESRD requiring hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Caution should be used to ensure that the correct dose of Xelevia is prescribed for patients with moderate (creatinine clearance ≥30 to <50 mL/min) or severe (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min) renal impairment.
There have been postmarketing reports of worsening renal function, including acute renal failure, sometimes requiring dialysis. A subset of these reports involved patients with renal insufficiency, some of whom were prescribed inappropriate doses of sitagliptin. A return to baseline levels of renal insufficiency has been observed with supportive treatment and discontinuation of potentially causative agents. Consideration can be given to cautiously reinitiating Xelevia if another etiology is deemed likely to have precipitated the acute worsening of renal function.
Xelevia has not been found to be nephrotoxic in preclinical studies at clinically relevant doses, or in clinical trials.
Use With Medications Known To Cause Hypoglycemia
When Xelevia was used in combination with a sulfonylurea or with insulin, medications known to cause hypoglycemia, the incidence of hypoglycemia was increased over that of placebo used in combination with a sulfonylurea or with insulin. Therefore, a lower dose of sulfonylurea or insulin may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia.
There have been postmarketing reports of serious hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with Xelevia. These reactions include anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin conditions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Onset of these reactions occurred within the first 3 months after initiation of treatment with Xelevia, with some reports occurring after the first dose. If a hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, discontinue Xelevia, assess for other potential causes for the event, and institute alternative treatment for diabetes.
Angioedema has also been reported with other DPP-4 inhibitors. Use caution in a patient with a history of angioedema with another DPP-4 inhibitor because it is unknown whether such patients will be predisposed to angioedema with Xelevia.
Severe And Disabling Arthralgia
There have been postmarketing reports of severe and disabling arthralgia in patients taking DPP-4 inhibitors. The time to onset of symptoms following initiation of drug therapy varied from one day to years. Patients experienced relief of symptoms upon discontinuation of the medication. A subset of patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms when restarting the same drug or a different DPP-4 inhibitor.
Consider DPP-4 inhibitors as a possible cause for severe joint pain and discontinue drug if appropriate.
Postmarketing cases of bullous pemphigoid requiring hospitalization have been reported with DPP-4 inhibitor use. In reported cases, patients typically recovered with topical or systemic immunosuppressive treatment and discontinuation of the DPP-4 inhibitor. Tell patients to report development of blisters or erosions while receiving Xelevia. If bullous pemphigoid is suspected, Xelevia should be discontinued and referral to a dermatologist should be considered for diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with Xelevia or any other anti-diabetic drug.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
Patients should be informed of the potential risks and benefits of Xelevia and of alternative modes of therapy. Patients should also be informed about the importance of adherence to dietary instructions, regular physical activity, periodic blood glucose monitoring and A1C testing, recognition and management of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and assessment for diabetes complications. During periods of stress such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery, medication requirements may change and patients should be advised to seek medical advice promptly.
Patients should be informed that acute pancreatitis has been reported during postmarketing use of Xelevia. Patients should be informed that persistent severe abdominal pain, sometimes radiating to the back, which may or may not be accompanied by vomiting, is the hallmark symptom of acute pancreatitis. Patients should be instructed to promptly discontinue Xelevia and contact their physician if persistent severe abdominal pain occurs.
Patients should be informed of the signs and symptoms of heart failure. Before initiating Xelevia, patients should be asked about a history of heart failure or other risk factors for heart failure including moderate to severe renal impairment. Patients should be instructed to contact their health care provider as soon as possible if they experience symptoms of heart failure, including increasing shortness of breath, rapid increase in weight or swelling of the feet.
Patients should be informed that the incidence of hypoglycemia is increased when Xelevia is added to a sulfonylurea or insulin and that a lower dose of the sulfonylurea or insulin may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia.
Patients should be informed that allergic reactions have been reported during postmarketing use of Xelevia. If symptoms of allergic reactions (including rash, hives, and swelling of the face, lips, tongue, and throat that may cause difficulty in breathing or swallowing) occur, patients must stop taking Xelevia and seek medical advice promptly.
Inform patients that severe and disabling joint pain may occur with this class of drugs. The time to onset of symptoms can range from one day to years. Instruct patients to seek medical advice if severe joint pain occurs.
Inform patients that bullous pemphigoid may occur with this class of drugs. Instruct patients to seek medical advice if blisters or erosions occur.
Physicians should instruct their patients to read the Medication Guide before starting Xelevia therapy and to reread each time the prescription is renewed. Patients should be instructed to inform their doctor or pharmacist if they develop any unusual symptom, or if any known symptom persists or worsens.
Patients should be informed that response to all diabetic therapies should be monitored by periodic measurements of blood glucose and A1C levels, with a goal of decreasing these levels towards the normal range. A1C is especially useful for evaluating long-term glycemic control. Patients should be informed of the potential need to adjust dose based on changes in renal function tests over time.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
A two-year carcinogenicity study was conducted in male and female rats given oral doses of sitagliptin of 50, 150, and 500 mg/kg/day. There was an increased incidence of combined liver adenoma/carcinoma in males and females and of liver carcinoma in females at 500 mg/kg. This dose results in exposures approximately 60 times the human exposure at the maximum recommended daily adult human dose (MRHD) of 100 mg/day based on AUC comparisons. Liver tumors were not observed at 150 mg/kg, approximately 20 times the human exposure at the MRHD. A two-year carcinogenicity study was conducted in male and female mice given oral doses of sitagliptin of 50, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg/day. There was no increase in the incidence of tumors in any organ up to 500 mg/kg, approximately 70 times human exposure at the MRHD. Sitagliptin was not mutagenic or clastogenic with or without metabolic activation in the Ames bacterial mutagenicity assay, a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) chromosome aberration assay, an in vitro cytogenetics assay in CHO, an in vitro rat hepatocyte DNA alkaline elution assay, and an in vivo micronucleus assay.
In rat fertility studies with oral gavage doses of 125, 250, and 1000 mg/kg, males were treated for 4 weeks prior to mating, during mating, up to scheduled termination (approximately 8 weeks total) and females were treated 2 weeks prior to mating through gestation day 7. No adverse effect on fertility was observed at 125 mg/kg (approximately 12 times human exposure at the MRHD of 100 mg/day based on AUC comparisons). At higher doses, nondose-related increased resorptions in females were observed (approximately 25 and 100 times human exposure at the MRHD based on AUC comparison).
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category B
Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and rabbits. Doses of sitagliptin up to 125 mg/kg (approximately 12 times the human exposure at the maximum recommended human dose) did not impair fertility or harm the fetus. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., maintains a registry to monitor the pregnancy outcomes of women exposed to Xelevia while pregnant. Health care providers are encouraged to report any prenatal exposure to Xelevia by calling the Pregnancy Registry at 1-800-986-8999.
Sitagliptin administered to pregnant female rats and rabbits from gestation day 6 to 20 (organogenesis) was not teratogenic at oral doses up to 250 mg/kg (rats) and 125 mg/kg (rabbits), or approximately 30-and 20-times human exposure at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 100 mg/day based on AUC comparisons. Higher doses increased the incidence of rib malformations in offspring at 1000 mg/kg, or approximately 100 times human exposure at the MRHD.
Sitagliptin administered to female rats from gestation day 6 to lactation day 21 decreased body weight in male and female offspring at 1000 mg/kg. No functional or behavioral toxicity was observed in offspring of rats.
Placental transfer of sitagliptin administered to pregnant rats was approximately 45% at 2 hours and 80% at 24 hours postdose. Placental transfer of sitagliptin administered to pregnant rabbits was approximately 66% at 2 hours and 30% at 24 hours.
Sitagliptin is secreted in the milk of lactating rats at a milk to plasma ratio of 4:1. It is not known whether sitagliptin is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Xelevia is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and effectiveness of Xelevia in pediatric patients under 18 years of age have not been established.
Of the total number of subjects (N=3884) in pre-approval clinical safety and efficacy studies of Xelevia, 725 patients were 65 years and over, while 61 patients were 75 years and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between subjects 65 years and over and younger subjects. While this and other reported clinical experience have not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection in the elderly, and it may be useful to assess renal function in these patients prior to initiating dosing and periodically thereafter.
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In controlled clinical studies as both monotherapy and combination therapy with metformin, pioglitazone, or rosiglitazone and metformin, the overall incidence of adverse reactions, hypoglycemia, and discontinuation of therapy due to clinical adverse reactions with Xelevia were similar to placebo. In combination with glimepiride, with or without metformin, the overall incidence of clinical adverse reactions with Xelevia was higher than with placebo, in part related to a higher incidence of hypoglycemia (see Table 3); the incidence of discontinuation due to clinical adverse reactions was similar to placebo.
Two placebo-controlled monotherapy studies, one of 18-and one of 24-week duration, included patients treated with Xelevia 100 mg daily, Xelevia 200 mg daily, and placebo. Five placebo-controlled add-on combination therapy studies were also conducted: one with metformin; one with pioglitazone; one with metformin and rosiglitazone; one with glimepiride (with or without metformin); and one with insulin (with or without metformin). In these trials, patients with inadequate glycemic control on a stable dose of the background therapy were randomized to add-on therapy with Xelevia 100 mg daily or placebo. The adverse reactions, excluding hypoglycemia, reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients treated with Xelevia 100 mg daily and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo, are shown in Table 1 for the clinical trials of at least 18 weeks duration. Incidences of hypoglycemia are shown in Table 3.
Table 1: Placebo-Controlled Clinical Studies of Xelevia Monotherapy or Add-on Combination Therapy with Pioglitazone, Metformin + Rosiglitazone, or Glimepiride +/-Metformin: Adverse Reactions (Excluding Hypoglycemia) Reported in ≥5% of Patients and More Commonly than in Patients Given Placebo, Regardless of Investigator Assessment of Causality*
|Monotherapy (18 or 24 weeks)||Number of Patients (%)|
|Xelevia 100 mg||Placebo|
|N = 443||N = 363|
|Nasopharyngitis||23 (5.2)||12 (3.3)|
|Combination with Pioglitazone (24 weeks)||Xelevia 100 mg + Pioglitazone||Placebo + Pioglitazone|
|N = 175||N = 178|
|Upper Respiratory Tract Infection||11 (6.3)||6 (3.4)|
|Headache||9 (5.1)||7 (3.9)|
|Combination with Metformin + Rosiglitazone (18 weeks)||Xelevia 100 mg + Metformin + Rosiglitazone||Placebo + Metformin + Rosiglitazone|
|N = 181||N = 97|
|Upper Respiratory Tract Infection||10 (5.5)||5 (5.2)|
|Nasopharyngitis||11 (6.1)||4 (4.1)|
|Combination with Glimepiride (+/- Metformin) (24 weeks)||Xelevia 100 mg + Glimepiride (+/- Metformin)||Placebo + Glimepiride (+/- Metformin)|
|N = 222||N = 219|
|Nasopharyngitis||14 (6.3)||10 (4.6)|
|Headache||13 (5.9)||5 (2.3)|
|* Intent-to-treat population|
In the 24-week study of patients receiving Xelevia as add-on combination therapy with metformin, there were no adverse reactions reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients and more commonly than in patients given placebo.
In the 24-week study of patients receiving Xelevia as add-on therapy to insulin (with or without metformin), there were no adverse reactions reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients and more commonly than in patients given placebo, except for hypoglycemia (see Table 3).
In the study of Xelevia as add-on combination therapy with metformin and rosiglitazone (Table 1), through Week 54 the adverse reactions reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients treated with Xelevia and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo were: upper respiratory tract infection (Xelevia, 15.5%; placebo, 6.2%), nasopharyngitis (11.0%, 9.3%), peripheral edema (8.3%, 5.2%), and headache (5.5%, 4.1%).
In a pooled analysis of the two monotherapy studies, the add-on to metformin study, and the add-on to pioglitazone study, the incidence of selected gastrointestinal adverse reactions in patients treated with Xelevia was as follows: abdominal pain (Xelevia 100 mg, 2.3%; placebo, 2.1%), nausea (1.4%, 0.6%), and diarrhea (3.0%, 2.3%).
In an additional, 24-week, placebo-controlled factorial study of initial therapy with sitagliptin in combination with metformin, the adverse reactions reported (regardless of investigator assessment of causality) in ≥5% of patients are shown in Table 2.
Table 2: Initial Therapy with Combination of Sitagliptin and Metformin: Adverse Reactions Reported (Regardless of Investigator Assessment of Causality) in ≥5% of Patients Receiving Combination Therapy (and Greater than in Patients Receiving Metformin alone, Sitagliptin alone, and Placebo)*
|Number of Patients (%)|
N = 176
|Sitagliptin (Xelevia) 100 mg QD |
N = 179
|Metformin 500 or 1000 mg bid† |
N = 364†
|Sitagliptin 50 mg bid + Metformin 500 or 1000 mg bid† |
N = 372†
|Upper Respiratory Infection||9 (5.1)||8 (4.5)||19 (5.2)||23 (6.2)|
|Headache||5 (2.8)||2 (1.1)||14 (3.8)||22 (5.9)|
|* Intent-to-treat population. |
† Data pooled for the patients given the lower and higher doses of metformin.
In a 24-week study of initial therapy with Xelevia in combination with pioglitazone, there were no adverse reactions reported (regardless of investigator assessment of causality) in ≥5% of patients and more commonly than in patients given pioglitazone alone.
No clinically meaningful changes in vital signs or in ECG (including in QTc interval) were observed in patients treated with Xelevia.
In a pooled analysis of 19 double-blind clinical trials that included data from 10,246 patients randomized to receive sitagliptin 100 mg/day (N=5429) or corresponding (active or placebo) control (N=4817), the incidence of acute pancreatitis was 0.1 per 100 patient-years in each group (4 patients with an event in 4708 patient-years for sitagliptin and 4 patients with an event in 3942 patient-years for control).
In all (N=9) studies, adverse reactions of hypoglycemia were based on all reports of symptomatic hypoglycemia. A concurrent blood glucose measurement was not required although most (74%) reports of hypoglycemia were accompanied by a blood glucose measurement ≤70 mg/dL. When Xelevia was coadministered with a sulfonylurea or with insulin, the percentage of patients with at least one adverse reaction of hypoglycemia was higher than in the corresponding placebo group (Table 3).
Table 3: Incidence and Rate of Hypoglycemia* in Placebo-Controlled Clinical Studies when Xelevia was used as Add-On Therapy to Glimepiride (with or without Metformin) or Insulin (with or without Metformin), Regardless of Investigator Assessment of Causality
|Add-On to Glimepiride (+/- Metformin) (24 weeks)||Xelevia 100 mg + Glimepiride (+/- Metformin)||Placebo + Glimepiride (+/- Metformin)|
|N = 222||N = 219|
|Overall (%)||27 (12.2)||4 (1.8)|
|Severe (%)‡||0 (0.0)||0 (0.0)|
|Add-On to Insulin (+/- Metformin) (24 weeks)||Xelevia 100 mg + Insulin (+/- Metformin)||Placebo + Insulin (+/- Metformin)|
|N = 322||N = 319|
|Overall (%)||50 (15.5)||25 (7.8)|
|Severe (%)‡||2 (0.6)||1 (0.3)|
|* Adverse reactions of hypoglycemia were based on all reports of symptomatic hypoglycemia; a concurrent glucose measurement was not required; intent-to-treat population. |
† Based on total number of events (i.e., a single patient may have had multiple events).
‡ Severe events of hypoglycemia were defined as those events requiring medical assistance or exhibiting depressed level/loss of consciousness or seizure.
In a pooled analysis of the two monotherapy studies, the add-on to metformin study, and the add-on to pioglitazone study, the overall incidence of adverse reactions of hypoglycemia was 1.2% in patients treated with Xelevia 100 mg and 0.9% in patients treated with placebo.
In the study of Xelevia as add-on combination therapy with metformin and rosiglitazone, the overall incidence of hypoglycemia was 2.2% in patients given add-on Xelevia and 0.0% in patients given add-on placebo through Week 18. Through Week 54, the overall incidence of hypoglycemia was 3.9% in patients given add-on Xelevia and 1.0% in patients given add-on placebo.
In the 24-week, placebo-controlled factorial study of initial therapy with Xelevia in combination with metformin, the incidence of hypoglycemia was 0.6% in patients given placebo, 0.6% in patients given Xelevia alone, 0.8% in patients given metformin alone, and 1.6% in patients given Xelevia in combination with metformin.
In the study of Xelevia as initial therapy with pioglitazone, one patient taking Xelevia experienced a severe episode of hypoglycemia. There were no severe hypoglycemia episodes reported in other studies except in the study involving coadministration with insulin.
Across clinical studies, the incidence of laboratory adverse reactions was similar in patients treated with Xelevia 100 mg compared to patients treated with placebo. A small increase in white blood cell count (WBC) was observed due to an increase in neutrophils. This increase in WBC (of approximately 200 cells/microL vs placebo, in four pooled placebo-controlled clinical studies, with a mean baseline WBC count of approximately 6600 cells/microL) is not considered to be clinically relevant. In a 12-week study of 91 patients with chronic renal insufficiency, 37 patients with moderate renal insufficiency were randomized to Xelevia 50 mg daily, while 14 patients with the same magnitude of renal impairment were randomized to placebo. Mean (SE) increases in serum creatinine were observed in patients treated with Xelevia [0.12 mg/dL (0.04)] and in patients treated with placebo [0.07 mg/dL (0.07)]. The clinical significance of this added increase in serum creatinine relative to placebo is not known.
Additional adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of Xelevia as monotherapy and/or in combination with other antihyperglycemic agents. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, angioedema, rash, urticaria, cutaneous vasculitis, and exfoliative skin conditions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome ; hepatic enzyme elevations; acute pancreatitis, including fatal and non-fatal hemorrhagic and necrotizing pancreatitis ; worsening renal function, including acute renal failure (sometimes requiring dialysis) ; severe and disabling arthralgia ; bullous pemphigoid ; constipation; vomiting; headache; myalgia; pain in extremity; back pain; pruritus.
During controlled clinical trials in healthy subjects, single doses of up to 800 mg Xelevia were administered. Maximal mean increases in QTc of 8.0 msec were observed in one study at a dose of 800 mg Xelevia, a mean effect that is not considered clinically important. There is no experience with doses above 800 mg in clinical studies. In Phase I multiple-dose studies, there were no dose-related clinical adverse reactions observed with Xelevia with doses of up to 600 mg per day for periods of up to 10 days and 400 mg per day for up to 28 days.
In the event of an overdose, it is reasonable to employ the usual supportive measures, e.g., remove unabsorbed material from the gastrointestinal tract, employ clinical monitoring (including obtaining an electrocardiogram), and institute supportive therapy as dictated by the patient's clinical status.
Sitagliptin is modestly dialyzable. In clinical studies, approximately 13.5% of the dose was removed over a 3-to 4-hour hemodialysis session. Prolonged hemodialysis may be considered if clinically appropriate. It is not known if sitagliptin is dialyzable by peritoneal dialysis.
In patients with type 2 diabetes, administration of Xelevia led to inhibition of DPP-4 enzyme activity for a 24-hour period. After an oral glucose load or a meal, this DPP-4 inhibition resulted in a 2-to 3-fold increase in circulating levels of active GLP-1 and GIP, decreased glucagon concentrations, and increased responsiveness of insulin release to glucose, resulting in higher C-peptide and insulin concentrations. The rise in insulin with the decrease in glucagon was associated with lower fasting glucose concentrations and reduced glucose excursion following an oral glucose load or a meal.
In a two-day study in healthy subjects, sitagliptin alone increased active GLP-1 concentrations, whereas metformin alone increased active and total GLP-1 concentrations to similar extents. Coadministration of sitagliptin and metformin had an additive effect on active GLP-1 concentrations. Sitagliptin, but not metformin, increased active GIP concentrations. It is unclear how these findings relate to changes in glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.
In studies with healthy subjects, Xelevia did not lower blood glucose or cause hypoglycemia.
In a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study, 79 healthy subjects were administered a single oral dose of Xelevia 100 mg, Xelevia 800 mg (8 times the recommended dose), and placebo. At the recommended dose of 100 mg, there was no effect on the QTc interval obtained at the peak plasma concentration, or at any other time during the study. Following the 800 mg dose, the maximum increase in the placebo-corrected mean change in QTc from baseline was observed at 3 hours postdose and was 8.0 msec. This increase is not considered to be clinically significant. At the 800 mg dose, peak sitagliptin plasma concentrations were approximately 11 times higher than the peak concentrations following a 100 mg dose.
In patients with type 2 diabetes administered Xelevia 100 mg (N=81) or Xelevia 200 mg (N=63) daily, there were no meaningful changes in QTc interval based on ECG data obtained at the time of expected peak plasma concentration.
The pharmacokinetics of sitagliptin has been extensively characterized in healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes. After oral administration of a 100 mg dose to healthy subjects, sitagliptin was rapidly absorbed, with peak plasma concentrations (median Tmax) occurring 1 to 4 hours postdose. Plasma AUC of sitagliptin increased in a dose-proportional manner. Following a single oral 100 mg dose to healthy volunteers, mean plasma AUC of sitagliptin was 8.52 μM•hr, Cmax was 950 nM, and apparent terminal half-life (t½) was 12.4 hours. Plasma AUC of sitagliptin increased approximately 14% following 100 mg doses at steady-state compared to the first dose. The intra-subject and inter-subject coefficients of variation for sitagliptin AUC were small (5.8% and 15.1%). The pharmacokinetics of sitagliptin was generally similar in healthy subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes.
The absolute bioavailability of sitagliptin is approximately 87%. Because coadministration of a high-fat meal with Xelevia had no effect on the pharmacokinetics, Xelevia may be administered with or without food.
The mean volume of distribution at steady state following a single 100 mg intravenous dose of sitagliptin to healthy subjects is approximately 198 liters. The fraction of sitagliptin reversibly bound to plasma proteins is low (38%).
Approximately 79% of sitagliptin is excreted unchanged in the urine with metabolism being a minor pathway of elimination.
Following a [14C]sitagliptin oral dose, approximately 16% of the radioactivity was excreted as metabolites of sitagliptin. Six metabolites were detected at trace levels and are not expected to contribute to the plasma DPP-4 inhibitory activity of sitagliptin. In vitro studies indicated that the primary enzyme responsible for the limited metabolism of sitagliptin was CYP3A4, with contribution from CYP2C8. Excretion
Following administration of an oral [14C]sitagliptin dose to healthy subjects, approximately 100% of the administered radioactivity was eliminated in feces (13%) or urine (87%) within one week of dosing. The apparent terminal t½ following a 100 mg oral dose of sitagliptin was approximately 12.4 hours and renal clearance was approximately 350 mL/min.
Elimination of sitagliptin occurs primarily via renal excretion and involves active tubular secretion. Sitagliptin is a substrate for human organic anion transporter-3 (hOAT-3), which may be involved in the renal elimination of sitagliptin. The clinical relevance of hOAT-3 in sitagliptin transport has not been established. Sitagliptin is also a substrate of p-glycoprotein, which may also be involved in mediating the renal elimination of sitagliptin. However, cyclosporine, a p-glycoprotein inhibitor, did not reduce the renal clearance of sitagliptin.