Medically reviewed by Militian Inessa Mesropovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2020-03-30
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Silosin, a selective alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist, is indicated for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Silosin is not indicated for the treatment of hypertension.
The recommended dose is 8 mg orally once daily with a meal.
Patients who have difficulty swallowing pills and capsules may carefully open the Silosin capsule and sprinkle the powder inside on a tablespoonful of applesauce. The applesauce should be swallowed immediately (within 5 minutes) without chewing and followed with an 8 oz glass of cool water to ensure complete swallowing of the powder. The applesauce used should not be hot, and it should be soft enough to be swallowed without chewing. Any powder/applesauce mixture should be used immediately (within 5 minutes) and not stored for future use. Subdividing the contents of a Silosin capsule is not recommended.
Dosage Adjustment in Special Populations
Silosin is contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment (CCr < 30 mL/min). In patients with moderate renal impairment (CCr 30-50 mL/min), the dose should be reduced to 4 mg once daily taken with a meal. No dosage adjustment is needed in patients with mild renal impairment (CCr 50-80 mL/min).
Silosin has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score ≥ 10) and is therefore contraindicated in these patients. No dosage adjustment is needed in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment.
- Severe renal impairment (CCr < 30 mL/min)
- Severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score ≥ 10)
- Concomitant administration with strong Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole, clarithromycin, itraconazole, ritonavir)
- Patients with a history of hypersensitivity to silodosin or any of the ingredients of Silosin
Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.
Postural hypotension, with or without symptoms (e.g., dizziness) may develop when beginning Silosin treatment. As with other alpha-blockers, there is potential for syncope. Patients should be cautioned about driving, operating machinery, or performing hazardous tasks when initiating therapy.
In a clinical pharmacology study, plasma concentrations (AUC and Cmax) of silodosin were approximately three times higher in subjects with moderate renal impairment compared with subjects with normal renal function, while half-lives of silodosin doubled in duration. The dose of Silosin should be reduced to 4 mg in patients with moderate renal impairment. Exercise caution and monitor such patients for adverse events.
Silosin is contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment.
Silosin has not been tested in patients with severe hepatic impairment, and therefore, should not be prescribed to such patients.
Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug Interactions
In a drug interaction study, co-administration of a single 8 mg dose of Silosin with 400 mg ketoconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, caused a 3.8-fold increase in maximum plasma silodosin concentrations and 3.2-fold increase in silodosin exposure (i.e., AUC). Concomitant use of ketoconazole or other strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., itraconazole, clarithromycin, ritonavir) is therefore contraindicated.
Pharmacodynamic Drug-Drug Interactions
The pharmacodynamic interactions between silodosin and other alpha-blockers have not been determined. However, interactions may be expected, and Silosin should not be used in combination with other alpha-blockers.
A specific pharmacodynamic interaction study between silodosin and antihypertensive agents has not been performed. However, patients in the Phase 3 clinical studies taking concomitant antihypertensive medications with Silosin did not experience a significant increase in the incidence of syncope, dizziness, or orthostasis. Nevertheless, exercise caution during concomitant use with antihypertensives and monitor patients for possible adverse events.
Caution is also advised when alpha-adrenergic blocking agents including Silosin are coadministered with PDE5 inhibitors. Alpha-adrenergic blockers and PDE5 inhibitors are both vasodilators that can lower blood pressure. Concomitant use of these two drug classes can potentially cause symptomatic hypotension.
Carcinoma of the Prostate
Carcinoma of the prostate and BPH cause many of the same symptoms. These two diseases frequently co-exist. Therefore, patients thought to have BPH should be examined prior to starting therapy with Silosin to rule out the presence of carcinoma of the prostate.
Intraoperative Floppy Iris Syndrome
Intraoperative Floppy Iris Syndrome has been observed during cataract surgery in some patients on alpha-1 blockers or previously treated with alpha-1 blockers. This variant of small pupil syndrome is characterized by the combination of a flaccid iris that billows in response to intraoperative irrigation currents; progressive intraoperative miosis despite preoperative dilation with standard mydriatic drugs; and potential prolapse of the iris toward the phacoemulsification incisions. Patients planning cataract surgery should be told to inform their ophthalmologist that they are taking Silosin.
Laboratory Test Interactions
No laboratory test interactions were observed during clinical evaluations. Treatment with Silosin for up to 52 weeks had no significant effect on prostate-specific antigen (PSA).
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
In a 2-year oral carcinogenicity study in rats administered doses up to 150 mg/kg/day [about 8 times the exposure of the maximum recommended human dose (MRHE ) based on AUC of silodosin], an increase in thyroid follicular cell tumor incidence was seen in male rats receiving doses of 150 mg/kg/day. Silodosin induced stimulation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion in the male rat as a result of increased metabolism and decreased circulating levels of thyroxine (T4). These changes are believed to produce specific morphological and functional changes in the rat thyroid including hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and neoplasia. Silodosin did not alter TSH or T4 levels in clinical trials and no effects based on thyroid examinations were noted. The relevance to human risk of these thyroid tumors in rats is not known.
In a 2-year oral carcinogenicity study in mice administered doses up to 100 mg/kg/day in males (about nine times the MRHE based on AUC of silodosin) and 400 mg/kg/day in females (about 72 times the MRHE based on AUC), there were no significant tumor findings in male mice. Female mice treated for 2 years with doses of 150 mg/kg/day (about 29 times the MRHE based on AUC) or greater had statistically significant increases in the incidence of mammary gland adenoacanthomas and adenocarcinomas. The increased incidence of mammary gland neoplasms in female mice was considered secondary to silodosin-induced hyperprolactinemia measured in the treated mice. Elevated prolactin levels were not observed in clinical trials. The relevance to human risk of prolactin-mediated endocrine tumors in mice is not known. Rats and mice do not produce glucuronidated silodosin, which is present in human serum at approximately four times the level of circulating silodosin and which has similar pharmacological activity to silodosin.
Silodosin produced no evidence of mutagenic or genotoxic potential in the in vitro Ames assay, mouse lymphoma assay, unscheduled DNA synthesis assay and the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. A weakly positive response was obtained in two in vitro Chinese Hamster Lung (CHL) tests for chromosomal aberration assays at high, cytotoxic concentrations.
Treatment of male rats with silodosin for 15 days resulted in decreased fertility at the high dose of 20 mg/kg/day (about twice the MRHE) which was reversible following a two week recovery period. No effect was observed at 6 mg/kg/day. The clinical relevance of this finding is not known.
In a fertility study in female rats, the high dose of 20 mg/kg/day (about 1 to 4 times the MRHE) resulted in estrus cycle changes, but no effect on fertility. No effect on the estrus cycle was observed at 6 mg/kg/day.
In a male rat fertility study, sperm viability and count were significantly lower after administration of 600 mg/kg/day (about 65 times the MRHE) for one month. Histopathological examination of infertile males revealed changes in the testes and epididymides at 200 mg/kg/day (about 30 times the MRHE).
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category B. Silosin is not indicated for use in women.
An embryo/fetal study in rabbits showed decreased maternal body weight at 200 mg/kg/day (approximately 13-25 times the maximum recommended human exposure or MRHE of silodosin via AUC). No statistically significant teratogenicity was observed at this dose.
Silodosin was not teratogenic when administered to pregnant rats during organogenesis at 1000 mg/kg/day (estimated to be approximately 20 times the MRHE). No maternal or fetal effects were observed at this dose. Rats and rabbits do not produce glucuronidated silodosin, which is present in human serum at approximately 4 times the level of circulating silodosin and which has similar pharmacological activity to silodosin.
No effects on physical or behavioral development of offspring were observed when rats were treated during pregnancy and lactation at up to 300 mg/kg/day.
Silosin is not indicated for use in pediatric patients. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
In double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week clinical studies of Silosin, 259 (55.6%) were under 65 years of age, 207 (44.4%) patients were 65 years of age and over, while 60 (12.9%) patients were 75 years of age and over. Orthostatic hypotension was reported in 2.3% of Silosin patients < 65 years of age (1.2% for placebo), 2.9% of Silosin patients ≥ 65 years of age (1.9% for placebo), and 5.0% of patients ≥ 75 years of age (0% for placebo). There were otherwise no significant differences in safety or effectiveness between older and younger patients.
The effect of renal impairment on silodosin pharmacokinetics was evaluated in a single dose study of six male patients with moderate renal impairment and seven male subjects with normal renal function. Plasma concentrations of silodosin were approximately three times higher in subjects with moderate renal impairment compared with subjects with normal renal function.
Silosin should be reduced to 4 mg per day in patients with moderate renal impairment. Exercise caution and monitor patients for adverse events.
Silosin has not been studied in patients with severe renal impairment. Silosin is contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment.
In a study comparing nine male patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh scores 7 to 9), to nine healthy male subjects, the single dose pharmacokinetics of silodosin were not significantly altered in patients with hepatic impairment. No dosing adjustment is required in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment.
Silosin has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Silosin is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
In U.S. clinical trials, 897 patients with BPH were exposed to 8 mg Silosin daily. This includes 486 patients exposed for 6 months and 168 patients exposed for 1 year. The population was 44 to 87 years of age, and predominantly Caucasian. Of these patients, 42.8% were 65 years of age or older and 10.7% were 75 years of age or older.
In double-blind, placebo controlled, 12-week clinical trials, 466 patients were administered Silosin and 457 patients were administered placebo. At least one treatment-emergent adverse reaction was reported by 55.2% of Silosin treated patients (36.8% for placebo treated). The majority (72.1%) of adverse reactions for the Silosin treated patients (59.8% for placebo treated) were qualified by the investigator as mild. A total of 6.4% of Silosin treated patients (2.2% for placebo treated) discontinued therapy due to an adverse reaction (treatment-emergent), the most common reaction being retrograde ejaculation (2.8%) for Silosin treated patients. Retrograde ejaculation is reversible upon discontinuation of treatment.
Adverse Reactions observed in at least 2% of patients:
The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse reactions listed in the following table were derived from two 12-week, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies of Silosin 8 mg daily in BPH patients. Adverse reactions that occurred in at least 2% of patients treated with Silosin and more frequently than with placebo are shown in Table 1.
Table 1 : Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥ 2% of Patients in 12-week, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials
|Adverse Reactions||Silosin |
N = 466
N = 457
|Retrograde Ejaculation||131 (28.1)||4 (0.9)|
|Dizziness||15 (3.2)||5 (1.1)|
|Diarrhea||12 (2.6)||6 (1.3)|
|Orthostatic Hypotension||12 (2.6)||7 (1.5)|
|Headache||11 (2.4)||4 (0.9)|
|Nasopharyngitis||11 (2.4)||10 (2.2)|
|Nasal Congestion||10 (2.1)||1 (0.2)|
In the two 12-week, placebo-controlled clinical trials, the following adverse events were reported by between 1% and 2% of patients receiving Silosin and occurred more frequently than with placebo: insomnia, PSA increased, sinusitis, abdominal pain, asthenia, and rhinorrhea. One case of syncope in a patient taking prazosin concomitantly and one case of priapism were reported in the Silosin treatment group.
In a 9-month open-label safety study of Silosin, one case of Intraoperative Floppy Iris Syndrome (IFIS) was reported.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of silodosin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure:
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: toxic skin eruption, purpura, skin rash, pruritus and urticaria
Hepatobiliary disorders: jaundice, impaired hepatic function associated with increased transaminase values
Immune system disorders: allergic-type reactions, not limited to skin reactions including swollen tongue and pharyngeal edema resulting in serious outcomes.
Silosin was evaluated at doses of up to 48 mg/day in healthy male subjects. The dose-limiting adverse event was postural hypotension.
Should overdose of Silosin lead to hypotension, support of the cardiovascular system is of first importance. Restoration of blood pressure and normalization of heart rate may be accomplished by maintaining the patient in the supine position. If this measure is inadequate, administration of intravenous fluid should be considered. If necessary, vasopressors could be used, and renal function should be monitored and supported as needed. Dialysis is unlikely to be of significant benefit since silodosin is highly (97%) protein bound.
A test for postural hypotension was conducted 2 to 6 hours after the first dose in the two 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies. After the patient had been at rest in a supine position for 5 minutes, the patient was asked to stand. Blood pressure and heart rate were assessed at 1 minute and 3 minutes after standing. A positive result was defined as a > 30 mmHg decrease in systolic blood pressure, or a > 20 mmHg decrease in diastolic blood pressure, or a > 20 bpm increase in heart rate.
Table 2 : Summary of Orthostatic Test Results in 12-week, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials
|Time of Measurement||Test Result||Silosin |
|1 Minute After Standing||Negative||459 (98.7)||454 (99.6)|
|Positive||6 (1.3)||2 (0.4)|
|3 Minutes After Standing||Negative||456 (98.1)||454 (99.6)|
|Positive||9 (1.9)||2 (0.4)|
The effect of Silosin on QT interval was evaluated in a double-blind, randomized, active- (moxifloxacin) and placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in 189 healthy male subjects aged 18 to 45 years. Subjects received either Silosin 8 mg, Silosin 24 mg, or placebo once daily for five days, or a single dose of moxifloxacin 400 mg on Day 5 only. The 24 mg dose of Silosin was selected to achieve blood levels of silodosin that may be seen in a “worst-case” scenario exposure (i.e., in the setting of concomitant renal disease or use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors). QT interval was measured during a 24-hour period following dosing on Day 5 (at silodosin steady state).
Silosin was not associated with an increase in individual corrected (QTcI) QT interval at any time during steady state measurement, while moxifloxacin, the active control, was associated with a maximum 9.59 msec increase in QTcI.
There has been no signal of Torsade de Pointes in the post-marketing experience with silodosin outside the United States.
The pharmacokinetics of silodosin have been evaluated in adult male subjects with doses ranging from 0.1 mg to 24 mg per day. The pharmacokinetics of silodosin are linear throughout this dosage range.
The pharmacokinetic characteristics of silodosin 8 mg once daily were determined in a multi-dose, open-label, 7-day pharmacokinetic study completed in 19 healthy, target-aged ( ≥ 45 years of age) male subjects. Table 3 presents the steady state pharmacokinetics of this study.
Table 3 : Mean (±SD) Steady State Pharmacokinetic Parameters in Healthy Males Following Silodosin 8 mg Once Daily with Food
|Cmax (ng/mL)||tmax (hours)||t½ (hours)||AUCss (ng•hr/mL)|
|61.6 ± 27.54||2.6 ± 0.90||13.3 ± 8.07||373.4 ± 164.94|
|Cmax = maximum concentration, tmax = time to reach Cmax, t½ = elimination half-life, AUCss = steady state area under the concentration-time curve|
Figure 1 : Mean (±SD) Silodosin Steady State Plasma Concentration-Time Profile in Healthy Target-Aged Subjects Following Silodosin 8 mg Once Daily with Food
The absolute bioavailability is approximately 32%.
The maximum effect of food (i.e., co-administration with a high fat, high calorie meal) on the PK of silodosin was not evaluated. The effect of a moderate fat, moderate calorie meal was variable and decreased silodosin Cmax by approximately 18 - 43% and AUC by 4 - 49% across three different studies.
In a single-center, open-label, single-dose, randomized, two-period crossover study in twenty healthy male subjects age 21 to 43 years under fed conditions, a study was conducted to evaluate the relative bioavailability of the contents of an 8 mg capsule (size #1) of silodosin sprinkled on applesauce compared to the product administered as an intact capsule. Based on AUC0-24 and Cmax, silodosin administered by sprinkling the contents of a Silosin capsule onto a tablespoonful of applesauce was found to be bioequivalent to administering the capsule whole.
Silodosin has an apparent volume of distribution of 49.5 L and is approximately 97% protein bound.
Silodosin undergoes extensive metabolism through glucuronidation, alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase, and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) pathways. The main metabolite of silodosin is a glucuronide conjugate (KMD-3213G) that is formed via direct conjugation of silodosin by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7). Co-administration with inhibitors of UGT2B7 (e.g., probenecid, valproic acid, fluconazole) may potentially increase exposure to silodosin. KMD-3213G, which has been shown in vitro to be active, has an extended half-life (approximately 24 hours) and reaches plasma exposure (AUC) approximately four times greater than that of silodosin. The second major metabolite (KMD-3293) is formed via alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases and reaches plasma exposures similar to that of silodosin. KMD-3293 is not expected to contribute significantly to the overall pharmacologic activity of Silosin.
Following oral administration of 14C-labeled silodosin, the recovery of radioactivity after 10 days was approximately 33.5% in urine and 54.9% in feces. After intravenous administration, the plasma clearance of silodosin was approximately 10 L/hour.
However, we will provide data for each active ingredient