Components:
Paroxetine
Method of action:
Antidepressant, Psychoanaleptics
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Medically reviewed by Fedorchenko Olga Valeryevna, Pharmacy-Provisor Last updated on 2019.07.21

Name of the medicinal product

Paroxétine Ranbaxy

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Paroxetine

Therapeutic indications

The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Paroxétine Ranbaxy is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Paroxétine Ranbaxy of the medicine (Paroxetine). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Therapeutic indications in the instructions to the drug Paroxétine Ranbaxy directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Major Depressive Disorder

Paroxétine Ranbaxy is indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder.

The efficacy of Paroxétine Ranbaxy in the treatment of a major depressive episode was established in 6-week controlled trials of outpatients whose diagnoses corresponded most closely to the DSM-III category of major depressive disorder (see Clinical Trials). A major depressive episode implies a prominent and relatively persistent depressed or dysphoric mood that usually interferes with daily functioning (nearly every day for at least 2 weeks); it should include at least 4 of the following 8 symptoms: Change in appetite, change in sleep, psychomotor agitation or retardation, loss of interest in usual activities or decrease in sexual drive, increased fatigue, feelings of guilt or worthlessness, slowed thinking or impaired concentration, and a suicide attempt or suicidal ideation.

The effects of Paroxétine Ranbaxy in hospitalized depressed patients have not been adequately studied.

The efficacy of Paroxétine Ranbaxy in maintaining a response in major depressive disorder for up to 1 year was demonstrated in a placebo-controlled trial (see Clinical Trials). Nevertheless, the physician who elects to use Paroxétine Ranbaxy for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Paroxétine Ranbaxy is indicated for the treatment of obsessions and compulsions in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) as defined in the DSM-IV. The obsessions or compulsions cause marked distress, are time-consuming, or significantly interfere with social or occupational functioning.

The efficacy of Paroxétine Ranbaxy was established in two 12-week trials with obsessive compulsive outpatients whose diagnoses corresponded most closely to the DSM-IIIR category of obsessive compulsive disorder (see Clinical Trials).

Obsessive compulsive disorder is characterized by recurrent and persistent ideas, thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions) that are ego-dystonic and/or repetitive, purposeful, and intentional behaviors (compulsions) that are recognized by the person as excessive or unreasonable.

Long-term maintenance of efficacy was demonstrated in a 6-month relapse prevention trial. In this trial, patients assigned to paroxetine showed a lower relapse rate compared to patients on placebo (see Clinical Trials). Nevertheless, the physician who elects to use Paroxétine Ranbaxy for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Panic Disorder

Paroxétine Ranbaxy is indicated for the treatment of panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia, as defined in DSM-IV. Panic disorder is characterized by the occurrence of unexpected panic attacks and associated concern about having additional attacks, worry about the implications or consequences of the attacks, and/or a significant change in behavior related to the attacks.

The efficacy of Paroxétine Ranbaxy was established in three 10-to 12-week trials in panic disorder patients whose diagnoses corresponded to the DSM-IIIR category of panic disorder (see Clinical Trials).

Panic disorder (DSM-IV) is characterized by recurrent unexpected panic attacks, i.e., a discrete period of intense fear or discomfort in which 4 (or more) of the following symptoms develop abruptly and reach a peak within 10 minutes: (1) palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate; (2) sweating; (3) trembling or shaking; (4) sensations of shortness of breath or smothering; (5) feeling of choking; (6) chest pain or discomfort; (7) nausea or abdominal distress; (8) feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, or faint; (9) derealization (feelings of unreality) or depersonalization (being detached from oneself); (10) fear of losing control; (11) fear of dying; (12) paresthesias (numbness or tingling sensations); (13) chills or hot flushes.

Long-term maintenance of efficacy was demonstrated in a 3-month relapse prevention trial. In this trial, patients with panic disorder assigned to paroxetine demonstrated a lower relapse rate compared to patients on placebo (see Clinical Trials). Nevertheless, the physician who prescribes Paroxétine Ranbaxy for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Social Anxiety Disorder

Paroxétine Ranbaxy is indicated for the treatment of social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia, as defined in DSM-IV (300.23). Social anxiety disorder is characterized by a marked and persistent fear of 1 or more social or performance situations in which the person is exposed to unfamiliar people or to possible scrutiny by others. Exposure to the feared situation almost invariably provokes anxiety, which may approach the intensity of a panic attack. The feared situations are avoided or endured with intense anxiety or distress. The avoidance, anxious anticipation, or distress in the feared situation(s) interferes significantly with the person's normal routine, occupational or academic functioning, or social activities or relationships, or there is marked distress about having the phobias. Lesser degrees of performance anxiety or shyness generally do not require psychopharmacological treatment.

The efficacy of Paroxétine Ranbaxy was established in three 12-week trials in adult patients with social anxiety disorder (DSM-IV). Paroxétine Ranbaxy has not been studied in children or adolescents with social phobia (see Clinical Trials).

The effectiveness of Paroxétine Ranbaxy in long-term treatment of social anxiety disorder, i.e., for more than 12 weeks, has not been systematically evaluated in adequate and well-controlled trials. Therefore, the physician who elects to prescribe Paroxétine Ranbaxy for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Paroxétine Ranbaxy is indicated for the treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), as defined in DSM-IV. Anxiety or tension associated with the stress of everyday life usually does not require treatment with an anxiolytic.

The efficacy of Paroxétine Ranbaxy in the treatment of GAD was established in two 8-week placebo-controlled trials in adults with GAD. Paroxétine Ranbaxy has not been studied in children or adolescents with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (see Clinical Trials).

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (DSM-IV) is characterized by excessive anxiety and worry (apprehensive expectation) that is persistent for at least 6 months and which the person finds difficult to control. It must be associated with at least 3 of the following 6 symptoms: Restlessness or feeling keyed up or on edge, being easily fatigued, difficulty concentrating or mind going blank, irritability, muscle tension, sleep disturbance.

The efficacy of Paroxétine Ranbaxy in maintaining a response in patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, who responded during an 8-week acute treatment phase while taking Paroxétine Ranbaxy and were then observed for relapse during a period of up to 24 weeks, was demonstrated in a placebo-controlled trial (see Clinical Trials). Nevertheless, the physician who elects to use Paroxétine Ranbaxy for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Paroxétine Ranbaxy is indicated for the treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

The efficacy of Paroxétine Ranbaxy in the treatment of PTSD was established in two 12-week placebo-controlled trials in adults with PTSD (DSM-IV) (see Clinical Trials).

PTSD, as defined by DSM-IV, requires exposure to a traumatic event that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or threat to the physical integrity of self or others, and a response that involves intense fear, helplessness, or horror. Symptoms that occur as a result of exposure to the traumatic event include reexperiencing of the event in the form of intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, or dreams, and intense psychological distress and physiological reactivity on exposure to cues to the event; avoidance of situations reminiscent of the traumatic event, inability to recall details of the event, and/or numbing of general responsiveness manifested as diminished interest in significant activities, estrangement from others, restricted range of affect, or sense of foreshortened future; and symptoms of autonomic arousal including hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, sleep disturbance, impaired concentration, and irritability or outbursts of anger. A PTSD diagnosis requires that the symptoms are present for at least a month and that they cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

The efficacy of Paroxétine Ranbaxy in longer-term treatment of PTSD, i.e., for more than 12 weeks, has not been systematically evaluated in placebo-controlled trials. Therefore, the physician who elects to prescribe Paroxétine Ranbaxy for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administration of Paroxétine Ranbaxy is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Paroxétine Ranbaxy of the medicine (Paroxetine). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Paroxétine Ranbaxy directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Major Depressive Disorder

Usual Initial Dosage

Paroxétine Ranbaxy should be administered as a single daily dose with or without food, usually in the morning. The recommended initial dose is 20 mg/day. Patients were dosed in a range of 20 to 50 mg/day in the clinical trials demonstrating the effectiveness of Paroxétine Ranbaxy in the treatment of major depressive disorder. As with all drugs effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder, the full effect may be delayed. Some patients not responding to a 20-mg dose may benefit from dose increases, in 10-mg/day increments, up to a maximum of 50 mg/day. Dose changes should occur at intervals of at least 1 week.

Maintenance Therapy

There is no body of evidence available to answer the question of how long the patient treated with Paroxétine Ranbaxy should remain on it. It is generally agreed that acute episodes of major depressive disorder require several months or longer of sustained pharmacologic therapy. Whether the dose needed to induce remission is identical to the dose needed to maintain and/or sustain euthymia is unknown.

Systematic evaluation of the efficacy of Paroxétine Ranbaxy has shown that efficacy is maintained for periods of up to 1 year with doses that averaged about 30 mg.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Usual Initial Dosage

Paroxétine Ranbaxy should be administered as a single daily dose with or without food, usually in the morning. The recommended dose of Paroxétine Ranbaxy in the treatment of OCD is 40 mg daily. Patients should be started on 20 mg/day and the dose can be increased in 10-mg/day increments. Dose changes should occur at intervals of at least 1 week. Patients were dosed in a range of 20 to 60 mg/day in the clinical trials demonstrating the effectiveness of Paroxétine Ranbaxy in the treatment of OCD. The maximum dosage should not exceed 60 mg/day.

Maintenance Therapy

Long-term maintenance of efficacy was demonstrated in a 6-month relapse prevention trial. In this trial, patients with OCD assigned to paroxetine demonstrated a lower relapse rate compared to patients on placebo (see Clinical Trials). OCD is a chronic condition, and it is reasonable to consider continuation for a responding patient. Dosage adjustments should be made to maintain the patient on the lowest effective dosage, and patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for continued treatment.

Panic Disorder

Usual Initial Dosage

Paroxétine Ranbaxy should be administered as a single daily dose with or without food, usually in the morning. The target dose of Paroxétine Ranbaxy in the treatment of panic disorder is 40 mg/day. Patients should be started on 10 mg/day. Dose changes should occur in 10-mg/day increments and at intervals of at least 1 week. Patients were dosed in a range of 10 to 60 mg/day in the clinical trials demonstrating the effectiveness of Paroxétine Ranbaxy. The maximum dosage should not exceed 60 mg/day.

Maintenance Therapy

Long-term maintenance of efficacy was demonstrated in a 3-month relapse prevention trial. In this trial, patients with panic disorder assigned to paroxetine demonstrated a lower relapse rate compared to patients on placebo (see Clinical Trials). Panic disorder is a chronic condition, and it is reasonable to consider continuation for a responding patient. Dosage adjustments should be made to maintain the patient on the lowest effective dosage, and patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for continued treatment.

Social Anxiety Disorder

Usual Initial Dosage

Paroxétine Ranbaxy should be administered as a single daily dose with or without food, usually in the morning. The recommended and initial dosage is 20 mg/day. In clinical trials the effectiveness of Paroxétine Ranbaxy was demonstrated in patients dosed in a range of 20 to 60 mg/day. While the safety of Paroxétine Ranbaxy has been evaluated in patients with social anxiety disorder at doses up to 60 mg/day, available information does not suggest any additional benefit for doses above 20 mg/day (see Clinical Trials).

Maintenance Therapy

There is no body of evidence available to answer the question of how long the patient treated with Paroxétine Ranbaxy should remain on it. Although the efficacy of Paroxétine Ranbaxy beyond 12 weeks of dosing has not been demonstrated in controlled clinical trials, social anxiety disorder is recognized as a chronic condition, and it is reasonable to consider continuation of treatment for a responding patient. Dosage adjustments should be made to maintain the patient on the lowest effective dosage, and patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for continued treatment.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Usual Initial Dosage

Paroxétine Ranbaxy should be administered as a single daily dose with or without food, usually in the morning. In clinical trials the effectiveness of Paroxétine Ranbaxy was demonstrated in patients dosed in a range of 20 to 50 mg/day. The recommended starting dosage and the established effective dosage is 20 mg/day. There is not sufficient evidence to suggest a greater benefit to doses higher than 20 mg/day. Dose changes should occur in 10 mg/day increments and at intervals of at least 1 week.

Maintenance Therapy

Systematic evaluation of continuing Paroxétine Ranbaxy for periods of up to 24 weeks in patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder who had responded while taking Paroxétine Ranbaxy during an 8-week acute treatment phase has demonstrated a benefit of such maintenance (see Clinical Trials). Nevertheless, patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for maintenance treatment.

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Usual Initial Dosage

Paroxétine Ranbaxy should be administered as a single daily dose with or without food, usually in the morning. The recommended starting dosage and the established effective dosage is 20 mg/day. In 1 clinical trial, the effectiveness of Paroxétine Ranbaxy was demonstrated in patients dosed in a range of 20 to 50 mg/day. However, in a fixed dose study, there was not sufficient evidence to suggest a greater benefit for a dose of 40 mg/day compared to 20 mg/day. Dose changes, if indicated, should occur in 10 mg/day increments and at intervals of at least 1 week.

Maintenance Therapy

There is no body of evidence available to answer the question of how long the patient treated with Paroxétine Ranbaxy should remain on it. Although the efficacy of Paroxétine Ranbaxy beyond 12 weeks of dosing has not been demonstrated in controlled clinical trials, PTSD is recognized as a chronic condition, and it is reasonable to consider continuation of treatment for a responding patient. Dosage adjustments should be made to maintain the patient on the lowest effective dosage, and patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for continued treatment.

Special Populations

Treatment of Pregnant Women During The Third Trimester:

Neonates exposed to Paroxétine Ranbaxy and other SSRIs or SNRIs, late in the third trimester have developed complications requiring prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, and tube feeding (see WARNINGS: Usage in Pregnancy). When treating pregnant women with paroxetine during the third trimester, the physician should carefully consider the potential risks and benefits of treatment.

Dosage For Elderly Or Debilitated Patients, And Patients With Severe Renal Or Hepatic Impairment

The recommended initial dose is 10 mg/day for elderly patients, debilitated patients, and/or patients with severe renal or hepatic impairment. Increases may be made if indicated. Dosage should not exceed 40 mg/day.

Switching A Patient To Or From A Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI) Intended To Treat Psychiatric Disorders

At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders and initiation of therapy with Paroxétine Ranbaxy. Conversely, at least 14 days should be allowed after stopping Paroxétine Ranbaxy before starting an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Use Of Paroxétine Ranbaxy With Other MAOIs, Such As Linezolid Or Methylene Blue

Do not start Paroxétine Ranbaxy in a patient who is being treated with linezolid or intravenous methylene blue because there is increased risk of serotonin syndrome. In a patient who requires more urgent treatment of a psychiatric condition, other interventions, including hospitalization, should be considered (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

In some cases, a patient already receiving therapy with Paroxétine Ranbaxy may require urgent treatment with linezolid or intravenous methylene blue. If acceptable alternatives to linezolid or intravenous methylene blue treatment are not available and the potential benefits of linezolid or intravenous methylene blue treatment are judged to outweigh the risks of serotonin syndrome in a particular patient, Paroxétine Ranbaxy should be stopped promptly, and linezolid or intravenous methylene blue can be administered. The patient should be monitored for symptoms of serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of linezolid or intravenous methylene blue, whichever comes first. Therapy with Paroxétine Ranbaxy may be resumed 24 hours after the last dose of linezolid or intravenous methylene blue (see WARNINGS).

The risk of administering methylene blue by non-intravenous routes (such as oral tablets or by local injection) or in intravenous doses much lower than 1 mg/kg with Paroxétine Ranbaxy is unclear. The clinician should, nevertheless, be aware of the possibility of emergent symptoms of serotonin syndrome with such use (see WARNINGS).

Discontinuation Of Treatment With Paroxétine Ranbaxy

Symptoms associated with discontinuation of Paroxétine Ranbaxy have been reported (see PRECAUTIONS: Discontinuation of Treatment With Paroxétine Ranbaxy). Patients should be monitored for these symptoms when discontinuing treatment, regardless of the indication for which Paroxétine Ranbaxy is being prescribed. A gradual reduction in the dose rather than abrupt cessation is recommended whenever possible. If intolerable symptoms occur following a decrease in the dose or upon discontinuation of treatment, then resuming the previously prescribed dose may be considered. Subsequently, the physician may continue decreasing the dose but at a more gradual rate.

NOTE: SHAKE SUSPENSION WELL BEFORE USING.

Contraindications

The information provided in Contraindications of Paroxétine Ranbaxy is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Paroxétine Ranbaxy of the medicine (Paroxetine). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Paroxétine Ranbaxy directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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The use of MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders with Paroxétine Ranbaxy or within 14 days of stopping treatment with Paroxétine Ranbaxy is contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. The use of Paroxétine Ranbaxy within 14 days of stopping an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders is also contraindicated (see WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Starting Paroxétine Ranbaxy in a patient who is being treated with MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue is also contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome (see WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Concomitant use with thioridazine is contraindicated (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS).

Concomitant use in patients taking pimozide is contraindicated (see PRECAUTIONS).

Paroxétine Ranbaxy is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to paroxetine or any of the inactive ingredients in Paroxétine Ranbaxy.

Special warnings and precautions for use

The information provided in Special warnings and precautions for use of Paroxétine Ranbaxy is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Paroxétine Ranbaxy of the medicine (Paroxetine). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special warnings and precautions for use in the instructions to the drug Paroxétine Ranbaxy directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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WARNINGS

Clinical Worsening And Suicide Risk

Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), both adult and pediatric, may experience worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior, whether or not they are taking antidepressant medications, and this risk may persist until significant remission occurs. Suicide is a known risk of depression and certain other psychiatric disorders, and these disorders themselves are the strongest predictors of suicide. There has been a long-standing concern, however, that antidepressants may have a role in inducing worsening of depression and the emergence of suicidality in certain patients during the early phases of treatment. Pooled analyses of short-term placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant drugs (SSRIs and others) showed that these drugs increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 18-24) with major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older.

The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in children and adolescents with MDD, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 24 short-term trials of 9 antidepressant drugs in over 4,400 patients. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in adults with MDD or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 295 short-term trials (median duration of 2 months) of 11 antidepressant drugs in over 77,000 patients. There was considerable variation in risk of suicidality among drugs, but a tendency toward an increase in the younger patients for almost all drugs studied. There were differences in absolute risk of suicidality across the different indications, with the highest incidence in MDD. The risk differences (drug vs placebo), however, were relatively stable within age strata and across indications. These risk differences (drug-placebo difference in the number of cases of suicidality per 1,000 patients treated) are provided in Table 1.

Table 1

Age Range Drug-Placebo Difference in Number of Cases of Suicidality per 1,000 Patients Treated
Increases Compared to Placebo
< 18 14 additional cases
18-24 5 additional cases
Decreases Compared to Placebo
25-64 1 fewer case
≥ 65 6 fewer cases

No suicides occurred in any of the pediatric trials. There were suicides in the adult trials, but the number was not sufficient to reach any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.

It is unknown whether the suicidality risk extends to longer-term use, i.e., beyond several months. However, there is substantial evidence from placebo-controlled maintenance trials in adults with depression that the use of antidepressants can delay the recurrence of depression.

All patients being treated with antidepressants for any indication should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, and unusual changes in behavior, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy, or at times of dose changes, either increases or decreases.

The following symptoms, anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, and mania, have been reported in adult and pediatric patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder as well as for other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric. Although a causal link between the emergence of such symptoms and either the worsening of depression and/or the emergence of suicidal impulses has not been established, there is concern that such symptoms may represent precursors to emerging suicidality.

Consideration should be given to changing the therapeutic regimen, including possibly discontinuing the medication, in patients whose depression is persistently worse, or who are experiencing emergent suicidality or symptoms that might be precursors to worsening depression or suicidality, especially if these symptoms are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient's presenting symptoms.

If the decision has been made to discontinue treatment, medication should be tapered, as rapidly as is feasible, but with recognition that abrupt discontinuation can be associated with certain symptoms (see PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION: Discontinuation of Treatment With Paroxétine Ranbaxy, for a description of the risks of discontinuation of Paroxétine Ranbaxy).

Families and caregivers of patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder or other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric, should be alerted about the need to monitor patients for the emergence of agitation, irritability, unusual changes in behavior, and the other symptoms described above, as well as the emergence of suicidality, and to report such symptoms immediately to healthcare providers. Such monitoring should include daily observation by families and caregivers. Prescriptions for Paroxétine Ranbaxy should be written for the smallest quantity of tablets consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose.

Screening Patients For Bipolar Disorder

A major depressive episode may be the initial presentation of bipolar disorder. It is generally believed (though not established in controlled trials) that treating such an episode with an antidepressant alone may increase the likelihood of precipitation of a mixed/manic episode in patients at risk for bipolar disorder. Whether any of the symptoms described above represent such a conversion is unknown. However, prior to initiating treatment with an antidepressant, patients with depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression. It should be noted that Paroxétine Ranbaxy is not approved for use in treating bipolar depression.

Serotonin Syndrome

The development of a potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome has been reported with SNRIs and SSRIs, including Paroxétine Ranbaxy, alone but particularly with concomitant use of other serotonergic drugs (including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, amphetamines, and St. John's Wort) and with drugs that impair metabolism of serotonin (in particular, MAOIs, both those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue).

Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). Patients should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome.

The concomitant use of Paroxétine Ranbaxy with MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders is contraindicated. Paroxétine Ranbaxy should also not be started in a patient who is being treated with MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue. All reports with methylene blue that provided information on the route of administration involved intravenous administration in the dose range of 1 mg/kg to 8 mg/kg. No reports involved the administration of methylene blue by other routes (such as oral tablets or local tissue injection) or at lower doses. There may be circumstances when it is necessary to initiate treatment with an MAOI such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue in a patient taking Paroxétine Ranbaxy. Paroxétine Ranbaxy should be discontinued before initiating treatment with the MAOI (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

If concomitant use of Paroxétine Ranbaxy with certain other serotonergic drugs, i.e., triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, buspirone, tryptophan, amphetamines, and St. John's Wort is clinically warranted, be aware of a potential increased risk for serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases.

Treatment with Paroxétine Ranbaxy and any concomitant serotonergic agents should be discontinued immediately if the above events occur and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated.

Angle-Closure Glaucoma

The pupillary dilation that occurs following use of many antidepressant drugs including Paroxétine Ranbaxy may trigger an angle closure attack in a patient with anatomically narrow angles who does not have a patent iridectomy.

Potential Interaction With Thioridazine

Thioridazine administration alone produces prolongation of the QTc interval, which is associated with serious ventricular arrhythmias, such as torsade de pointes-type arrhythmias, and sudden death. This effect appears to be dose related.

An in vivo study suggests that drugs which inhibit CYP2D6, such as paroxetine, will elevate plasma levels of thioridazine. Therefore, it is recommended that paroxetine not be used in combination with thioridazine (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS).

Usage In Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Epidemiological studies have shown that infants exposed to paroxetine in the first trimester of pregnancy have an increased risk of congenital malformations, particularly cardiovascular malformations. The findings from these studies are summarized below:

  • A study based on Swedish national registry data demonstrated that infants exposed to paroxetine during pregnancy (n = 815) had an increased risk of cardiovascular malformations (2% risk in paroxetine-exposed infants) compared to the entire registry population (1% risk), for an odds ratio (OR) of 1.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.8). No increase in the risk of overall congenital malformations was seen in the paroxetine-exposed infants. The cardiac malformations in the paroxetine-exposed infants were primarily ventricular septal defects (VSDs) and atrial septal defects (ASDs). Septal defects range in severity from those that resolve spontaneously to those which require surgery.
  • A separate retrospective cohort study from the United States (United Healthcare data) evaluated 5,956 infants of mothers dispensed antidepressants during the first trimester (n = 815 for paroxetine). This study showed a trend towards an increased risk for cardiovascular malformations for paroxetine (risk of 1.5%) compared to other antidepressants (risk of 1%), for an OR of 1.5 (95% confidence interval 0.8 to 2.9). Of the 12 paroxetine-exposed infants with cardiovascular malformations, 9 had VSDs. This study also suggested an increased risk of overall major congenital malformations including cardiovascular defects for paroxetine (4% risk) compared to other (2% risk) antidepressants (OR 1.8; 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.8).
  • Two large case-control studies using separate databases, each with > 9,000 birth defect cases and > 4,000 controls, found that maternal use of paroxetine during the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with a 2-to 3-fold increased risk of right ventricular outflow tract obstructions. In one study the odds ratio was 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.0, 7 exposed infants) and in the other study the odds ratio was 3.3 (95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 8.8, 6 exposed infants).

Other studies have found varying results as to whether there was an increased risk of overall, cardiovascular, or specific congenital malformations. A meta-analysis of epidemiological data over a 16-year period (1992 to 2008) on first trimester paroxetine use in pregnancy and congenital malformations included the above-noted studies in addition to others (n = 17 studies that included overall malformations and n = 14 studies that included cardiovascular malformations; n = 20 distinct studies). While subject to limitations, this meta-analysis suggested an increased occurrence of cardiovascular malformations (prevalence odds ratio [POR] 1.5; 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 1.9) and overall malformations (POR 1.2; 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 1.4) with paroxetine use during the first trimester. It was not possible in this meta-analysis to determine the extent to which the observed prevalence of cardiovascular malformations might have contributed to that of overall malformations, nor was it possible to determine whether any specific types of cardiovascular malformations might have contributed to the observed prevalence of all cardiovascular malformations.

If a patient becomes pregnant while taking paroxetine, she should be advised of the potential harm to the fetus. Unless the benefits of paroxetine to the mother justify continuing treatment, consideration should be given to either discontinuing paroxetine therapy or switching to another antidepressant (see PRECAUTIONS: Discontinuation of Treatment With Paroxétine Ranbaxy). For women who intend to become pregnant or are in their first trimester of pregnancy, paroxetine should only be initiated after consideration of the other available treatment options.

Animal Findings

Reproduction studies were performed at doses up to 50 mg/kg/day in rats and 6 mg/kg/day in rabbits administered during organogenesis. These doses are approximately 8 (rat) and 2 (rabbit) times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) on an mg/m² basis. These studies have revealed no evidence of teratogenic effects. However, in rats, there was an increase in pup deaths during the first 4 days of lactation when dosing occurred during the last trimester of gestation and continued throughout lactation. This effect occurred at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day or approximately one-sixth of the MRHD on an mg/m² basis. The no-effect dose for rat pup mortality was not determined. The cause of these deaths is not known.

Nonteratogenic Effects

Neonates exposed to Paroxétine Ranbaxy and other SSRIs or serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), late in the third trimester have developed complications requiring prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, and tube feeding. Such complications can arise immediately upon delivery. Reported clinical findings have included respiratory distress, cyanosis, apnea, seizures, temperature instability, feeding difficulty, vomiting, hypoglycemia, hypotonia, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, tremor, jitteriness, irritability, and constant crying. These features are consistent with either a direct toxic effect of SSRIs and SNRIs or, possibly, a drug discontinuation syndrome. It should be noted that, in some cases, the clinical picture is consistent with serotonin syndrome (see WARNINGS: Serotonin Syndrome).

Infants exposed to SSRIs in pregnancy may have an increased risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). PPHN occurs in 1 - 2 per 1,000 live births in the general population and is associated with substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. Several recent epidemiologic studies suggest a positive statistical association between SSRI use (including Paroxétine Ranbaxy) in pregnancy and PPHN. Other studies do not show a significant statistical association.

Physicians should also note the results of a prospective longitudinal study of 201 pregnant women with a history of major depression, who were either on antidepressants or had received antidepressants less than 12 weeks prior to their last menstrual period, and were in remission. Women who discontinued antidepressant medication during pregnancy showed a significant increase in relapse of their major depression compared to those women who remained on antidepressant medication throughout pregnancy.

When treating a pregnant woman with Paroxétine Ranbaxy, the physician should carefully consider both the potential risks of taking an SSRI, along with the established benefits of treating depression with an antidepressant. This decision can only be made on a case by case basis (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and ADVERSE REACTIONS: Postmarketing Reports).

PRECAUTIONS

General

Activation Of Mania/Hypomania

During premarketing testing, hypomania or mania occurred in approximately 1.0% of unipolar patients treated with Paroxétine Ranbaxy compared to 1.1% of active-control and 0.3% of placebo-treated unipolar patients. In a subset of patients classified as bipolar, the rate of manic episodes was 2.2% for Paroxétine Ranbaxy and 11.6% for the combined active-control groups. As with all drugs effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder, Paroxétine Ranbaxy should be used cautiously in patients with a history of mania.

Seizures

During premarketing testing, seizures occurred in 0.1% of patients treated with Paroxétine Ranbaxy, a rate similar to that associated with other drugs effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Paroxétine Ranbaxy should be used cautiously in patients with a history of seizures. It should be discontinued in any patient who develops seizures.

Discontinuation Of Treatment With Paroxétine Ranbaxy

Recent clinical trials supporting the various approved indications for Paroxétine Ranbaxy employed a taper-phase regimen, rather than an abrupt discontinuation of treatment. The taper-phase regimen used in GAD and PTSD clinical trials involved an incremental decrease in the daily dose by 10 mg/day at weekly intervals. When a daily dose of 20 mg/day was reached, patients were continued on this dose for 1 week before treatment was stopped.

With this regimen in those studies, the following adverse events were reported at an incidence of 2% or greater for Paroxétine Ranbaxy and were at least twice that reported for placebo: Abnormal dreams, paresthesia, and dizziness. In the majority of patients, these events were mild to moderate and were self-limiting and did not require medical intervention.

During marketing of Paroxétine Ranbaxy and other SSRIs and SNRIs, there have been spontaneous reports of adverse events occurring upon the discontinuation of these drugs (particularly when abrupt), including the following: Dysphoric mood, irritability, agitation, dizziness, sensory disturbances (e.g., paresthesias such as electric shock sensations and tinnitus), anxiety, confusion, headache, lethargy, emotional lability, insomnia, and hypomania. While these events are generally self-limiting, there have been reports of serious discontinuation symptoms.

Patients should be monitored for these symptoms when discontinuing treatment with Paroxétine Ranbaxy. A gradual reduction in the dose rather than abrupt cessation is recommended whenever possible. If intolerable symptoms occur following a decrease in the dose or upon discontinuation of treatment, then resuming the previously prescribed dose may be considered. Subsequently, the physician may continue decreasing the dose but at a more gradual rate (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

See also PRECAUTIONS: Pediatric Use, for adverse events reported upon discontinuation of treatment with Paroxétine Ranbaxy in pediatric patients.

Tamoxifen

Some studies have shown that the efficacy of tamoxifen, as measured by the risk of breast cancer relapse/mortality, may be reduced when co-prescribed with paroxetine as a result of paroxetine's irreversible inhibition of CYP2D6 (see DRUG INTERACTIONS). However, other studies have failed to demonstrate such a risk. It is uncertain whether the coadministration of paroxetine and tamoxifen has a significant adverse effect on the efficacy of tamoxifen. One study suggests that the risk may increase with longer duration of coadministration. When tamoxifen is used for the treatment or prevention of breast cancer, prescribers should consider using an alternative antidepressant with little or no CYP2D6 inhibition.

Akathisia

The use of paroxetine or other SSRIs has been associated with the development of akathisia, which is characterized by an inner sense of restlessness and psychomotor agitation such as an inability to sit or stand still usually associated with subjective distress. This is most likely to occur within the first few weeks of treatment.

Hyponatremia

Hyponatremia may occur as a result of treatment with SSRIs and SNRIs, including Paroxétine Ranbaxy. In many cases, this hyponatremia appears to be the result of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Cases with serum sodium lower than 110 mmol/L have been reported. Elderly patients may be at greater risk of developing hyponatremia with SSRIs and SNRIs. Also, patients taking diuretics or who are otherwise volume depleted may be at greater risk (see PRECAUTIONS: Geriatric Use). Discontinuation of Paroxétine Ranbaxy should be considered in patients with symptomatic hyponatremia and appropriate medical intervention should be instituted.

Signs and symptoms of hyponatremia include headache, difficulty concentrating, memory impairment, confusion, weakness, and unsteadiness, which may lead to falls. Signs and symptoms associated with more severe and/or acute cases have included hallucination, syncope, seizure, coma, respiratory arrest, and death.

Abnormal Bleeding

SSRIs and SNRIs, including paroxetine, may increase the risk of bleeding events. Concomitant use of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, warfarin, and other anticoagulants may add to this risk. Case reports and epidemiological studies (case-control and cohort design) have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding events related to SSRIs and SNRIs use have ranged from ecchymoses, hematomas, epistaxis, and petechiae to life-threatening hemorrhages. Patients should be cautioned about the risk of bleeding associated with the concomitant use of paroxetine and NSAIDs, aspirin, or other drugs that affect coagulation.

Bone Fracture

Epidemiological studies on bone fracture risk following exposure to some antidepressants, including SSRIs, have reported an association between antidepressant treatment and fractures. There are multiple possible causes for this observation and it is unknown to what extent fracture risk is directly attributable to SSRI treatment. The possibility of a pathological fracture, that is, a fracture produced by minimal trauma in a patient with decreased bone mineral density, should be considered in patients treated with paroxetine who present with unexplained bone pain, point tenderness, swelling, or bruising.

Use In Patients With Concomitant Illness

Clinical experience with Paroxétine Ranbaxy in patients with certain concomitant systemic illness is limited. Caution is advisable in using Paroxétine Ranbaxy in patients with diseases or conditions that could affect metabolism or hemodynamic responses.

As with other SSRIs, mydriasis has been infrequently reported in premarketing studies with Paroxétine Ranbaxy. A few cases of acute angle closure glaucoma associated with paroxetine therapy have been reported in the literature. As mydriasis can cause acute angle closure in patients with narrow angle glaucoma, caution should be used when Paroxétine Ranbaxy is prescribed for patients with narrow angle glaucoma.

Paroxétine Ranbaxy has not been evaluated or used to any appreciable extent in patients with a recent history of myocardial infarction or unstable heart disease. Patients with these diagnoses were excluded from clinical studies during the product's premarket testing. Evaluation of electrocardiograms of 682 patients who received Paroxétine Ranbaxy in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, however, did not indicate that Paroxétine Ranbaxy is associated with the development of significant ECG abnormalities. Similarly, Paroxétine Ranbaxy does not cause any clinically important changes in heart rate or blood pressure.

Increased plasma concentrations of paroxetine occur in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min.) or severe hepatic impairment. A lower starting dose should be used in such patients (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Information For Patients

Paroxétine Ranbaxy should not be chewed or crushed, and should be swallowed whole.

Patients should be cautioned about the risk of serotonin syndrome with the concomitant use of Paroxétine Ranbaxy and triptans, tramadol, or other serotonergic agents.

Patients should be advised that taking Paroxétine Ranbaxy can cause mild pupillary dilation, which in susceptible individuals, can lead to an episode of angle closure glaucoma. Pre-existing glaucoma is almost always open-angle glaucoma because angle closure glaucoma, when diagnosed, can be treated definitively with iridectomy. Open-angle glaucoma is not a risk factor for angle closure glaucoma. Patients may wish to be examined to determine whether they are susceptible to angle closure, and have a prophylactic procedure (e.g., iridectomy), if they are susceptible.

Prescribers or other health professionals should inform patients, their families, and their caregivers about the benefits and risks associated with treatment with Paroxétine Ranbaxy and should counsel them in its appropriate use. A patient Medication Guide is available for Paroxétine Ranbaxy. The prescriber or health professional should instruct patients, their families, and their caregivers to read the Medication Guide and should assist them in understanding its contents. Patients should be given the opportunity to discuss the contents of the Medication Guide and to obtain answers to any questions they may have. The complete text of the Medication Guide is reprinted at the end of this document.

Patients should be advised of the following issues and asked to alert their prescriber if these occur while taking Paroxétine Ranbaxy.

Clinical Worsening And Suicide Risk

Patients, their families, and their caregivers should be encouraged to be alert to the emergence of anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, mania, other unusual changes in behavior, worsening of depression, and suicidal ideation, especially early during antidepressant treatment and when the dose is adjusted up or down. Families and caregivers of patients should be advised to look for the emergence of such symptoms on a day-to-day basis, since changes may be abrupt. Such symptoms should be reported to the patient's prescriber or health professional, especially if they are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient's presenting symptoms. Symptoms such as these may be associated with an increased risk for suicidal thinking and behavior and indicate a need for very close monitoring and possibly changes in the medication.

Drugs That Interfere With Hemostasis (e.g., NSAIDs, Aspirin, and Warfarin)

Patients should be cautioned about the concomitant use of paroxetine and NSAIDs, aspirin, warfarin, or other drugs that affect coagulation since combined use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and these agents has been associated with an increased risk of bleeding.

Interference With Cognitive And Motor Performance

Any psychoactive drug may impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills. Although in controlled studies Paroxétine Ranbaxy has not been shown to impair psychomotor performance, patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that therapy with Paroxétine Ranbaxy does not affect their ability to engage in such activities.

Completing Course Of Therapy

While patients may notice improvement with treatment with Paroxétine Ranbaxy in 1 to 4 weeks, they should be advised to continue therapy as directed.

Concomitant Medication

Patients should be advised to inform their physician if they are taking, or plan to take, any prescription or over-the-counter drugs, since there is a potential for interactions.

Alcohol

Although Paroxétine Ranbaxy has not been shown to increase the impairment of mental and motor skills caused by alcohol, patients should be advised to avoid alcohol while taking Paroxétine Ranbaxy.

Pregnancy

Patients should be advised to notify their physician if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during therapy (see WARNINGS: Usage in Pregnancy: Teratogenic Effects and Nonteratogenic Effects).

Nursing

Patients should be advised to notify their physician if they are breastfeeding an infant (see PRECAUTIONS: Nursing Mothers).

Laboratory Tests

There are no specific laboratory tests recommended.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Carcinogenesis

Two-year carcinogenicity studies were conducted in rodents given paroxetine in the diet at 1, 5, and 25 mg/kg/day (mice) and 1, 5, and 20 mg/kg/day (rats). These doses are up to 2.4 (mouse) and 3.9 (rat) times the MRHD for major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, GAD, and PTSD on a mg/m² basis. Because the MRHD for major depressive disorder is slightly less than that for OCD (50 mg versus 60 mg), the doses used in these carcinogenicity studies were only 2.0 (mouse) and 3.2 (rat) times the MRHD for OCD. There was a significantly greater number of male rats in the high-dose group with reticulum cell sarcomas (1/100, 0/50, 0/50, and 4/50 for control, low-, middle-, and high-dose groups, respectively) and a significantly increased linear trend across dose groups for the occurrence of lymphoreticular tumors in male rats. Female rats were not affected. Although there was a dose-related increase in the number of tumors in mice, there was no drug-related increase in the number of mice with tumors. The relevance of these findings to humans is unknown.

Mutagenesis

Paroxetine produced no genotoxic effects in a battery of 5 in vitro and 2 in vivo assays that included the following: Bacterial mutation assay, mouse lymphoma mutation assay, unscheduled DNA synthesis assay, and tests for cytogenetic aberrations in vivo in mouse bone marrow and in vitro in human lymphocytes and in a dominant lethal test in rats.

Impairment Of Fertility

Some clinical studies have shown that SSRIs (including paroxetine) may affect sperm quality during SSRI treatment, which may affect fertility in some men.

A reduced pregnancy rate was found in reproduction studies in rats at a dose of paroxetine of 15 mg/kg/day, which is 2.9 times the MRHD for major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, GAD, and PTSD or 2.4 times the MRHD for OCD on a mg/m² basis. Irreversible lesions occurred in the reproductive tract of male rats after dosing in toxicity studies for 2 to 52 weeks. These lesions consisted of vacuolation of epididymal tubular epithelium at 50 mg/kg/day and atrophic changes in the seminiferous tubules of the testes with arrested spermatogenesis at 25 mg/kg/day (9.8 and 4.9 times the MRHD for major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and GAD; 8.2 and 4.1 times the MRHD for OCD and PD on a mg/m² basis).

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category D. See WARNINGS: Usage in P

Undesirable effects

The information provided in Undesirable effects of Paroxétine Ranbaxy is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Paroxétine Ranbaxy of the medicine (Paroxetine). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Undesirable effects in the instructions to the drug Paroxétine Ranbaxy directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Associated With Discontinuation Of Treatment

Twenty percent (1,199/6,145) of patients treated with Paroxétine Ranbaxy in worldwide clinical trials in major depressive disorder and 16.1% (84/522), 11.8% (64/542), 9.4% (44/469), 10.7% (79/735), and 11.7% (79/676) of patients treated with Paroxétine Ranbaxy in worldwide trials in social anxiety disorder, OCD, panic disorder, GAD, and PTSD, respectively, discontinued treatment due to an adverse event. The most common events ( ≥ 1%) associated with discontinuation and considered to be drug related (i.e., those events associated with dropout at a rate approximately twice or greater for Paroxétine Ranbaxy compared to placebo) included the following:

  Major Depressive Disorder OCD Panic Disorder Social Anxiety Disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder PTSD
Paroxétine Ranbaxy Placebo Paroxétine Ranbaxy Placebo Paroxétine Ranbaxy Placebo Paroxétine Ranbaxy Placebo Paroxétine Ranbaxy Placebo Paroxétine Ranbaxy Placebo
CNS
Somnolence 2.3% 0.7%   1.9% 0.3% 3.4% 0.3% 2.0% 0.2% 2.8% 0.6%
Insomnia 1.7% 0% 1.3% 0.3% 3.1% 0%    
Agitation 1.1% 0.5%              
Tremor 1.1% 0.3%       1.7% 0%     1.0% 0.2%
Anxiety       1.1% 0%    
Dizziness 1.5% 0%     1.9% 0% 1.0% 0.2%
Gastrointestinal
Constipation   1.1% 0%            
Nausea 3.2% 1.1% 1.9% 0% 3.2% 1.2% 4.0% 0.3% 2.0% 0.2% 2.2% 0.6%
Diarrhea 1.0% 0.3%                  
Dry mouth 1.0% 0.3%              
Vomiting 1.0% 0.3%       1.0% 0%    
Flatulence             1.0% 0.3%    
Other
Asthenia 1.6% 0.4% 1.9% 0.4%     2.5% 0.6% 1.8% 0.2% 1.6% 0.2%
Abnormal Ejaculationa 1.6% 0% 2.1% 0%     4.9% 0.6% 2.5% 0.5%
Sweating 1.0% 0.3%       1.1% 0% 1.1% 0.2%
Impotencea   1.5% 0%            
Libido
Decreased             1.0% 0%    
Where numbers are not provided the incidence of the adverse events in patients treated with Paroxétine Ranbaxy was not > 1% or was not greater than or equal to 2 times the incidence of placebo.
a Incidence corrected for gender.

Commonly Observed Adverse Events

Major Depressive Disorder: The most commonly observed adverse events associated with the use of paroxetine (incidence of 5% or greater and incidence for Paroxétine Ranbaxy at least twice that for placebo, derived from Table 2) were: Asthenia, sweating, nausea, decreased appetite, somnolence, dizziness, insomnia, tremor, nervousness, ejaculatory disturbance, and other male genital disorders.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: The most commonly observed adverse events associated with the use of paroxetine (incidence of 5% or greater and incidence for Paroxétine Ranbaxy at least twice that of placebo, derived from Table 3) were: Nausea, dry mouth, decreased appetite, constipation, dizziness, somnolence, tremor, sweating, impotence, and abnormal ejaculation.

Panic Disorder: The most commonly observed adverse events associated with the use of paroxetine (incidence of 5% or greater and incidence for Paroxétine Ranbaxy at least twice that for placebo, derived from Table 3) were: Asthenia, sweating, decreased appetite, libido decreased, tremor, abnormal ejaculation, female genital disorders, and impotence.

Social Anxiety Disorder: The most commonly observed adverse events associated with the use of paroxetine (incidence of 5% or greater and incidence for Paroxétine Ranbaxy at least twice that for placebo, derived from Table 3) were: Sweating, nausea, dry mouth, constipation, decreased appetite, somnolence, tremor, libido decreased, yawn, abnormal ejaculation, female genital disorders, and impotence.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder: The most commonly observed adverse events associated with the use of paroxetine (incidence of 5% or greater and incidence for Paroxétine Ranbaxy at least twice that for placebo, derived from Table 4) were: Asthenia, infection, constipation, decreased appetite, dry mouth, nausea, libido decreased, somnolence, tremor, sweating, and abnormal ejaculation.

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: The most commonly observed adverse events associated with the use of paroxetine (incidence of 5% or greater and incidence for Paroxétine Ranbaxy at least twice that for placebo, derived from Table 4) were: Asthenia, sweating, nausea, dry mouth, diarrhea, decreased appetite, somnolence, libido decreased, abnormal ejaculation, female genital disorders, and impotence. Incidence in Controlled Clinical Trials: The prescriber should be aware that the figures in the tables following cannot be used to predict the incidence of side effects in the course of usual medical practice where patient characteristics and other factors differ from those that prevailed in the clinical trials. Similarly, the cited frequencies cannot be compared with figures obtained from other clinical investigations involving different treatments, uses, and investigators. The cited figures, however, do provide the prescribing physician with some basis for estimating the relative contribution of drug and nondrug factors to the side effect incidence rate in the populations studied.

Major Depressive Disorder: Table 2 enumerates adverse events that occurred at an incidence of 1% or more among paroxetine-treated patients who participated in short-term (6-week) placebo-controlled trials in which patients were dosed in a range of 20 mg to 50 mg/day. Reported adverse events were classified using a standard COSTART-based Dictionary terminology.

Table 2: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Experience Incidence in Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials for Major Depressive Disordera

Body System Preferred Term Paroxétine Ranbaxy
(n = 421)
Placebo
(n = 421)
Body as a Whole Headache 18% 17%
Asthenia 15% 6%
Cardiovascular Palpitation 3% 1%
Vasodilation 3% 1%
Dermatologic Sweating 11% 2%
Rash 2% 1%
Gastrointestinal Nausea 26% 9%
Dry Mouth 18% 12%
Constipation 14% 9%
Diarrhea 12% 8%
Decreased Appetite 6% 2%
Flatulence 4% 2%
Oropharynx Disorderb 2% 0%
Dyspepsia 2% 1%
Musculoskeletal Myopathy 2% 1%
Myalgia 2% 1%
Myasthenia 1% 0%
Nervous System Somnolence 23% 9%
Dizziness 13% 6%
Insomnia 13% 6%
Tremor 8% 2%
Nervousness 5% 3%
Anxiety 5% 3%
Paresthesia 4% 2%
Libido Decreased 3% 0%
Drugged Feeling 2% 1%
Confusion 1% 0%
Respiration Yawn 4% 0%
Special Senses Blurred Vision 4% 1%
Taste Perversion 2% 0%
Urogenital System Ejaculatory Disturbancec,d 13% 0%
Other Male Genital Disordersc,e 10% 0%
Urinary Frequency 3% 1%
Urination Disorderf 3% 0%
Female Genital Disordersc,g 2% 0%
a Events reported by at least 1% of patients treated with Paroxétine Ranbaxy are included, except the following events which had an incidence on placebo ≥ Paroxétine Ranbaxy: Abdominal pain, agitation, back pain, chest pain, CNS stimulation, fever, increased appetite, myoclonus, pharyngitis, postural hypotension, respiratory disorder (includes mostly “cold symptoms” or “URI”), trauma, and vomiting.
b Includes mostly “lump in throat” and “tightness in throat.”
c Percentage corrected for gender.
d Mostly “ejaculatory delay.”
e Includes “anorgasmia,” “erectile difficulties,” “delayed ejaculation/orgasm,” and “sexual dysfunction,” and “impotence.”
f Includes mostly “difficulty with micturition” and “urinary hesitancy.”
g Includes mostly “anorgasmia” and “difficulty reaching climax/orgasm.”

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Panic Disorder, And Social Anxiety Disorder

Table 3 enumerates adverse events that occurred at a frequency of 2% or more among OCD patients on Paroxétine Ranbaxy who participated in placebo-controlled trials of 12-weeks duration in which patients were dosed in a range of 20 mg to 60 mg/day or among patients with panic disorder on Paroxétine Ranbaxy who participated in placebo-controlled trials of 10-to 12-weeks duration in which patients were dosed in a range of 10 mg to 60 mg/day or among patients with social anxiety disorder on Paroxétine Ranbaxy who participated in placebo-controlled trials of 12-weeks duration in which patients were dosed in a range of 20 mg to 50 mg/day.

Table 3: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Experience Incidence in Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Panic Disorder, and Social Anxiety Disordera

Body System Preferred Term Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Panic Disorder Social Anxiety Disorder
Paroxétine Ranbaxy
(n = 542)
Placebo
(n = 265)
Paroxétine Ranbaxy
(n = 469)
Placebo
(n = 324)
Paroxétine Ranbaxy
(n = 425)
Placebo
(n = 339)
Body as a Whole Asthenia 22% 14% 14% 5% 22% 14%
Abdominal Pain 4% 3%
Chest Pain 3% 2%
Back Pain 3% 2%
Chills 2% 1% 2% 1%
Trauma 3% 1%
Cardiovascular Vasodilation 4% 1%
Palpitation 2% 0%
Dermatologic Sweating 9% 3% 14% 6% 9% 2%
Rash 3% 2%
Gastrointestinal Nausea 23% 10% 23% 17% 25% 7%
Dry Mouth 18% 9% 18% 11% 9% 3%
Constipation 16% 6% 8% 5% 5% 2%
Diarrhea 10% 10% 12% 7% 9% 6%
Decreased Appetite 9% 3% 7% 3% 8% 2%
Dyspepsia 4% 2%
Flatulence 4% 2%
Increased Appetite 4% 3% 2% 1%
Vomiting 2% 1%
Musculoskeletal Myalgia _ 4% 3%
Nervous System Insomnia 24% 13% 18% 10% 21% 16%
Somnolence 24% 7% 19% 11% 22% 5%
Dizziness 12% 6% 14% 10% 11% 7%
Tremor 11% 1% 9% 1% 9% 1%
Nervousness 9% 8% 8% 7%
Libido Decreased 7% 4% 9% 1% 12% 1%
Agitation 5% 4% 3% 1%
Anxiety 5% 4% 5% 4%
Abnormal Dreams 4% 1%
Concentration Impaired 3% 2% 4% 1%
Depersonalization 3% 0%
Myoclonus 3% 0% 3% 2% 2% 1%
Amnesia 2% 1%
Respiratory System Rhinitis 3% 0%
Pharyngitis 4% 2%
Yawn 5% 1%
Special Senses Abnormal Vision 4% 2% 4% 1%
  Taste Perversion 2% 0%
Urogenital System Abnormal
Ejaculationb 23% 1% 21% 1% 28% 1%
Dysmenorrhea 5% 4%
Female Genital Disorderb 3% 0% 9% 1% 9% 1%
Impotenceb 8% 1% 5% 0% 5% 1%
Urinary Frequency 3% 1% 2% 0%
Urination Impaired 3% 0%
Urinary Tract Infection 2% 1% 2% 1%
a Events reported by at least 2% of OCD, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder in patients treated with Paroxétine Ranbaxy are included, except the following events which had an incidence on placebo ≥ Paroxétine Ranbaxy: [OCD]: Abdominal pain, agitation, anxiety, back pain, cough increased, depression, headache, hyperkinesia, infection, paresthesia, pharyngitis, respiratory disorder, rhinitis, and sinusitis. [panic disorder]: Abnormal dreams, abnormal vision, chest pain, cough increased, depersonalization, depression, dysmenorrhea, dyspepsia, flu syndrome, headache, infection, myalgia, nervousness, palpitation, paresthesia, pharyngitis, rash, respiratory disorder, sinusitis, taste perversion, trauma, urination impaired, and vasodilation. [social anxiety disorder]: Abdominal pain, depression, headache, infection, respiratory disorder, and sinusitis.
b Percentage corrected for gender.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder And Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Table 4 enumerates adverse events that occurred at a frequency of 2% or more among GAD patients on Paroxétine Ranbaxy who participated in placebo-controlled trials of 8-weeks duration in which patients were dosed in a range of 10 mg/day to 50 mg/day or among PTSD patients on Paroxétine Ranbaxy who participated in placebo-controlled trials of 12-weeks duration in which patients were dosed in a range of 20 mg/day to 50 mg/day.

Table 4: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Experience Incidence in Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disordera

Body System Preferred Term Generalized Anxiety Disorder Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Paroxétine Ranbaxy
(n = 735)
Placebo
(n = 529)
Paroxétine Ranbaxy
(n = 676)
Placebo
(n = 504)
Body as a Whole Asthenia 14% 6% 12% 4%
Headache 17% 14%
Infection 6% 3% 5% 4%
Abdominal Pain     4% 3%
Trauma     6% 5%
Cardiovascular Vasodilation 3% 1% 2% 1%
Dermatologic Sweating 6% 2% 5% 1%
Gastrointestinal Nausea 20% 5% 19% 8%
Dry Mouth 11% 5% 10% 5%
Constipation 10% 2% 5% 3%
Diarrhea 9% 7% 11% 5%
Decreased Appetite 5% 1% 6% 3%
Vomiting 3% 2% 3% 2%
Dyspepsia 5% 3%
Nervous System Insomnia 11% 8% 12% 11%
Somnolence 15% 5% 16% 5%
Dizziness 6% 5% 6% 5%
Tremor 5% 1% 4% 1%
Nervousness 4% 3%
Libido Decreased 9% 2% 5% 2%
Abnormal Dreams     3% 2%
Respiratory System Respiratory Disorder 7% 5%
Sinusitis 4% 3%
Yawn 4% 2% < 1%
Special Senses Abnormal Vision 2% 1% 3% 1%
Urogenital System Abnormal Ejaculationb 25% 2% 13% 2%
Female Genital 4% 1% 5% 1%
Disorderb        
Impotenceb 4% 3% 9% 1%
a Events reported by at least 2% of GAD and PTSD in patients treated with Paroxétine Ranbaxy are included, except the following events which had an incidence on placebo ≥ Paroxétine Ranbaxy [GAD]: Abdominal pain, back pain, trauma, dyspepsia, myalgia, and pharyngitis. [PTSD]: Back pain, headache, anxiety, depression, nervousness, respiratory disorder, pharyngitis, and sinusitis.
b Percentage corrected for gender.

Dose Dependency Of Adverse Events

A comparison of adverse event rates in a fixed-dose study comparing 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg/day of Paroxétine Ranbaxy with placebo in the treatment of major depressive disorder revealed a clear dose dependency for some of the more common adverse events associated with use of Paroxétine Ranbaxy, as shown in Table 5:

Table 5: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Experience Incidence in a Dose-Comparison Trial in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disordera

Body System/ Preferred Term Placebo
n = 51
Paroxétine Ranbaxy
10 mg
n = 102
20 mg
n = 104
30 mg
n = 101
40 mg
n = 102
Body as a Whole
Asthenia 0.0% 2.9% 10.6% 13.9% 12.7%
Dermatology Sweating 2.0% 1.0% 6.7% 8.9% 11.8%
Gastrointestinal
Constipation 5.9% 4.9% 7.7% 9.9% 12.7%
Decreased Appetite 2.0% 2.0% 5.8% 4.0% 4.9%
Diarrhea 7.8% 9.8% 19.2% 7.9% 14.7%
Dry Mouth 2.0% 10.8% 18.3% 15.8% 20.6%
Nausea 13.7% 14.7% 26.9% 34.7% 36.3%
Nervous System
Anxiety 0.0% 2.0% 5.8% 5.9% 5.9%
Dizziness 3.9% 6.9%

Overdose

The information provided in Overdose of Paroxétine Ranbaxy is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Paroxétine Ranbaxy of the medicine (Paroxetine). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Overdose in the instructions to the drug Paroxétine Ranbaxy directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Human Experience

Since the introduction of Paroxétine Ranbaxy in the United States, 342 spontaneous cases of deliberate or accidental overdosage during paroxetine treatment have been reported worldwide (circa 1999). These include overdoses with paroxetine alone and in combination with other substances. Of these, 48 cases were fatal and of the fatalities, 17 appeared to involve paroxetine alone. Eight fatal cases that documented the amount of paroxetine ingested were generally confounded by the ingestion of other drugs or alcohol or the presence of significant comorbid conditions. Of 145 non-fatal cases with known outcome, most recovered without sequelae. The largest known ingestion involved 2,000 mg of paroxetine (33 times the maximum recommended daily dose) in a patient who recovered.

Commonly reported adverse events associated with paroxetine overdosage include somnolence, coma, nausea, tremor, tachycardia, confusion, vomiting, and dizziness. Other notable signs and symptoms observed with overdoses involving paroxetine (alone or with other substances) include mydriasis, convulsions (including status epilepticus), ventricular dysrhythmias (including torsade de pointes), hypertension, aggressive reactions, syncope, hypotension, stupor, bradycardia, dystonia, rhabdomyolysis, symptoms of hepatic dysfunction (including hepatic failure, hepatic necrosis, jaundice, hepatitis, and hepatic steatosis), serotonin syndrome, manic reactions, myoclonus, acute renal failure, and urinary retention.

Overdosage Management

No specific antidotes for paroxetine are known. Treatment should consist of those general measures employed in the management of overdosage with any drugs effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder.

Ensure an adequate airway, oxygenation, and ventilation. Monitor cardiac rhythm and vital signs. General supportive and symptomatic measures are also recommended. Induction of emesis is not recommended. Due to the large volume of distribution of this drug, forced diuresis, dialysis, hemoperfusion, or exchange transfusion are unlikely to be of benefit.

A specific caution involves patients who are taking or have recently taken paroxetine who might ingest excessive quantities of a tricyclic antidepressant. In such a case, accumulation of the parent tricyclic and/or an active metabolite may increase the possibility of clinically significant sequelae and extend the time needed for close medical observation (see PRECAUTIONS: Drugs Metabolized by Cytochrome CYP2D6).

In managing overdosage, consider the possibility of multiple drug involvement. The physician should consider contacting a poison control center for additional information on the treatment of any overdose. Telephone numbers for certified poison control centers are listed in the Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR).

Pharmacodynamic properties

The information provided in Pharmacodynamic properties of Paroxétine Ranbaxy is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Paroxétine Ranbaxy of the medicine (Paroxetine). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacodynamic properties in the instructions to the drug Paroxétine Ranbaxy directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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The efficacy of paroxetine in the treatment of major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is presumed to be linked to potentiation of serotonergic activity in the central nervous system resulting from inhibition of neuronal reuptake of serotonin (5-hydroxy-tryptamine, 5-HT). Studies at clinically relevant doses in humans have demonstrated that paroxetine blocks the uptake of serotonin into human platelets. In vitro studies in animals also suggest that paroxetine is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of neuronal serotonin reuptake and has only very weak effects on norepinephrine and dopamine neuronal reuptake. In vitro radioligand binding studies indicate that paroxetine has little affinity for muscarinic, alpha1-, alpha2-, beta-adrenergic-, dopamine (D2)-, 5-HT1-, 5-HT2-, and histamine (H1)-receptors; antagonism of muscarinic, histaminergic, and alpha1-adrenergic receptors has been associated with various anticholinergic, sedative, and cardiovascular effects for other psychotropic drugs.

Because the relative potencies of paroxetine's major metabolites are at most 1/50 of the parent compound, they are essentially inactive.

Pharmacokinetic properties

The information provided in Pharmacokinetic properties of Paroxétine Ranbaxy is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Paroxétine Ranbaxy of the medicine (Paroxetine). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacokinetic properties in the instructions to the drug Paroxétine Ranbaxy directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Paroxetine hydrochloride is completely absorbed after oral dosing of a solution of the hydrochloride salt. The mean elimination half-life is approximately 21 hours (CV 32%) after oral dosing of 30 mg tablets of Paroxétine Ranbaxy daily for 30 days. Paroxetine is extensively metabolized and the metabolites are considered to be inactive. Nonlinearity in pharmacokinetics is observed with increasing doses. Paroxetine metabolism is mediated in part by CYP2D6, and the metabolites are primarily excreted in the urine and to some extent in the feces. Pharmacokinetic behavior of paroxetine has not been evaluated in subjects who are deficient in CYP2D6 (poor metabolizers).

In a meta-analysis of paroxetine from 4 studies done in healthy volunteers following multiple dosing of 20 mg/day to 40 mg/day, males did not exhibit a significantly lower Cmax or AUC than females.

Absorption And Distribution

Paroxetine is equally bioavailable from the oral suspension and tablet.

Paroxetine hydrochloride is completely absorbed after oral dosing of a solution of the hydrochloride salt. In a study in which normal male subjects (n = 15) received 30 mg tablets daily for 30 days, steady-state paroxetine concentrations were achieved by approximately 10 days for most subjects, although it may take substantially longer in an occasional patient. At steady state, mean values of Cmax, Tmax, Cmin, and T½ were 61.7 ng/mL (CV 45%), 5.2 hr. (CV 10%), 30.7 ng/mL (CV 67%), and 21.0 hours (CV 32%), respectively. The steady-state Cmax and Cmin values were about 6 and 14 times what would be predicted from single-dose studies. Steady-state drug exposure based on AUC0-24 was about 8 times greater than would have been predicted from single-dose data in these subjects. The excess accumulation is a consequence of the fact that 1 of the enzymes that metabolizes paroxetine is readily saturable.

The effects of food on the bioavailability of paroxetine were studied in subjects administered a single dose with and without food. AUC was only slightly increased (6%) when drug was administered with food but the Cmax was 29% greater, while the time to reach peak plasma concentration decreased from 6.4 hours post-dosing to 4.9 hours.

Paroxetine distributes throughout the body, including the CNS, with only 1% remaining in the plasma.

Approximately 95% and 93% of paroxetine is bound to plasma protein at 100 ng/mL and 400 ng/mL, respectively. Under clinical conditions, paroxetine concentrations would normally be less than 400 ng/mL. Paroxetine does not alter the in vitro protein binding of phenytoin or warfarin.

Metabolism And Excretion

The mean elimination half-life is approximately 21 hours (CV 32%) after oral dosing of 30 mg tablets daily for 30 days of Paroxétine Ranbaxy. In steady-state dose proportionality studies involving elderly and nonelderly patients, at doses of 20 mg to 40 mg daily for the elderly and 20 mg to 50 mg daily for the nonelderly, some nonlinearity was observed in both populations, again reflecting a saturable metabolic pathway. In comparison to Cmin values after 20 mg daily, values after 40 mg daily were only about 2 to 3 times greater than doubled.

Paroxetine is extensively metabolized after oral administration. The principal metabolites are polar and conjugated products of oxidation and methylation, which are readily cleared. Conjugates with glucuronic acid and sulfate predominate, and major metabolites have been isolated and identified. Data indicate that the metabolites have no more than 1/50 the potency of the parent compound at inhibiting serotonin uptake. The metabolism of paroxetine is accomplished in part by CYP2D6. Saturation of this enzyme at clinical doses appears to account for the nonlinearity of paroxetine kinetics with increasing dose and increasing duration of treatment. The role of this enzyme in paroxetine metabolism also suggests potential drug-drug interactions (see PRECAUTIONS: Drugs Metabolized by CYP2D6).

Approximately 64% of a 30-mg oral solution dose of paroxetine was excreted in the urine with 2% as the parent compound and 62% as metabolites over a 10-day post-dosing period. About 36% was excreted in the feces (probably via the bile), mostly as metabolites and less than 1% as the parent compound over the 10-day post-dosing period.