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Components:
Estradiol
Method of action:
Endocrine Therapy, Estrogenic, Replenishment Of Estrogen Deficiency, Sex Hormones And Modulators Of The Genital System
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Medically reviewed by Fedorchenko Olga Valeryevna, Pharmacy-Provisor. Last updated on 2019.12.11

Name of the medicinal product

Ladiol

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Estradiol

Therapeutic indications

The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Ladiol is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Ladiol of the medicine (Estradiol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Therapeutic indications in the instructions to the drug Ladiol directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Tablets
Transdermal Gel

Treatment Of Moderate To Severe Vasomotor Symptoms Due To Menopause

Treatment Of Moderate To Severe Symptoms Of Vulvar And Vaginal Atrophy Due To Menopause

Limitation Of Use

When prescribing solely for the treatment of moderate to severe symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy due to menopause, topical vaginal products should be considered.

Treatment Of Hypoestrogenism Due To Hypogonadism, Castration, Or Primary Ovarian Failure

Prevention Of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

Limitation Of Use

When prescribing solely for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis, therapy should only be considered for women at significant risk of osteoporosis and non-estrogen medication should be carefully considered.

Treatment Of Moderate To Severe Vasomotor Symptoms Due To Menopause

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administration of Ladiol is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Ladiol of the medicine (Estradiol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Ladiol directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Transdermal Gel

Generally, when estrogen is prescribed for a postmenopausal woman with a uterus, a progestin should also be considered to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. A woman without a uterus does not need a progestin. In some cases, however, hysterectomized women with a history of endometriosis may need a progestin.

Use of estrogen-alone, or in combination with a progestin, should be with the lowest effective dose and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman. Postmenopausal women should be reevaluated periodically as clinically appropriate to determine if treatment is still necessary.

Treatment Of Moderate To Severe Vasomotor Symptoms Due To Menopause

Start therapy with 0.025 mg per day applied to the skin once weekly. Therapy should be started at the lowest effective dose and the shortest duration consistent with the treatment goals. Attempts to taper or discontinue the medication should be made at 3 to 6 month intervals.

Treatment Of Moderate To Severe Symptoms Of Vulvar And Vaginal Atrophy Due To Menopause

Start therapy with 0.025 mg per day applied to the skin once weekly. Therapy should be started at the lowest effective dose and the shortest duration consistent with the treatment goals. Attempts to taper or discontinue the medication should be made at 3 to 6 month intervals.

Treatment Of Hypoestrogenism Due To Hypogonadism, Castration, Or Primary Ovarian Failure

Start therapy with 0.025 mg per day applied to the skin once weekly. The dose should be adjusted as necessary to control symptoms. Clinical responses (relief of symptoms) at the lowest effective dose should be the guide for establishing administration of the Ladiol transdermal system, especially in women with an intact uterus.

Prevention Of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

Start therapy with 0.025 mg per day applied to the skin once weekly.

Application Of The Ladiol Transdermal System

Site Selection
  • The adhesive side of Ladiol should be placed on a clean, dry area of the lower abdomen or the upper quadrant of the buttock.
  • Ladiol should not be applied to or near the breasts.
  • The sites of application must be rotated, with an interval of at least 1-week allowed between applications to the same site.
  • The area selected should not be oily, damaged, or irritated. The waistline should be avoided, since tight clothing may rub the transdermal system off.
  • Application to areas where sitting would dislodge Ladiol should also be avoided.
Application
  • Ladiol should be applied immediately after opening the pouch and removing the protective liner.
  • Ladiol should be pressed firmly in place with the fingers for at least 10 seconds, making sure there is good contact, especially around the edges.
  • If the system lifts, apply pressure to maintain adhesion.
  • In the event that a system should fall off reapply it to a different location. If the system cannot be reapplied, a new system should be applied for the remainder of the 7-day dosing interval.
  • Only one system should be worn at any one time during the 7-day dosing interval.
  • Swimming, bathing, or using a sauna while using Ladiol has not been studied, and these activities may decrease the adhesion of the system and the delivery of estradiol.

Removal Of The Ladiol Transdermal System

  • Removal of Ladiol should be done carefully and slowly to avoid irritation of the skin.
  • Should any adhesive remain on the skin after removal of the Ladiol system, allow the area to dry for 15 minutes. Then gently rubbing the area with an oil-based cream or lotion should remove the adhesive residue.
  • Used patches still contain some active hormones. Each patch should be carefully folded in half so that it sticks to itself before throwing it away.

Generally, when estrogen is prescribed for a postmenopausal woman with a uterus, a progestin should also be considered to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer.

A woman without a uterus does not need a progestin. In some cases, however, hysterectomized women with a history of endometriosis may need a progestin.

Use of estrogen-alone, or in combination with a progestin, should be with the lowest effective dose and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman. Postmenopausal women should be re-evaluated periodically as clinically appropriate to determine if treatment is still necessary.

Treatment Of Moderate To Severe Vasomotor Symptoms Due To Menopause

Ladiol should be applied once daily on the skin of either the right or left upper thigh. The application surface area should be about 5 by 7 inches (approximately the size of two palm prints). The entire contents of a unit dose packet should be applied each day. To avoid potential skin irritation, Ladiol should be applied to the right or left upper thigh on alternating days. Ladiol should not be applied on the face, breasts, or irritated skin or in or around the vagina. After application, the gel should be allowed to dry before dressing. The application site should not be washed within 1 hour after applying Ladiol. Contact of the gel with eyes should be avoided. Hands should be washed after application.

Generally, women should be started at the 0.25 gram dosage strength.

Contraindications

The information provided in Contraindications of Ladiol is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Ladiol of the medicine (Estradiol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Ladiol directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Transdermal Gel

Ladiol is contraindicated in women with any of the following conditions:

  • Undiagnosed abnormal genital bleeding
  • Known, suspected, or history of breast cancer
  • Known or suspected estrogen-dependent neoplasia
  • Active DVT, PE, or a history of these conditions
  • Active arterial thromboembolic disease (for example, stroke and MI), or a history of these conditions
  • Known anaphylactic reaction or angioedema with Ladiol
  • Known liver impairment or disease
  • Known protein C, protein S, or antithrombin deficiency, or other known thrombophilic disorders
  • Known or suspected pregnancy

Ladiol should not be used in women with any of the following conditions:

  • Undiagnosed abnormal genital bleeding
  • Known, suspected, or history of breast cancer
  • Known or suspected estrogen-dependent neoplasia
  • Active DVT, PE, or history of these conditions
  • Active arterial thromboembolic disease (for example, stroke and MI), or a history of these conditions
  • Known anaphylactic reaction or angioedema to Ladiol
  • Known liver impairment or disease
  • Known protein C, protein S, or antithrombin deficiency, or other known thrombophilic disorders
  • Known or suspected pregnancy

Special warnings and precautions for use

The information provided in Special warnings and precautions for use of Ladiol is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Ladiol of the medicine (Estradiol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special warnings and precautions for use in the instructions to the drug Ladiol directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Tablets
Transdermal Gel

WARNINGS

Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.

PRECAUTIONS

Cardiovascular Disorders

An increased risk of stroke and DVT has been reported with estrogen-alone therapy. An increased risk of PE, DVT, stroke and MI has been reported with estrogen plus progestin therapy. Should any of these occur or be suspected, estrogen with or without progestin therapy should be discontinued immediately.

Risk factors for arterial vascular disease (for example, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, tobacco use, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity) and/or venous thromboembolism (VTE) (for example, personal history or family history of VTE, obesity, and systemic lupus erythematosus) should be managed appropriately.

Stroke

In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, a statistically significant increased risk of stroke was reported in women 50 to 79 years of age receiving daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone compared to women in the same age group receiving placebo (45 versus 33 per 10,000 women-years). The increase in risk was demonstrated in year 1 and persisted. Should a stroke occur or be suspected, estrogen-alone therapy should be discontinued immediately.

Subgroup analyses of women 50 to 59 years of age suggest no increased risk of stroke for those women receiving CE (0.625 mg)-alone versus those receiving placebo (18 versus 21 per 10,000 women-years).1

In the WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy, a statistically significant increased risk of stroke was reported in women 50 to 79 years of age receiving daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) compared to women in the same age group receiving placebo (33 versus 25 per 10,000 women years). The increase in risk was demonstrated after the first year and persisted.1 Should a stroke occur or be suspected, estrogen plus progestin therapy should be discontinued immediately.

Coronary Heart Disease

In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, no overall effect on coronary heart disease (CHD) events (defined as nonfatal MI, silent MI, or CHD death) was reported in women receiving estrogen-alone compared to placebo2.

Subgroup analyses of women 50 to 59 years of age suggest a statistically non-significant reduction in CHD events (CE [0.625 mg]-alone compared to placebo) in women with less than 10 years since menopause (8 versus 16 per 10,000 women-years).1

In the WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy, there was a statistically non-significant increased risk of CHD events reported in women receiving daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) compared to women receiving placebo (41 versus 34 per 10,000 women-years).1 An increase in relative risk was demonstrated in year 1, and a trend toward decreasing relative risk was reported in years 2 through 5.

In postmenopausal women with documented heart disease (n = 2,763), average 66.7 years of age, in a controlled clinical trial of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study [HERS]), treatment with daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) demonstrated no cardiovascular benefit. During an average follow-up of 4.1 years, treatment with CE plus MPA did not reduce the overall rate of CHD events in postmenopausal women with established coronary heart disease. There were more CHD events in the CE plus MPA-treated group than in the placebo group in year 1, but not during the subsequent years. A total of 2,321 women from the original HERS trial agreed to participate in an open label extension of HERS, HERS II. Average follow-up in HERS II was an additional 2.7 years, for a total of 6.8 years overall. Rates of CHD events were comparable among women in the CE plus MPA group and the placebo group in HERS, HERS II, and overall.

Venous Thromboembolism

In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, the risk of VTE (DVT and PE) was increased for women receiving daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone compared to placebo (30 versus 22 per 10,000 women-years), although only the increased risk of DVT reached statistical significance (23 versus 15 per 10,000 women-years). The increase in VTE risk was demonstrated during the first 2 years3. Should a VTE occur or be suspected, estrogen-alone therapy should be discontinued immediately.

In the WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy, a statistically significant 2-fold greater rate of VTE was reported in women receiving daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) compared to women receiving placebo (35 versus 17 per 10,000 women-years). Statistically significant increases in risk for both DVT (26 versus 13 per 10,000 women-years) and PE (18 versus 8 per 10,000 women-years) were also demonstrated. The increase in VTE risk was demonstrated during the first year and persisted4. Should a VTE occur or be suspected, estrogen plus progestin therapy should be discontinued immediately.

If feasible, estrogens should be discontinued at least 4 to 6 weeks before surgery of the type associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism, or during periods of prolonged immobilization.

Malignant Neoplasms

Endometrial Cancer

An increased risk of endometrial cancer has been reported with the use of unopposed estrogen therapy in a woman with a uterus. The reported endometrial cancer risk among unopposed estrogen users is about 2 to 12 times greater than in nonusers, and appears dependent on duration of treatment and on estrogen dose. Most studies show no significant increased risk associated with use of estrogens for less than 1 year. The greatest risk appears associated with prolonged use, with increased risks of 15-to 24-fold for 5 to 10 years or more. This risk has been shown to persist for at least 8 to 15 years after estrogen therapy is discontinued.

Clinical surveillance of all women using estrogen-alone or estrogen plus progestin therapy is important. Adequate diagnostic measures, including directed or random endometrial sampling when indicated, should be undertaken to rule out malignancy in postmenopausal women with undiagnosed persistent or recurring abnormal genital bleeding.

There is no evidence that the use of natural estrogens results in a different endometrial risk profile than synthetic estrogens of equivalent estrogen dose. Adding a progestin to estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women has been shown to reduce the risk of endometrial hyperplasia, which may be a precursor to endometrial cancer.

Breast Cancer

The most important randomized clinical trial providing information about breast cancer in estrogen-alone users is the WHI substudy of daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone. In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, after an average follow-up of 7.1 years, daily CE-alone was not associated with an increased risk of invasive breast cancer [relative risk (RR) 0.80]5.

The most important randomized clinical trial providing information about breast cancer in estrogen plus progestin users is the WHI substudy of daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg). After a mean follow-up of 5.6 years, the estrogen plus progestin substudy reported an increased risk of invasive breast cancer in women who took daily CE plus MPA.

In this substudy, prior use of estrogen-alone or estrogen plus progestin therapy was reported by 26 percent of the women. The relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.24, and the absolute risk was 41 versus 33 cases per 10,000 women-years, for CE plus MPA compared with placebo. Among women who reported prior use of hormone therapy, the relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.86, and the absolute risk was 46 versus 25 cases per 10,000 women-years for CE plus MPA compared with placebo. Among women who reported no prior use of hormone therapy, the relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.09, and the absolute risk was 40 versus 36 cases per 10,000 women-years for CE plus MPA compared with placebo. In the same substudy, invasive breast cancers were larger, were more likely to be node positive, and were diagnosed at a more advanced stage in the CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) group compared with the placebo group. Metastatic disease was rare, with no apparent difference between the two groups. Other prognostic factors, such as histologic subtype, grade and hormone receptor status did not differ between the groups6.

Consistent with the WHI clinical trial, observational studies have also reported an increased risk of breast cancer for estrogen plus progestin therapy, and a smaller increased risk for estrogen-alone therapy, after several years of use. The risk increased with duration of use, and appeared to return to baseline over about 5 years after stopping treatment (only the observational studies have substantial data on risk after stopping). Observational studies also suggest that the risk of breast cancer was greater, and became apparent earlier, with estrogen plus progestin therapy as compared to estrogen-alone therapy. However, these studies have not generally found significant variation in the risk of breast cancer among different estrogen plus progestin combinations, doses, or routes of administration.

The use of estrogen-alone and estrogen plus progestin has been reported to result in an increase in abnormal mammograms requiring further evaluation.

All women should receive yearly breast examinations by a healthcare provider and perform monthly breast self-examinations. In addition, mammography examinations should be scheduled based on patient age, risk factors, and prior mammogram results.

Ovarian Cancer

The WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy reported a statistically non-significant increased risk of ovarian cancer. After an average follow-up of 5.6 years, the relative risk for ovarian cancer for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 1.58 (95 percent CI, 0.77-3.24). The absolute risk for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 4 versus 3 cases per 10,000 women-years.7 A meta-analysis of 17 prospective and 35 retrospective epidemiology studies found that women who used hormonal therapy for menopausal symptoms had an increased risk for ovarian cancer. The primary analysis, using case-control comparisons, included 12,110 cancer cases from the 17 prospective studies. The relative risks associated with current use of hormonal therapy was 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32 to 1.50); there was no difference in the risk estimates by duration of the exposure (less than 5 years [median of 3 years]vs. greater than 5 years [median of 10 years] of use before the cancer diagnosis). The relative risk associated with combined current and recent use (discontinued use within 5 years before cancer diagnosis) was 1.37 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.48), and the elevated risk was significant for both estrogen-alone and estrogen plus progestin products. The exact duration of hormone therapy use associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer, however, is unknown.

Probable Dementia

In the WHIMS estrogen-alone ancillary study of WHI, a population of 2,947 hysterectomized women 65 to 79 years of age was randomized to daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone or placebo.

After an average follow-up of 5.2 years, 28 women in the estrogen-alone group and 19 women in the placebo group were diagnosed with probable dementia. The relative risk of probable dementia for CE-alone versus placebo was 1.49 (95 percent CI, 0.83-2.66). The absolute risk of probable dementia for CE-alone versus placebo was 37 versus 25 cases per 10,000 women-years8.

In the WHIMS estrogen plus progestin ancillary study, a population of 4,532 postmenopausal women 65 to 79 years of age was randomized to daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) or placebo. After an average follow-up of 4 years, 40 women in the CE plus MPA group and 21 women in the placebo group were diagnosed with probable dementia. The relative risk of probable dementia for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 2.05 (95 percent CI, 1.21-3.48). The absolute risk of probable dementia for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 45 versus 22 cases per 10,000 women-years8.

When data from the two populations in the WHIMS estrogen-alone and estrogen plus progestin ancillary studies were pooled as planned in the WHIMS protocol, the reported overall relative risk for probable dementia was 1.76 (95 percent CI, 1.19-2.60). Since both ancillary studies were conducted in women 65 to 79 years of age, it is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women8.

Gallbladder Disease

A 2-to 4-fold increase in the risk of gallbladder disease requiring surgery in postmenopausal women receiving estrogens has been reported.

Hypercalcemia

Estrogen administration may lead to severe hypercalcemia in women with breast cancer and bone metastases. If hypercalcemia occurs, use of the drug should be stopped and appropriate measures taken to reduce the serum calcium level.

Visual Abnormalities

Retinal vascular thrombosis has been reported in women receiving estrogens. Discontinue medication pending examination if there is sudden partial or complete loss of vision, or a sudden onset of proptosis, diplopia, or migraine. If examination reveals papilledema or retinal vascular lesions, estrogens should be permanently discontinued.

Addition Of A Progestin When A Woman Has Not Had A Hysterectomy

Studies of the addition of a progestin for 10 or more days of a cycle of estrogen administration, or daily with estrogen in a continuous regimen, have reported a lowered incidence of endometrial hyperplasia than would be induced by estrogen treatment alone. Endometrial hyperplasia may be a precursor to endometrial cancer.

There are, however, possible risks that may be associated with the use of progestins with estrogens compared to estrogen-alone regimens. These include an increased risk of breast cancer.

Elevated Blood Pressure

In a small number of case reports, substantial increases in blood pressure have been attributed to idiosyncratic reactions to estrogens. In a large, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, a generalized effect of estrogens on blood pressure was not seen.

Hypertriglyceridemia

In women with pre-existing hypertriglyceridemia, estrogen therapy may be associated with elevations of plasma triglycerides leading to pancreatitis. Consider discontinuation of treatment if pancreatitis occurs.

Hepatic Impairment And/Or Past History Of Cholestatic Jaundice

Estrogens may be poorly metabolized in women with impaired liver function. For women with a history of cholestatic jaundice associated with past estrogen use or with pregnancy, caution should be exercised, and in the case of recurrence, medication should be discontinued.

Hypothyroidism

Estrogen administration leads to increased thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) levels. Women with normal thyroid function can compensate for the increased TBG by making more thyroid hormone, thus maintaining free T4 and T3 serum concentrations in the normal range. Women dependent on thyroid hormone replacement therapy who are also receiving estrogens may require increased doses of their thyroid replacement therapy. These women should have their thyroid function monitored in order to maintain their free thyroid hormone levels in an acceptable range.

Fluid Retention

Estrogens may cause some degree of fluid retention. Women with conditions that might be influenced by this factor, such as a cardiac or renal impairment, warrant careful observation when estrogen-alone is prescribed.

Hypocalcemia

Estrogen therapy should be used with caution in women with hypoparathyroidism as estrogen-induced hypocalcemia may occur.

Exacerbation Of Endometriosis

A few cases of malignant transformation of residual endometrial implants have been reported in women treated post-hysterectomy with estrogen-alone therapy. For women known to have residual endometriosis post-hysterectomy, the addition of progestin should be considered.

Hereditary Angioedema

Exogenous estrogens may exacerbate symptoms of angioedema in women with hereditary angioedema.

Exacerbation Of Other Conditions

Estrogen therapy may cause an exacerbation of asthma, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, migraine, porphyria, systemic lupus erythematosus, and hepatic hemangiomas and should be used with caution in women with these conditions.

Laboratory Tests

Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol levels have not been shown to be useful in the management of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms and moderate to severe symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy.

Drug-Laboratory Test Interactions

Accelerated prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and platelet aggregation time; increased platelet count; increased factors II, VII antigen, VIII antigen, VIII coagulant activity, IX, X, XII, VII-X complex, II-VII-X complex, and beta-thromboglobulin; decreased levels of antifactor Xa and antithrombin III, decreased antithrombin III activity; increased levels of fibrinogen and fibrinogen activity; increased plasminogen antigen and activity.

Increased TBG levels leading to increased circulating total thyroid hormone, as measured by protein-bound iodine (PBI), T4 levels (by column or by radioimmunoassay) or T3 levels by radioimmunoassay. T3 resin uptake is decreased, reflecting the elevated TBG. Free T4 and free T3 concentrations are unaltered. Women on thyroid replacement therapy may require higher doses of thyroid hormone.

Other binding proteins may be elevated in serum, for example, corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), leading to increased total circulating corticosteroids and sex steroids, respectively. Free hormone concentrations, such as testosterone and estradiol, may be decreased. Other plasma proteins may be increased (angiotensinogen/renin substrate, alpha-l-antitrypsin, ceruloplasmin).

Increased plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and HDL2 cholesterol subfraction concentrations, reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration, and increased triglyceride levels.

Impaired glucose tolerance.

Patient Counseling Information

See FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION and Instructions for Use)

Vaginal Bleeding

Inform postmenopausal women of the importance of reporting vaginal bleeding to their healthcare provider as soon as possible.

Possible Serious Adverse Reactions With Estrogen-Alone Therapy

Inform postmenopausal women of possible serious adverse reactions of estrogen-alone therapy including cardiovascular disorders, malignant neoplasms, and probable dementia.

Possible Less Serious But Common Adverse Reactions With Estrogen-Alone Therapy

Inform postmenopausal women of possible less serious but common adverse reactions of estrogen-alone therapy such as headache, breast pain and tenderness, nausea and vomiting.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Long-term continuous administration of natural and synthetic estrogens in certain animal species increases the frequency of carcinomas of the breast, uterus, cervix, vagina, testis, and liver.

Use In Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Ladiol should not be used during pregnancy. There appears to be little or no increased risk of birth defects in children born to women who have used estrogens and progestins as oral contraceptives inadvertently during early pregnancy.

Nursing Mothers

Ladiol should not be used during lactation. Estrogen administration to nursing women has been shown to decrease the quantity and quality of the breast milk. Detectable amounts of estrogens have been identified in the breast milk of women receiving estrogen therapy. Caution should be exercised when the Ladiol transdermal system is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Ladiol is not indicated in children. Clinical studies have not been conducted in the pediatric population.

Geriatric Use

There have not been sufficient numbers of geriatric women involved in clinical studies utilizing Ladiol to determine whether those over 65 years of age differ from younger subjects in their response to Ladiol.

The Women’s Health Initiative Studies

In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy (daily CE [0.625 mg]-alone versus placebo), there was a higher relative risk of stroke in women greater than 65 years of age.

In the WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy (daily CE [0.625 mg] plus MPA [2.5 mg] versus placebo), there was a higher relative risk of nonfatal stroke and invasive breast cancer in women greater than 65 years of age.

The Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study

In the WHIMS ancillary studies of postmenopausal women 65 to 79 years of age, there was an increased risk of developing probable dementia in women receiving estrogen-alone or estrogen plus progestin when compared to placebo.

Since both ancillary studies were conducted in women 65 to 79 years of age, it is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women8.

Renal Impairment

In postmenopausal women with end stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving maintenance hemodialysis, total estradiol serum levels are higher than in normal subjects at baseline and following oral doses of estradiol. Therefore, conventional transdermal estradiol doses used in individuals with normal renal function may be excessive for postmenopausal women with ESRD receiving maintenance hemodialysis.

Hepatic Impairment

Estrogens may be poorly metabolized in patients with impaired liver function and should be administered with caution.

REFERENCES

1. Rossouw JE, et al. Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease by Age and Years Since Menopause. JAMA. 2007;297:1465-1477.

2. Hsia J, et al. Conjugated Equine Estrogens and Coronary Heart Disease. Arch Int Med. 2006;166:357-365.

3. Curb JD, et al. Venous Thrombosis and Conjugated Equine Estrogen in Women Without a Uterus. Arch Int Med. 2006;166:772-780.

4. Cushman M, et al. Estrogen Plus Progestin and Risk of Venous Thrombosis. JAMA. 2004;292:1573-1580.

5. Stefanick ML, et al. Effects of Conjugated Equine Estrogens on Breast Cancer and Mammography Screening in Postmenopausal Women With Hysterectomy. JAMA. 2006;295:1647-1657.

6. Chlebowski RT, et al. Influence of Estrogen Plus Progestin on Breast Cancer and Mammography in Healthy Postmenopausal Women. JAMA. 2003;289:3234-3253.

7. Anderson GL, et al. Effects of Estrogen Plus Progestin on Gynecologic Cancers and Associated Diagnostic Procedures. JAMA. 2003;290:1739-1748.

8. Shumaker SA, et al. Conjugated Equine Estrogens and Incidence of Probable Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Postmenopausal Women. JAMA. 2004;291:2947-2958.

WARNINGS

Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.

PRECAUTIONS

Cardiovascular Disorders

An increased risk of stroke and DVT has been reported with estrogen-alone therapy. An increased risk of PE, DVT, stroke and MI has been reported with estrogen plus progestin therapy.

Should any of these occur or be suspected, estrogen with or without progestin therapy should be discontinued immediately.

Risk factors for arterial vascular disease (for example, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, tobacco use, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity) and/or venous thromboembolism (VTE) (for example, personal history or family history of VTE, obesity, and systemic lupus erythematosus) should be managed appropriately.

Stroke

In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, a statistically significant increased risk of stroke was reported in women 50 to 79 years of age receiving daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone compared to women in the same age group receiving placebo (45 versus 33 per 10,000 women-years). The increase in risk was demonstrated in year 1 and persisted. Should a stroke occur or be suspected, estrogen-alone therapy should be discontinued immediately.

Subgroup analyses of women 50 to 59 years of age suggest no increased risk of stroke for those women receiving CE (0.625 mg)alone versus those receiving placebo (18 versus 21 per 10,000 women-years).1

In the WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy, a statistically significant increased risk of stroke was reported in women 50 to 79 years of age receiving daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) compared to women in the same age group receiving placebo (33 versus 25 per 10,000 women-years). The increase in risk was demonstrated after the first year and persisted.1 Should a stroke occur or be suspected, estrogen plus progestin therapy should be discontinued immediately.

Coronary Heart Disease

In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, no overall effect on coronary heart disease (CHD) events (defined as nonfatal MI, silent MI, or CHD death) was reported in women receiving estrogen-alone compared to placebo2.

Subgroup analyses of women 50 to 59 years of age suggest a statistically non-significant reduction in CHD events (CE [0.625 mg] alone compared to placebo) in women with less than 10 years since menopause (8 versus 16 per 10,000 women-years).1

In the WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy, there was a statistically non-significant increased risk of CHD events reported in women receiving daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) compared to women receiving placebo (41 versus 34 per 10,000 women-years).1 An increase in relative risk was demonstrated in year 1, and a trend toward decreasing relative risk was reported in years 2 through 5.

In postmenopausal women with documented heart disease (n=2,763, average 66.7 years of age), in a controlled clinical trial of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study [HERS]), treatment with daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) demonstrated no cardiovascular benefit. During an average follow-up of 4.1 years, treatment with CE plus MPA did not reduce the overall rate of CHD events in postmenopausal women with established coronary heart disease. There were more CHD events in the CE plus MPA-treated group than in the placebo group in year 1, but not during the subsequent years. Two thousand, three hundred and twenty-one (2,321) women from the original HERS trial agreed to participate in an open label extension of HERS, HERS II. Average follow-up in HERS II was an additional 2.7 years, for a total of 6.8 years overall. Rates of CHD events were comparable among women in the CE plus MPA group and the placebo group in HERS, HERS II, and overall.

Venous Thromboembolism

In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, the risk of VTE (DVT and PE) was increased for women receiving daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone compared to placebo (30 versus 22 per 10,000 women-years), although only the increased risk of DVT reached statistical significance (23 versus 15 per 10,000 women-years). The increase in VTE risk was demonstrated during the first 2 years3. Should a VTE occur or be suspected, estrogen-alone therapy should be discontinued immediately.

In the WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy, a statistically significant 2-fold greater rate of VTE was reported in women receiving daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) compared to women receiving placebo (35 versus 17 per 10,000 women-years). Statistically significant increases in risk for both DVT (26 versus 13 per 10,000 women-years) and PE (18 versus 8 per 10,000 women-years) were also demonstrated. The increase in VTE risk was demonstrated during the first year and persisted4. Should a VTE occur or be suspected, estrogen plus progestin therapy should be discontinued immediately.

If feasible, estrogens should be discontinued at least 4 to 6 weeks before surgery of the type associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism, or during periods of prolonged immobilization.

Malignant Neoplasms

Endometrial Cancer

An increased risk of endometrial cancer has been reported with the use of unopposed estrogen therapy in a woman with a uterus. The reported endometrial cancer risk among unopposed estrogen users is about 2 to 12 times greater than in non-users, and appears dependent on duration of treatment and on estrogen dose. Most studies show no significant increased risk associated with use of estrogens for less than 1 year. The greatest risk appears associated with prolonged use, with increased risk of 15-to 24-fold for 5 to 10 years or more and this risk has been shown to persist for at least 8 to 15 years after estrogen therapy is discontinued.

Clinical surveillance of all women using estrogen-alone or estrogen plus progestin therapy is important. Adequate diagnostic measures, including directed or random endometrial sampling when indicated, should be undertaken to rule out malignancy in postmenopausal women with undiagnosed persistent or recurring abnormal genital bleeding. There is no evidence that the use of natural estrogens results in a different endometrial risk profile than synthetic estrogens of equivalent estrogen dose. Adding a progestin to postmenopausal estrogen therapy has been shown to reduce the risk of endometrial hyperplasia, which may be a precursor to endometrial cancer.

Breast Cancer

The most important randomized clinical trial providing information about breast cancer in estrogen-alone users is the WHI substudy of daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone. In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, after an average follow-up of 7.1 years, daily CE-alone was not associated with an increased risk of invasive breast cancer [relative risk (RR) 0.80]5.

The most important randomized clinical trial providing information about breast cancer in estrogen plus progestin users is the WHI substudy of daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg). After a mean follow-up of 5.6 years, the estrogen plus progestin substudy reported an increased risk of invasive breast cancer in women who took daily CE plus MPA. In this substudy, prior use of estrogen-alone or estrogen plus progestin therapy was reported by 26 percent of the women. The relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.24, and the absolute risk was 41 versus 33 cases per 10,000 women-years, for CE plus MPA compared with placebo. Among women who reported prior use of hormone therapy, the relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.86, and the absolute risk was 46 versus 25 cases per 10,000 women-years, for CE plus MPA compared with placebo. Among women who reported no prior use of hormone therapy, the relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.09, and the absolute risk was 40 versus 36 cases per 10,000 women-years for CE plus MPA compared with placebo. In the same substudy, invasive breast cancers were larger, were more likely to be node positive, and were diagnosed at a more advanced stage in the CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) group compared with the placebo group. Metastatic disease was rare, with no apparent difference between the two groups. Other prognostic factors such as histologic subtype, grade and hormone receptor status did not differ between the groups6.

Consistent with the WHI clinical trial, observational studies have also reported an increased risk of breast cancer for estrogen plus progestin therapy, and a smaller increased risk for estrogen-alone therapy, after several years of use. The risk increased with duration of use, and appeared to return to baseline over about 5 years after stopping treatment (only the observational studies have substantial data on risk after stopping). Observational studies also suggest that the risk of breast cancer was greater, and became apparent earlier, with estrogen plus progestin therapy as compared to estrogen-alone therapy. However, these studies have not generally found significant variation in the risk of breast cancer among different estrogen plus progestin combinations, doses, or routes of administration.

The use of estrogen-alone and estrogen plus progestin has been reported to result in an increase in abnormal mammograms requiring further evaluation.

All women should receive yearly breast examinations by a healthcare provider and perform monthly breast self-examinations. In addition, mammography examinations should be scheduled based on patient age, risk factors, and prior mammogram results.

Ovarian Cancer

The WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy reported a statistically non-significant increased risk of ovarian cancer. After an average follow-up of 5.6 years, the relative risk for ovarian cancer for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 1.58 [95 percent CI, 0.77–3.24]. The absolute risk for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 4 versus 3 cases per 10,000 women-years.7

A meta-analysis of 17 prospective and 35 retrospective epidemiology studies found that women who used hormonal therapy for menopausal symptoms had an increased risk for ovarian cancer. The primary analysis, using case-control comparisons, included 12,110 cancer cases from the 17 prospective studies. The relative risks associated with current use of hormonal therapy was 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32 to 1.50); there was no difference in the risk estimates by duration of the exposure (less than 5 years [median of 3 years] vs. greater than 5 years [median of 10 years] of use before the cancer diagnosis). The relative risk associated with combined current and recent use (discontinued use within 5 years before cancer diagnosis) was 1.37 (95% CI 1.271.48), and the elevated risk was significant for both estrogen-alone and estrogen plus progestin products. The exact duration of hormone therapy use associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer, however, is unknown.

Probable Dementia

In the WHIMS estrogen-alone ancillary study of WHI, a population of 2,947 hysterectomized women 65 to 79 years of age was randomized to daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone or placebo.

After an average follow-up of 5.2 years, 28 women in the estrogen-alone group and 19 women in the placebo group were diagnosed with probable dementia. The relative risk of probable dementia for CE-alone versus placebo was 1.49 (95 percent CI, 0.83–2.66). The absolute risk of probable dementia for CE-alone versus placebo was 37 versus 25 cases per 10,000 women-years8.

In the WHIMS estrogen plus progestin ancillary study, a population of 4,532 postmenopausal women 65 to 79 years of age was randomized to daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) or placebo. After an average follow-up of 4 years, 40 women in the CE plus MPA group and 21 women in the placebo group were diagnosed with probable dementia. The relative risk of probable dementia for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 2.05 (95 percent CI, 1.21–3.48). The absolute risk of probable dementia for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 45 versus 22 cases per 10,000 women-years8.

When data from the two populations in the WHIMS estrogen-alone and estrogen plus progestin ancillary studies were pooled as planned in the WHIMS protocol, the reported overall relative risk for probable dementia was 1.76 (95 percent CI, 1.19–2.60). Since both ancillary studies were conducted in women 65 to 79 years of age, it is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women8.

Gallbladder Disease

A 2-to 4-fold increase in the risk of gallbladder disease requiring surgery in postmenopausal women receiving estrogens has been reported.

Hypercalcemia

Estrogen administration may lead to severe hypercalcemia in women with breast cancer and bone metastases. If hypercalcemia occurs, use of the drug should be stopped and appropriate measures taken to reduce the serum calcium level.

Visual Abnormalities

Retinal vascular thrombosis has been reported in patients receiving estrogens. Discontinue medication pending examination if there is sudden partial or complete loss of vision, or a sudden onset of proptosis, diplopia, or migraine. If examination reveals papilledema or retinal vascular lesions, estrogens should be permanently discontinued.

Addition Of A Progestin When A Woman Has Not Had A Hysterectomy

Studies of the addition of a progestin for 10 or more days of a cycle of estrogen administration, or daily with estrogen in a continuous regimen, have reported a lowered incidence of endometrial hyperplasia than would be induced by estrogen treatment alone. Endometrial hyperplasia may be a precursor to endometrial cancer.

There are, however, possible risks that may be associated with the use of progestins with estrogens compared to estrogen-alone regimens. These include an increased risk of breast cancer.

Elevated Blood Pressure

In a small number of case reports, substantial increases in blood pressure have been attributed to idiosyncratic reactions to estrogens. In a large, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, a generalized effect of estrogens on blood pressure was not seen.

Hypertriglyceridemia

In women with pre-existing hypertriglyceridemia, estrogen therapy may be associated with elevations of plasma triglycerides leading to pancreatitis. Consider discontinuation of treatment if pancreatitis occurs.

Hepatic Impairment And/Or Past History Of Cholestatic Jaundice

Estrogens may be poorly metabolized in patients with impaired liver function. For women with a history of cholestatic jaundice associated with past estrogen use or with pregnancy, caution should be exercised, and in the case of recurrence, medication should be discontinued.

Hypothyroidism

Estrogen administration leads to increased thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) levels. Women with normal thyroid function can compensate for the increased TBG bymaking more thyroid hormone, thus maintaining free T4 and T3 serum concentrations in the normal range. Women dependent on thyroid hormone replacement therapy who are also receiving estrogens may require increased doses of their thyroid replacement therapy. These women should have their thyroid function monitored to maintain their free thyroid hormone levels in an acceptable range.

Fluid Retention

Estrogens may cause some degree of fluid retention. Women with conditions that might be influenced by this factor, such as a cardiac or renal impairment, warrant careful observation when estrogen-alone is prescribed.

Hypocalcemia

Estrogen therapy should be used with caution in women with hypoparathyroidism as estrogen-induced hypocalcemia may occur.

Exacerbation Of Endometriosis

A few cases of malignant transformation of residual endometrial implants have been reported in women treated post-hysterectomy with estrogen-alone therapy. For women known to have residual endometriosis post-hysterectomy, the addition of progestin should be considered.

Hereditary Angioedema

Exogenous estrogens may exacerbate symptoms of angioedema in women with hereditary angioedema.

Exacerbation Of Other Conditions

Estrogen therapy may cause an exacerbation of asthma, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, migraine, porphyria, systemic lupus erythematosus, and hepatic hemangiomas and should be used with caution in women with these conditions.

Photosensitivity/Photoallergy

The effects of direct sun exposure to Ladiol application sites have not been evaluated in clinical trials.

Application Of Sunscreen And Topical Solutions

Studies conducted using other approved topical estrogen gel products have shown that sunscreens have the potential for changing the systemic exposure of topically applied estrogen gels.

The effect of sunscreens and other topical lotions on the systemic exposure of Ladiol has not been evaluated in clinical trials.

Flammability Of Alcohol-Based Gels

Alcohol based gels are flammable. Avoid fire, flame, or smoking until the gel has dried. Occlusion of the area where the topical drug product is applied with clothing or other barriers is not recommended until the gel is completely dried.

Potential For Estradiol Transfer And Effects Of Washing

There is a potential for drug transfer from one individual to the other following physical contact of Ladiol application sites. In a study to evaluate transferability to males from their female contacts, there was some elevation of estradiol levels over baseline in the male subjects; however, the degree of transferability in this study was inconclusive. Patients are advised to avoid skin contact with other subjects until the gel is completely dried. The site of application should be covered (clothed) after drying.

Washing the application site with soap and water 1 hour after application resulted in a 30 to 38 percent decrease in the mean total 24-hour exposure to estradiol. Therefore, patients should refrain from washing the application site for at least one hour after application.

Laboratory Tests

Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol levels have not been shown to be useful in the management of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms.

Drug -Laboratory Test Interactions

Accelerated prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and platelet aggregation time; increased platelet count; increased factors II, VII antigen, VIII antigen, VIII coagulant activity, IX, X, XII, VII-X complex, II-VII-X complex, and beta-thromboglobulin; decreased levels of anti-factor Xa and antithrombin III, decreased antithrombin III activity; increased levels of fibrinogen and fibrinogen activity; increased plasminogen antigen and activity.

Increased thyroid binding globulin (TBG) levels leading to increased circulating total thyroid hormone levels, as measured by protein-bound iodine (PBI),T4 levels (by column or by radioimmunoassay) or T3 levels by radioimmunoassay. T3 resin uptake is decreased, reflecting the elevated TBG. Free T4 and free T3 concentrations are unaltered. Women on thyroid replacement therapy may require higher doses of thyroid hormone.

Other binding proteins may be elevated in serum, for example, corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), leading to increased total circulating corticosteroids and sex steroids, respectively. Free hormone concentrations, such as testosterone and estradiol, may be decreased. Other plasma proteins may be increased (angiotensinogen/renin substrate, alpha-lantitrypsin, ceruloplasmin).

Increased plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and HDL2 cholesterol subfraction concentrations, reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration, increased triglyceride levels.

Impaired glucose tolerance.

Patient Counseling Information

See FDA-Approved Patient Labeling.

Vaginal Bleeding

Inform postmenopausal women of the importance of reporting vaginal bleeding to their healthcare provider as soon as possible.

Possible Serious Adverse Reactions With Estrogen-Alone Therapy

Inform postmenopausal women of possible serious adverse reactions of estrogen-alone therapy including Cardiovascular Disorders, Malignant Neoplasms, and Probable Dementia.

Possible Less Serious But More Common Adverse Reactions With Estrogen-Alone Therapy

Inform postmenopausal women of possible less serious but common adverse reactions of estrogen-alone therapy such as headaches, breast pain and tenderness, nausea and vomiting.

Instructions For Use
  • Ladiol should be applied once a day, around the same time each day
  • Apply Ladiol to clean, dry, and unbroken (without cuts or scrapes) skin. If you take a bath or shower, be sure to apply your Ladiol after your skin is dry. The application site should be completely dry before dressing or swimming
  • Apply Ladiol to either your left or right upper thigh. Change between your left and right upper thigh each day to help prevent skin irritation

TO APPLY:

Step 1: Wash and dry your hands thoroughly.

Step 2: Sit in a comfortable position.

Step 3: Cut or tear the Ladiol packet as shown in Figure A.

Figure A

Step 4: Using your thumb and index finger, squeeze the entire contents of the packet onto the skin of the upper thigh as shown in Figure B.

Figure B

Step 5: Gently spread the gel in a thin layer on your upper thigh over an area of about 5 by 7 inches, or two palm prints as shown in Figure C. It is not necessary to massage or rub in Ladiol.

Figure C

Step 6: Allow the gel to dry completely before dressing.

Step 7: Dispose of the empty Ladiol packet in the trash.

Step 8: Wash your hands with soap and water immediately after applying Ladiol to remove any remaining gel and reduce the chance of transferring Ladiol to other people.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Long-term continuous administration of natural and synthetic estrogens in certain animal species increases the frequency of carcinomas of the breast, uterus, cervix, vagina, testis and liver.

Use In Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Ladiol should not be used during pregnancy. There appears to be little or no increased risk of birth defects in children born to women who have used estrogens and progestins as an oral contraceptive inadvertently during early pregnancy.

Nursing Mothers

Ladiol should not be used during lactation. Estrogen administration to nursing women has been shown to decrease the quantity and quality of the breast milk. Detectable amounts of estrogens have been identified in the breast milk of women receiving estrogen therapy. Caution should be exercised when Ladiol is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Ladiol is not indicated in children. Clinical studies have not been conducted in the pediatric population.

Geriatric Use

There have not been sufficient numbers of geriatric women involved in studies utilizing Ladiol to determine whether those over 65 years of age differ from younger subjects in their response to Ladiol.

The Women's Health Initiative Studies

In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy (daily CE [0.625 mg]-alone versus placebo), there was a higher relative risk of stroke in women greater than 65 years of age.

In the WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy (daily CE [0.625 mg] plus MPA [2.5 mg] versus placebo), there was a higher relative risk of nonfatal stroke and invasive breast cancer in women greater than 65 years of age.

The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study

In the WHIMS ancillary studies of postmenopausal women 65 to 79 years of age, there was an increased risk of developing probable dementia in women receiving estrogen-alone or estrogen plus progestin when compared to placebo.

Since both ancillary studies were conducted in women 65 to 79 years of age, it is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women8.

Renal Impairment

The effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of Ladiol has not been studied.

Hepatic Impairment

The effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of Ladiol has not been studied.

REFERENCES

1. Rossouw JE, et al. Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease by Age and Years Since Menopause. JAMA.2007;297:1465–1477.

2. Hsia J, et al. Conjugated Equine Estrogens and Coronary Heart Disease. Arch Int Med. 2006;166:357–365.

3. Curb JD, et al. Venous Thrombosis and Conjugated Equine Estrogen in Women Without a Uterus.Arch Int Med. 2006;166:772–780.

4. Cushman M, et al. Estrogen Plus Progestin and Risk of Venous Thrombosis. JAMA. 2004;292:1573–1580.

5. Stefanick ML, et al. Effects of Conjugated Equine Estrogens on Breast Cancer and Mammography Screening in Postmenopausal Women With Hysterectomy. JAMA. 2006;295:1647–1657.

6. Chlebowski RT, et al. Influence of Estrogen Plus Progestin on Breast Cancer and Mammography in Healthy Postmenopausal Women. JAMA. 2003;289:3234–3253.

7. Anderson GL, et al. Effects of Estrogen Plus Progestin on Gynecologic Cancers and Associated Diagnostic Procedures. JAMA. 2003;290:1739–1748.

8. Shumaker SA, et al. Conjugated Equine Estrogens and Incidence of Probable Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Postmenopausal Women. JAMA. 2004;291:2947–2958.

Effects on ability to drive and use machines

The information provided in Effects on ability to drive and use machines of Ladiol is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Ladiol of the medicine (Estradiol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Effects on ability to drive and use machines in the instructions to the drug Ladiol directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Ladiol has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.

Undesirable effects

The information provided in Undesirable effects of Ladiol is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Ladiol of the medicine (Estradiol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Undesirable effects in the instructions to the drug Ladiol directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Transdermal Gel

The following serious adverse reactions are discussed elsewhere in the labeling:

  • Cardiovascular Disorders
  • Malignant Neoplasms

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

The data described below reflect pooled data from 5 clinical trials of Ladiol. A total of 614 women were exposed to Ladiol for 3 months (193 women at 0.025 mg per day, 201 women at 0.05 mg per day, 194 women at 0.1 mg per day) in randomized, double-blind trials of clinical efficacy versus placebo and versus active comparator. All women were postmenopausal, had a serum estradiol level of less than 20 pg/mL, and a minimum of five moderate to severe hot flushes per week or a minimum of 15 hot flushes per week of any severity at baseline. Included in this table are an additional 25 postmenopausal hysterectomized women exposed to Ladiol 0.025 mg per day for 6 to 24 months (N=16 at 24 months) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Ladiol for the prevention of osteoporosis.

Table 1: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions Reported at a Frequency of ≥ 5 Percent and More Frequent in Women Receiving Ladiol

Body System
Adverse Reactions
Ladiol Placeboc
(N=72)
0.025 mg/daya
(N=219)
0.05 mg/dayb
(N=201)
0.1 mg/dayb
(N=194)
Body as a Whole 21% 39% 37% 29%
Headache 5% 18% 13% 10%
Pain 1% 8% 11% 7%
Back Pain 4% 8% 9% 6%
Edema 0.5% 13% 10% 6%
Digestive System 9% 21% 29% 18%
Abdominal Pain 0% 11% 16% 8%
Nausea 1% 5% 6% 3%
Flatulence 1% 3% 7% 1%
Musculoskeletal System 7% 9% 11% 4%
Arthralgia 1% 5% 5% 3%
Nervous System 13% 10% 11% 1%
Depression 1% 5% 8% 0%
Urogenital System 12% 18% 41% 11%
Breast Pain 5% 8% 29% 4%
Leukorrhea 1% 6% 7% 1%
Respiratory System 15% 26% 29% 14%
URTI 6% 17% 17% 8%
Pharyngitis 0.5% 3% 7% 3%
Sinusitis 4% 4% 5% 3%
Rhinitis 2% 4% 6% 1%
Skin and Appendages 19% 12% 12% 15%
Pruritus 0.5% 6% 3% 6%
a) Adverse reactions occurring at rate of ≥ 5 percent in Ladiol trials of clinical efficacy versus placebo and versus active comparator; and trial of Ladiol versus placebo for the prevention of osteoporosis
b) Adverse reactions occurring at rate of ≥ 5 percent in Ladiol trials of clinical efficacy versus placebo and versus active comparator
c) Adverse reactions occurring in placebo group in Ladiol trial of clinical efficacy versus placebo

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of the Ladiol transdermal system. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Genitourinary System

Changes in bleeding pattern, pelvic pain

Breast

Breast cancer, breast pain, breast tenderness

Cardiovascular

Changes in blood pressure, palpitations, hot flashes

Gastrointestinal

Vomiting, abdominal pain, abdominal distension, nausea

Skin

Alopecia, hyperhidrosis, night sweats, urticaria, rash

Eyes

Visual disturbances, contact lens intolerance,

Central Nervous System

Depression, migraine, paresthesia, dizziness, anxiety, irritability, mood swings, nervousness, insomnia, headache

Miscellaneous

Fatigue, menopausal symptoms, weight increase, application site reaction, anaphylactic reactions

The following serious adverse reactions are discussed elsewhere in the labeling:

  • Cardiovascular Disorders.
  • Malignant Neoplasms.

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Ladiol was studied at doses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 gram per day in a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study that included a total of 495 postmenopausal women (86.5 percent Caucasian). The adverse events that occurred at a rate greater than 5 percent in any of the treatment groups are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1: Nuber (%) of Subjects with Common Adverse Reactions* in a 12-Week Placebo-Controlled Study of Ladiol

SYSTEM ORGAN CLASS
Preferred Term
Ladiol Placebo
N=125 n(%)
0.25 g/day
N=122 n (%)
0.5 g/day
N=123 n (%)
1.0 g/day
N=125 n (%)
INFECTIONS & INFESTATIONS
Nasopharyngitis 7(5.7) 5(4.1) 6(4.8) 5(4.0)
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection 7(5.7) 3(2.4) 2(1.6} 2(1.6)
Vaginal mycosis 1 (0.8) 3(2.4) 8(6.4) 4(3.2)
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM & BREAST DISORDERS
Breast Tenderness 3(2.5) 7(5.7) 11 (8.8) 2(1.6)
Metrorrhagia 5(4.1) 7(5.7) 12(9.6) 2(1.6)
* Adverse reactions reported by >5 percent of patients in any treatment group.

In a 12-week placebo-controlled study of Ladiol, application site reactions were seen in <1 percent of subjects.

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Ladiol. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Genitourinary System

Amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, ovarian cyst, vaginal discharge

Breasts

Gynecomastia

Cardiovascular

Palpitations, ventricular extrasystoles

Gastrointestinal

Flatulence

Skin

Rash pruritic, urticaria

Eyes

Retinal vein occlusion

Central Nervous System

Tremor

Miscellaneous

Arthralgia, application site rash, asthenia, chest discomfort, fatigue, feeling abnormal, heart rate increased, insomnia, malaise, muscle spasms, pain in extremity, weight increased

Additional postmarketing adverse reactions have been reported in patients receiving other forms of hormone therapy.

Overdose

The information provided in Overdose of Ladiol is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Ladiol of the medicine (Estradiol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Overdose in the instructions to the drug Ladiol directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Transdermal Gel

Overdosage of estrogen may cause nausea, vomiting, breast tenderness, abdominal pain, drowsiness and fatigue, and withdrawal bleeding in women. Treatment of overdose consists of discontinuation of Ladiol therapy with institution of appropriate symptomatic care.

Overdosage of estrogen may cause nausea and vomiting, breast tenderness, abdominal pain, drowsiness and fatigue, and withdrawal bleeding may occur in women. Treatment of overdose consists of discontinuation of Ladiol therapy with institution of appropriate symptomatic care.

Pharmacodynamic properties

The information provided in Pharmacodynamic properties of Ladiol is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Ladiol of the medicine (Estradiol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacodynamic properties in the instructions to the drug Ladiol directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Transdermal Gel

There are no pharmacodynamic data for Ladiol.

Currently, there are no pharmacodynamic data known for Ladiol.

Pharmacokinetic properties

The information provided in Pharmacokinetic properties of Ladiol is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Ladiol of the medicine (Estradiol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacokinetic properties in the instructions to the drug Ladiol directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Tablets
Transdermal Gel
Absorption

Transdermal administration of Ladiol produces mean serum concentrations of estradiol comparable to those produced by premenopausal women in the early follicular phase of the ovulatory cycle. The pharmacokinetics of estradiol following application of the Ladiol transdermal system were investigated in 197 healthy postmenopausal women in six studies. In five of the studies, the Ladiol transdermal system was applied to the abdomen, and in a sixth study, application to the buttocks and abdomen were compared.

The Ladiol transdermal delivery system continuously releases estradiol which is transported across intact skin leading to sustained circulating levels of estradiol during a 7-day treatment period. The systemic availability of estradiol after transdermal administration is about 20 times higher than that after oral administration. This difference is due to the absence of first pass metabolism when estradiol is given by the transdermal route.

In a bioavailability study, the Ladiol 6.5 cm² was studied with the Ladiol 12.5 cm² as reference. The mean estradiol levels in serum from the two sizes are shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Mean Serum 17β -Estradiol Concentrations versus Time Profile following Application of a 6.5 cm² Transdermal System and Application of a 12.5 cm² Ladiol Transdermal System

Mean Serum 17β -Estradiol Concentrations versus Time Profile following Application of a 6.5 cm² Transdermal System and Application of a 12.5 cm² Ladiol Transdermal System Illustration

Dose proportionality was demonstrated for the Ladiol 6.5 cm² transdermal system as compared to the Ladiol 12.5 cm² transdermal system in a 2-week crossover study with a 1-week washout period between the two-transdermal systems in 24 postmenopausal women.

Dose proportionality was also demonstrated for the Ladiol transdermal system (12.5 cm² and 25 cm²) in a 1-week study conducted in 54 postmenopausal women. The mean steady state levels (Cavg) of the estradiol during the application of Ladiol 25 cm² and 12.5 cm² on the abdomen were about 80 and 40 pg/mL, respectively.

In a 3-week multiple application study in 24 postmenopausal women, the 25 cm² Ladiol transdermal system produced average peak estradiol concentrations (Cmax) of approximately 100 pg/mL. Trough values at the end of each wear interval (Cmin) were approximately 35 pg/mL. Nearly identical serum curves were seen each week, indicating little or no accumulation of estradiol in the body. Serum estrone peak and trough levels were 60 and 40 pg/mL, respectively.

In a single dose, randomized, crossover study conducted to compare the effect of site of application, 38 postmenopausal women wore a single Ladiol 25 cm² transdermal system for 1 week on the abdomen and buttocks. The estradiol serum concentration profiles are shown in Figure 2. Values of Cmax and Cavg were, respectively, 25 percent and 17 percent higher with the buttock application than with the abdomen application.

Figure 2: Observed Mean (± SE) Estradiol Serum Concentrations for a One Week Application of the Ladiol Transdermal System (25 cm² ) to the Abdomen and Buttocks of 38 Postmenopausal Women

Observed Mean (± SE) Estradiol Serum Concentrations for a One Week Application of the Ladiol Transdermal System (25 cm² ) to the Abdomen and Buttocks of 38 Postmenopausal Women Illustration

Table 2 provides a summary of estradiol pharmacokinetic parameters determined during evaluation of the Ladiol transdermal system.

Table 2: Pharmacokinetic Summary (Mean Estradiol Values)

Ladiol Delivery Rate Surface Area (cm²) Application Site No. of Subjects Dosing Cmax (pg/mL) C min (pg/mL) Cavg (pg/mL)
0.025 6.5 Abdomen 24 Single 32 17 22
0.05 12.5 Abdomen 102 Single 71 29 41
0.1 25 Abdomen 139 Single 147 60 87
0.1 25 Buttock 38 Single 174 71 106

The relative standard deviation of each pharmacokinetic parameter after application to the abdomen averaged 50 percent, which is indicative of the considerable intersubject variability associated with transdermal drug delivery. The relative standard deviation of each pharmacokinetic parameter after application to the buttock was lower than that after application to the abdomen (for example, for Cmax 39 percent versus 62 percent, and for Cavg 35 percent versus 48 percent).

Distribution

The distribution of exogenous estrogens is similar to that of endogenous estrogens. Estrogens are widely distributed in the body and are generally found in higher concentrations in the sex hormone target organs. Estrogens circulate in the blood largely bound to SHBG and albumin.

Metabolism

Exogenous estrogens are metabolized in the same manner as endogenous estrogens. Circulating estrogens exist in a dynamic equilibrium of metabolic interconversions. These transformations take place mainly in the liver. Estradiol is converted reversibly to estrone, and both can be converted to estriol, which is a major urinary metabolite. Estrogens also undergo enterohepatic recirculation via sulfate and glucuronide conjugation in the liver, biliary secretion of conjugates into the intestine, and hydrolysis in the intestine followed by reabsorption. In postmenopausal women, a significant proportion of the circulating estrogens exist as sulfate conjugates, especially estrone sulfate, which serves as a circulating reservoir for the formation of more active estrogens.

Excretion

Estradiol, estrone, and estriol are excreted in the urine along with glucuronide and sulfate conjugates.

Adhesion

An open-label study of adhesion potentials of placebo transdermal systems that correspond to the 6.5 cm² and 12.5 cm² sizes of Ladiol was conducted in 112 healthy women of 45 to 75 years of age. Each woman applied both transdermal systems weekly, on the upper outer abdomen, for 3 consecutive weeks. It should be noted that lower abdomen and upper quadrant of the buttock are the approved sites of application for Ladiol.

The adhesion assessment was done visually on Days 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 of each week of transdermal system wear. A total of 1,654 adhesion observations were conducted for 333 transdermal systems of each size.

Of these observations, approximately 90 percent showed essentially no lift for both the 6.5 cm² and 12.5 cm² transdermal systems. Of the total number of transdermal systems applied, approximately 5 percent showed complete detachment for each size. Adhesion potentials of the 18.75 cm² and 25 cm² sizes of transdermal systems (0.075 mg per day and 0.1 mg per day) have not been studied.

Absorption

Estradiol diffuses across intact skin and into the systemic circulation by a passive absorption process, with diffusion across the stratum corneum being the rate-limiting factor.

In a 14-day, Phase 1, multiple-dose study, Ladiol demonstrated linear and approximately dose-proportional estradiol pharmacokinetics at steady state for both AUC0-24 and Cmax following once daily dosing to the skin of either the right or left upper thigh (Table 2).

Table 2: Mean (%CV) Pharmacokinetic Parameters for Estradiol (uncorrected for baseline) on Day 14 Following Multiple Daily Doses of Ladiol 0.1%

Parameter (units) Ladiol 0.25 g Ladiol 0.5 g Ladiol 1.0 g
AUC0-24 (pg•h/mL) 236 (94) 504 (149) 732 (81)
Cmax(pg/mL) 14.7 (84) 28.4 (139) 51.5 (86)
Cavg (pg/mL) 9.8 (92) 21 (148) 30.5 (81)
tmax (h) 16 (0,72) 10 (0,72) 8 (0,48)
E2:E1 ratio 0.42 0.65 0.65
*Median (Mia Max).

Steady-state serum concentration of estradiol are achieved by day 12 following daily application of Ladiol to the skin of the upper thigh. The mean (SD) serum estradiol levels following once daily dosing at day 14 are shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Mean (SD) Serum Estradiol Concentrations (Values Uncorrected for Baseline) on Day 14 Following Multiple Daily Doses of Ladiol 0.1%

Mean (SD) Serum Estradiol Concentrations (Values Uncorrected for Baseline) on Day 14 Following Multiple Daily Doses of Ladiol 0.1% Illustration

The effect of sunscreens and other topical lotions on the systemic exposure of Ladiol has not been evaluated. Studies conducted using topical estrogen gel approved products have shown that sunscreens have the potential for changing the systemic exposure of topically applied estrogen gels.

Distribution

The distribution of exogenous estrogens is similar to that of endogenous estrogens. Estrogens are widely distributed in the body and are generally found in higher concentrations in the sex hormone target organs. Estrogens circulate in the blood largely bound to SHBG and albumin.

Metabolism

Exogenous estrogens are metabolized in the same manner as endogenous estrogens. Circulating estrogens exist in a dynamic equilibrium of metabolic interconversions. These transformations take place mainly in the liver. Estradiol is converted reversibly to estrone, and both can be converted to estriol, which is a major urinary metabolite. Estrogens also undergo enterohepatic recirculation via sulfate and glucuronide conjugation in the liver, biliary secretion of conjugates into the intestine, and hydrolysis in the intestine followed by reabsorption. In postmenopausal women, a significant proportion of the circulating estrogens exist as sulfate conjugates, especially estrone sulfate, which serves as a circulating reservoir for the formation of more active estrogens.

Estradiol from Ladiol avoids first pass metabolism and provides estradiol to estrone ratios at steady state in the range of 0.42 to 0.65.

Excretion

Estradiol, estrone, and estriol are excreted in the urine along with glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. The apparent terminal half-life for estradiol was about 10 hours following administration of Ladiol.

Use In Specific Populations

No pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in specific populations, including patients with renal or hepatic impairment.

Potential For Estradiol Transfer

The effect of estradiol transfer was evaluated in healthy postmenopausal women who topically applied 1.0 g of Ladiol (single dose) on one thigh. One and 8 hours after gel application, they engaged in direct thigh-to-arm contact with a partner for 15 minutes. While some elevation of estradiol levels over baseline was seen in the male subjects, the degree of transferability in this study was inconclusive.

Effects Of Washing

The effect of application site washing on skin surface levels and serum concentrations of estradiol was determined in 16 healthy postmenopausal women after application of 1.0 g of Ladiol to a 200 cm² area on the thigh. Washing the application site with soap and water 1 hour after application removed all detectable amounts of estradiol from the surface of the skin, and resulted in a 30 to 38 percent decrease in the mean total 24-hour exposure to estradiol.

Pharmacotherapeutic group

The information provided in Pharmacotherapeutic group of Ladiol is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Ladiol of the medicine (Estradiol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacotherapeutic group in the instructions to the drug Ladiol directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Oestrogens, ATC code: G03CA03

Preclinical safety data

The information provided in Preclinical safety data of Ladiol is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Ladiol of the medicine (Estradiol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Preclinical safety data in the instructions to the drug Ladiol directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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The toxicity profile of estradiol has been well established. Long-term continuous administration of natural and synthetic estrogens in certain animal species increases the frequency of carcinomas of the breast, uterus, cervix, vagina, testis, and liver as well as the frequency of lymphoid and pituitary tumours.

Incompatibilities

The information provided in Incompatibilities of Ladiol is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Ladiol of the medicine (Estradiol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Incompatibilities in the instructions to the drug Ladiol directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Not applicable.

Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The information provided in Special precautions for disposal and other handling of Ladiol is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Ladiol of the medicine (Estradiol). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special precautions for disposal and other handling in the instructions to the drug Ladiol directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Used transdermal patches should be folded in half with the adhesive side inwards, and discarded safely and out of the reach and sight of children. Any used or unused transdermal patches should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements or returned to the pharmacy, preferably in the original packaging.

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