×
Components:
Pegloticase
Method of action:
Medically reviewed by Militian Inessa Mesropovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2019.12.09

Name of the medicinal product

Krystexxa

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Dosage Forms And Strengths

KRYSTEXXA is a clear, colorless, sterile 8 mg/mL solution of pegloticase in a 2 mL single-dose vial, expressed as amounts of uricase protein. KRYSTEXXA must be diluted prior to use.

Storage And Handling

KRYSTEXXA is supplied as a clear, colorless, sterile solution in phosphate buffered saline intended for intravenous infusion after dilution. KRYSTEXXA is supplied in a single-dose 2 mL glass vial with a Teflon® coated (latex-free) rubber injection stopper to deliver KRYSTEXXA as 8 mg of uricase protein in 1 mL volume.

Before the preparation for use, KRYSTEXXA must be stored in the carton and maintained at all times under refrigeration between 2° to 8°C (36° to 46°F). Protect from light. Do not shake or freeze.

Do not use beyond the expiration date stamped.

NDC# 75987-080-10

Manufactured by: Horizon Pharma Rheumatology LLC, Lake Forest, IL 60045. Revised: July 2018

Therapeutic indications

KRYSTEXXA® (pegloticase) is a PEGylated uric acid specific enzyme indicated for the treatment of chronic gout in adult patients refractory to conventional therapy.

Gout refractory to conventional therapy occurs in patients who have failed to normalize serum uric acid and whose signs and symptoms are inadequately controlled with xanthine oxidase inhibitors at the maximum medically appropriate dose or for whom these drugs are contraindicated.

Important Limitations Of Use

KRYSTEXXA is not recommended for the treatment of asymptomatic hyperuricemia.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

Dosage

The recommended dose and regimen of KRYSTEXXA for adult patients is 8 mg (uricase protein) given as an intravenous infusion every two weeks.

The optimal treatment duration with KRYSTEXXA has not been established.

Preparation

Visually inspect KRYSTEXXA for particulate matter and discoloration before administration, whenever solution and container permit. Do not use vials if either is present.

Use appropriate aseptic technique. Withdraw 1 mL of KRYSTEXXA from the vial into a sterile syringe. Discard any unused portion of product remaining in the 2 mL vial. Inject into a single 250 mL bag of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP or 0.45% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP for intravenous infusion. Do not mix or dilute with other drugs.

Invert the infusion bag containing the dilute KRYSTEXXA solution a number of times to ensure thorough mixing. Do not shake.

KRYSTEXXA diluted in infusion bags is stable for 4 hours at 2° to 8°C (36° to 46°F) and at room temperature (20° to 25°C, 68° to 77°F). However it is recommended that diluted solutions be stored under refrigeration, not frozen, protected from light, and used within 4 hours of dilution.

Before administration, allow the diluted solution of KRYSTEXXA to reach room temperature. KRYSTEXXA in a vial or in an intravenous infusion fluid should never be subjected to artificial heating (e.g., hot water, microwave).

Administration

Do Not Administer As An Intravenous Push Or Bolus

It is recommended that before starting KRYSTEXXA patients discontinue oral urate-lowering medications and not institute therapy with oral urate-lowering agents while patients are on KRYSTEXXA therapy.

Monitoring Therapy: The risk of anaphylaxis and infusion reactions is higher in patients who have lost therapeutic response. Monitor serum uric acid levels prior to infusions and consider discontinuing treatment if levels increase to above 6 mg/dL, particularly when 2 consecutive levels above 6 mg/dL are observed.

The KRYSTEXXA admixture should only be administered by intravenous infusion over no less than 120 minutes via gravity feed, syringe-type pump, or infusion pump.

Patients should receive pre-infusion medications (e.g., antihistamines, corticosteroids), to minimize the risk of anaphylaxis and infusion reactions. Administer KRYSTEXXA in a healthcare setting and by healthcare providers prepared to manage anaphylaxis and infusion reactions, and observe patients for an appropriate period of time after administration.

If an infusion reaction occurs during the administration of KRYSTEXXA, the infusion may be slowed, or stopped and restarted at a slower rate, at the discretion of the physician. Since infusion reactions can occur after completion of infusion, observation of patients for approximately an hour post-infusion should be considered.

Contraindications

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency

Special warnings and precautions for use

WARNINGS

Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.

PRECAUTIONS

Anaphylaxis

During pre-marketing controlled clinical trials, anaphylaxis was reported with a frequency of 6.5% of patients treated with KRYSTEXXA every 2 weeks, compared to none with placebo. Manifestations included wheezing, peri-oral or lingual edema, or hemodynamic instability, with or without rash or urticaria. Cases occurred in patients being pre-treated with one or more doses of an oral antihistamine, an intravenous corticosteroid and/or acetaminophen. This pre-treatment may have blunted or obscured symptoms or signs of anaphylaxis and therefore the reported frequency may be an underestimate.

KRYSTEXXA should be administered in a healthcare setting by healthcare providers prepared to manage anaphylaxis. Patients should be pre-treated with antihistamines and corticosteroids. Anaphylaxis may occur with any infusion, including a first infusion, and generally manifests within 2 hours of the infusion. However, delayed type hypersensitivity reactions have also been reported. Patients should be closely monitored for an appropriate period of time for anaphylaxis after administration of KRYSTEXXA. Patients should be informed of the symptoms and signs of anaphylaxis and instructed to seek immediate medical care should anaphylaxis occur after discharge from the healthcare setting.

The risk of anaphylaxis is higher in patients whose uric acid level increases to above 6 mg/dL, particularly when 2 consecutive levels above 6 mg/dL are observed. Monitor serum uric acid levels prior to infusions and consider discontinuing treatment if levels increase to above 6 mg/dL. Because of the possibility that concomitant use of oral urate-lowering therapy and KRYSTEXXA may potentially blunt the rise of serum uric acid levels, it is recommended that before starting KRYSTEXXA patients discontinue oral urate-lowering medications and not institute therapy with oral urate-lowering agents while taking KRYSTEXXA.

Infusion Reactions

During pre-marketing controlled clinical trials, infusion reactions were reported in 26% of patients treated with KRYSTEXXA 8 mg every 2 weeks, and 41% of patients treated with KRYSTEXXA 8 mg every 4 weeks, compared to 5% of patients treated with placebo. These infusion reactions occurred in patients being pre-treated with an oral antihistamine, intravenous corticosteroid and/or acetaminophen. This pre-treatment may have blunted or obscured symptoms or signs of infusion reactions and therefore the reported frequency may be an underestimate.

KRYSTEXXA should be administered in a healthcare setting by healthcare providers prepared to manage infusion reactions. Patients should be pre-treated with antihistamines and corticosteroids. KRYSTEXXA should be infused slowly over no less than 120 minutes. In the event of an infusion reaction, the infusion should be slowed, or stopped and restarted at a slower rate.

The risk of infusion reaction is higher in patients whose uric acid level increases to above 6 mg/dL, particularly when 2 consecutive levels above 6 mg/dL are observed. Monitor serum uric acid levels prior to infusions and consider discontinuing treatment if levels increase to above 6 mg/dL. Because of the possibility that concomitant use of oral urate-lowering therapy and KRYSTEXXA may potentially blunt the rise of serum uric acid levels, it is recommended that before starting KRYSTEXXA patients discontinue oral urate-lowering medications and not institute therapy with oral urate-lowering agents while taking KRYSTEXXA.

G6PD Deficiency Associated Hemolysis And Methemoglobinemia

Life threatening hemolytic reactions and methemoglobinemia have been reported with KRYSTEXXA in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Because of the risk of hemolysis and methemoglobinemia, do not administer KRYSTEXXA to patients with G6PD deficiency. Screen patients at risk for G6PD deficiency prior to starting KRYSTEXXA. For example, patients of African, Mediterranean (including Southern European and Middle Eastern), and Southern Asian ancestry are at increased risk for G6PD deficiency.

Gout Flares

Gout flares may occur after initiation of KRYSTEXXA. An increase in gout flares is frequently observed upon initiation of anti-hyperuricemic therapy, due to changing serum uric acid levels resulting in mobilization of urate from tissue deposits. Gout flare prophylaxis with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) or colchicine is recommended starting at least 1 week before initiation of KRYSTEXXA therapy and lasting at least 6 months, unless medically contraindicated or not tolerated. KRYSTEXXA does not need to be discontinued because of a gout flare. The gout flare should be managed concurrently as appropriate for the individual patient.

Congestive Heart Failure

KRYSTEXXA has not been formally studied in patients with congestive heart failure, but some patients in the clinical trials experienced exacerbation. Exercise caution when using KRYSTEXXA in patients who have congestive heart failure and monitor patients closely following infusion.

Re-treatment With KRYSTEXXA

No controlled trial data are available on the safety and efficacy of re-treatment with KRYSTEXXA after stopping treatment for longer than 4 weeks. Due to the immunogenicity of KRYSTEXXA, patients receiving re-treatment may be at increased risk of anaphylaxis and infusion reactions. Therefore, patients receiving re-treatment after a drug-free interval should be monitored carefully.

Patient Counseling Information

See Medication Guide

General Information

Provide and instruct patients to read the accompanying Medication Guide before starting treatment and before each subsequent treatment.

Anaphylaxis And Infusion Reactions
  • Anaphylaxis and infusion reactions can occur at any infusion while on therapy. Counsel patients on the importance of adhering to any prescribed medications to help prevent or lessen the severity of these reactions.
  • Educate patients on the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis, including wheezing, peri-oral or lingual edema, hemodynamic instability, and rash or urticaria.
  • Educate patients on the most common signs and symptoms of an infusion reaction, including urticaria (skin rash), erythema (redness of the skin), dyspnea (difficulty breathing), flushing, chest discomfort, chest pain, and rash.
  • Advise patients to seek medical care immediately if they experience any symptoms of an allergic reaction during or at any time after the infusion of KRYSTEXXA.
  • Advise patients to discontinue any oral urate-lowering agents before starting on KRYSTEXXA and not to take any oral urate-lowering agents while on KRYSTEXXA.
Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency

Inform patients not to take KRYSTEXXA if they have a condition known as G6PD deficiency. Explain to patients that G6PD deficiency is more frequently found in individuals of African, Mediterranean, or Southern Asian ancestry and that they may be tested to determine if they have G6PD deficiency, unless already known.

Gout Flares

Explain to patients that gout flares may initially increase when starting treatment with KRYSTEXXA, and that medications to help reduce flares may need to be taken regularly for the first few months after KRYSTEXXA is started. Advise patients that they should not stop KRYSTEXXA therapy if they have a flare.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Long-term animal studies have not been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of pegloticase.

The genotoxic potential of pegloticase has not been evaluated.

There was no evidence of impairment on fertility at pegloticase doses up to 40 mg/kg (approximately 50 times the MRHD on mg/m² basis) every other day in rats.

Use In Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of KRYSTEXXA in pregnant women. KRYSTEXXA should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Pegloticase was not teratogenic in rats and rabbits at approximately 50 and 75 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD), respectively (on a mg/m² basis at maternal doses up to 40 and 30 mg/kg twice weekly, in rats and rabbits, respectively). Statistically significant decreases in mean fetal and pup body weights were observed at approximately 50 and 75 times the MRHD respectively (on a mg/m² basis at maternal doses up to 40 and 30 mg/kg every other day, in rats and rabbits, respectively). No effects on mean fetal body weights were observed at approximately 10 and 25 times the MRHD in rats and rabbits, respectively (on a mg/m² basis at maternal doses up to 10 mg/kg twice weekly in both species).

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Therefore KRYSTEXXA should not be used when breastfeeding unless the clear benefit to the mother can overcome the unknown risk to the newborn/infant.

Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of KRYSTEXXA in pediatric patients less than 18 years of age have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Of the total number of patients treated with KRYSTEXXA 8 mg every 2 weeks in the controlled studies, 34% (29 of 85) were 65 years of age and older and 12% (10 of 85) were 75 years of age and older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between older and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. No dose adjustment is needed for patients 65 years of age and older.

Renal Impairment

No dose adjustment is required for patients with renal impairment. A total of 32% (27 of 85) of patients treated with KRYSTEXXA 8 mg every 2 weeks had a creatinine clearance of ≤62.5 mL/min. No overall differences in efficacy were observed.

Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

SIDE EFFECTS

The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the label:

  • Anaphylaxis
  • Infusion Reactions
  • G6PD Deficiency Associated Hemolysis and Methemoglobinemia
  • Gout Flares
  • Congestive Heart Failure

Clinical Trials Experience

The data described below reflect exposure to KRYSTEXXA in patients with chronic gout refractory to conventional therapy in two replicate randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind 6-month clinical trials: 85 patients were treated with KRYSTEXXA 8 mg every 2 weeks; 84 patients were treated with KRYSTEXXA 8 mg every 4 weeks; and 43 patients were treated with placebo. These patients were between the ages of 23 and 89 years (average 55 years); 173 patients were male and 39 were female; and 143 patients were White/Caucasian, 27 were Black/African American, 24 were Hispanic/Latino and 18 were all other ethnicities. Common co-morbid conditions among the enrolled patients included hypertension (72%), dyslipidemia (49%), chronic kidney disease (28%), diabetes (24%), coronary artery disease (18%), arrhythmia (16%), and cardiac failure/left ventricular dysfunction (12%).

Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying and controlled conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug, and may not predict the rates observed in a broader patient population in clinical practice.

The most commonly reported adverse reactions that occurred in greater than or equal to 5% of patients treated with KRYSTEXXA 8 mg every 2 weeks are provided in Table 1.

Table 1. Adverse Reactions Occurring in 5% or More of Patients Treated with KRYSTEXXA Compared to Placebo

Adverse Reaction
(Preferred Term)
KRYSTEXXA
8 mg every 2 weeks
(N=85)
Na (%)
Placebo
(N=43)
N (%)
Gout flare 65 (77%) 35 (81%)
Infusion reaction 22 (26%) 2 (5%)
Nausea 10 (12%) 1 (2%)
Contusionb or Ecchymosisb 9 (11%) 2 (5%)
Nasopharyngitis 6 (7%) 1 (2%)
Constipation 5 (6%) 2 (5%)
Chest Pain 5 (6%) 1 (2%)
Anaphylaxis 4 (5%) 0 (0%)
Vomiting 4 (5%) 1 (2%)
a If the same subject in a given group had more than one occurrence in the same preferred term event category, the subject was counted only once.
b Most did not occur on the day of infusion and could be related to other factors (e.g., concomitant medications relevant to contusion or ecchymosis, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus).

Immunogenicity

Anti-pegloticase antibodies developed in 92% of patients treated with KRYSTEXXA every 2 weeks, and 28% for placebo. Anti-PEG antibodies were also detected in 42% of patients treated with KRYSTEXXA. High anti-pegloticase antibody titer was associated with a failure to maintain pegloticase-induced normalization of uric acid. The impact of anti-PEG antibodies on patients’ responses to other PEG-containing therapeutics is unknown.

There was a higher incidence of infusion reactions in patients with high anti-pegloticase antibody titer: 53% (16 of 30) in the KRYSTEXXA every 2 weeks group compared to 6% in patients who had undetectable or low antibody titers.

As with all therapeutic proteins, there is a potential for immunogenicity. The observed incidence of antibody positivity in an assay is highly dependent on several factors including assay sensitivity and specificity and assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, the comparison of the incidence of antibodies to pegloticase with the incidence of antibodies to other products may be misleading.

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of KRYSTEXXA. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship.

General disorders and administration site conditions: asthenia, malaise, peripheral swelling

DRUG INTERACTIONS

No studies of interactions of KRYSTEXXA with other drugs have been conducted.

Because anti-pegloticase antibodies appear to bind to the PEG portion of the drug, there may be potential for binding with other PEGylated products. The impact of anti-PEG antibodies on patients’ responses to other PEG-containing therapeutics is unknown.

Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy Category C

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of KRYSTEXXA in pregnant women. KRYSTEXXA should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Pegloticase was not teratogenic in rats and rabbits at approximately 50 and 75 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD), respectively (on a mg/m² basis at maternal doses up to 40 and 30 mg/kg twice weekly, in rats and rabbits, respectively). Statistically significant decreases in mean fetal and pup body weights were observed at approximately 50 and 75 times the MRHD respectively (on a mg/m² basis at maternal doses up to 40 and 30 mg/kg every other day, in rats and rabbits, respectively). No effects on mean fetal body weights were observed at approximately 10 and 25 times the MRHD in rats and rabbits, respectively (on a mg/m² basis at maternal doses up to 10 mg/kg twice weekly in both species).

Undesirable effects

The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the label:

  • Anaphylaxis
  • Infusion Reactions
  • G6PD Deficiency Associated Hemolysis and Methemoglobinemia
  • Gout Flares
  • Congestive Heart Failure

Clinical Trials Experience

The data described below reflect exposure to KRYSTEXXA in patients with chronic gout refractory to conventional therapy in two replicate randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind 6-month clinical trials: 85 patients were treated with KRYSTEXXA 8 mg every 2 weeks; 84 patients were treated with KRYSTEXXA 8 mg every 4 weeks; and 43 patients were treated with placebo. These patients were between the ages of 23 and 89 years (average 55 years); 173 patients were male and 39 were female; and 143 patients were White/Caucasian, 27 were Black/African American, 24 were Hispanic/Latino and 18 were all other ethnicities. Common co-morbid conditions among the enrolled patients included hypertension (72%), dyslipidemia (49%), chronic kidney disease (28%), diabetes (24%), coronary artery disease (18%), arrhythmia (16%), and cardiac failure/left ventricular dysfunction (12%).

Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying and controlled conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug, and may not predict the rates observed in a broader patient population in clinical practice.

The most commonly reported adverse reactions that occurred in greater than or equal to 5% of patients treated with KRYSTEXXA 8 mg every 2 weeks are provided in Table 1.

Table 1. Adverse Reactions Occurring in 5% or More of Patients Treated with KRYSTEXXA Compared to Placebo

Adverse Reaction
(Preferred Term)
KRYSTEXXA
8 mg every 2 weeks
(N=85)
Na (%)
Placebo
(N=43)
N (%)
Gout flare 65 (77%) 35 (81%)
Infusion reaction 22 (26%) 2 (5%)
Nausea 10 (12%) 1 (2%)
Contusionb or Ecchymosisb 9 (11%) 2 (5%)
Nasopharyngitis 6 (7%) 1 (2%)
Constipation 5 (6%) 2 (5%)
Chest Pain 5 (6%) 1 (2%)
Anaphylaxis 4 (5%) 0 (0%)
Vomiting 4 (5%) 1 (2%)
a If the same subject in a given group had more than one occurrence in the same preferred term event category, the subject was counted only once.
b Most did not occur on the day of infusion and could be related to other factors (e.g., concomitant medications relevant to contusion or ecchymosis, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus).

Immunogenicity

Anti-pegloticase antibodies developed in 92% of patients treated with KRYSTEXXA every 2 weeks, and 28% for placebo. Anti-PEG antibodies were also detected in 42% of patients treated with KRYSTEXXA. High anti-pegloticase antibody titer was associated with a failure to maintain pegloticase-induced normalization of uric acid. The impact of anti-PEG antibodies on patients’ responses to other PEG-containing therapeutics is unknown.

There was a higher incidence of infusion reactions in patients with high anti-pegloticase antibody titer: 53% (16 of 30) in the KRYSTEXXA every 2 weeks group compared to 6% in patients who had undetectable or low antibody titers.

As with all therapeutic proteins, there is a potential for immunogenicity. The observed incidence of antibody positivity in an assay is highly dependent on several factors including assay sensitivity and specificity and assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, the comparison of the incidence of antibodies to pegloticase with the incidence of antibodies to other products may be misleading.

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of KRYSTEXXA. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship.

General disorders and administration site conditions: asthenia, malaise, peripheral swelling

Overdose

No reports of overdosage with KRYSTEXXA have been reported. The maximum dose that has been administered as a single intravenous dose is 12 mg as uricase protein.

Patients suspected of receiving an overdose should be monitored, and general supportive measures should be initiated as no specific antidote has been identified.

Pharmacodynamic properties

Approximately 24 hours following the first dose of KRYSTEXXA, mean plasma uric acid levels for subjects in the KRYSTEXXA groups were 0.7 mg/dL for the KRYSTEXXA 8 mg every 2 weeks group. In comparison, the mean plasma uric acid level for the placebo group was 8.2 mg/dL.

In a single-dose, dose-ranging trial, following 1-hour intravenous infusions of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 or 12 mg of pegloticase in 24 patients with symptomatic gout (n=4 subjects/dose group), plasma uric acid decreased with increasing pegloticase dose or concentrations. The duration of suppression of plasma uric acid appeared to be positively associated with pegloticase dose. Sustained decrease in plasma uric acid below the solubility concentration of 6 mg/dL for more than 300 hours was observed with doses of 8 mg and 12 mg.

Pharmacokinetic properties

Pegloticase levels were determined in serum based on measurements of uricase enzyme activity.

Absorption

Following single intravenous infusions of 0.5 mg to 12 mg pegloticase in 23 patients with symptomatic gout, maximum serum concentrations of pegloticase increased in proportion to the dose administered. The population pharmacokinetic analysis showed that age, sex, weight, and creatinine clearance did not influence the pharmacokinetics of pegloticase.

Distribution

Significant covariates included in the model for determining clearance and volume of distribution were found to be body surface area and anti-pegloticase antibodies.

Date of revision of the text

July 2018
Site feedback

How easy to use our site?

Commentary is required, without it we won't know how to become better
The maximum length of review is 1000 symbols

Thanks!

You help us to become better