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Components:
Diazepam
Method of action:
Antianxiety, Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic, Hypnotic, Muscle Relaxant, Psycholeptics, Sedative, Tranquilizing
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Medically reviewed by Militian Inessa Mesropovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2019.12.13

Name of the medicinal product

Kratium

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Diazepam

Therapeutic indications

The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Kratium is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kratium of the medicine (Diazepam). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Therapeutic indications in the instructions to the drug Kratium directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Concentrate
Injectable

Diazepam is indicated for the management of anxiety disorders or for the short-term relief of the symptoms of anxiety. Anxiety or tension associated with the stress of everyday life usually does not require treatment with an anxiolytic.

In acute alcohol withdrawal, diazepam may be useful in the symptomatic relief of acute agitation, tremor, impending or acute delirium tremens and hallucinosis.

Diazepam is a useful adjunct for the relief of skeletal muscle spasm due to reflex spasm to local pathology (such as inflammation of the muscles or joints, or secondary to trauma); spasticity caused by upper motor neuron disorders (such as cerebral palsy and paraplegia); athetosis; and stiff-man syndrome.

Oral diazepam may be used adjunctively in convulsive disorders, although it has not proved useful as the sole therapy.

The effectiveness of diazepam in long-term use, that is, more than 4 months, has not been assessed by systematic clinical studies. The physician should periodically reassess the usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.

Kratium is indicated for the management of anxiety disorders or for the shortterm relief of the symptoms of anxiety. Anxiety or tension associated with the stress of everyday life usually does not require treatment with an anxiolytic. In acute alcohol withdrawal, Kratium may be useful in the symptomatic relief of acute agitation, tremor, impending or acute delirium tremens and hallucinosis.

Kratium is a useful adjunct for the relief of skeletal muscle spasm due to reflex spasm to local pathology (such as inflammation of the muscles or joints, or secondary to trauma), spasticity caused by upper motor neuron disorders (such as cerebral palsy and paraplegia), athetosis, and stiff-man syndrome.

Oral Kratium may be used adjunctively in convulsive disorders, although it has not proved useful as the sole therapy.

The effectiveness of Kratium in long-term use, that is, more than 4 months, has not been assessed by systematic clinical studies. The physician should periodically reassess the usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administration of Kratium is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kratium of the medicine (Diazepam). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Kratium directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Dosage should be individualized for maximum beneficial effect. While the usual daily dosages given below will meet the needs of most patients, there will be some who may require higher doses. In such cases dosage should be increased cautiously to avoid adverse effects.

Adults Usual Daily Dosage
Management of Anxiety Disorders and Relief of Symptoms of Anxiety

Depending upon severity of symptoms - 2 mg to 10 mg, 2 to 4 times daily.

Symptomatic Relief in Acute Alcohol Withdrawal

10 mg, 3 or 4 times during the first 24 hours, reducing to 5 mg, 3 or 4 times daily as needed.
Adjunctively for Relief of Skeletal Muscle Spasm 2 mg to 10 mg, 3 or 4 times daily.
Adjunctively in Convulsive Disorders 2 mg to 10 mg, 2 to 4 times daily.
Geriatric Patients or in the presence of debilitating disease. 2 mg to 2.5 mg, 1 or 2 times daily initially; increase gradually as needed and tolerated.
Pediatric Patients Usual Daily Dosage
Because of varied responses to CNS-acting drugs, initiate therapy with lowest dose and increase as required. Not for use in children under 6 months 1 mg to 2.5 mg, 3 or 4 times daily initially; increase gradually as needed and tolerated.

Proper Use Of An Intensol™

An Intensol is a concentrated oral solution as compared to standard oral liquid medications. It is recommended that an Intensol be mixed with liquid or semi-solid food such as water, juices, soda or soda-like beverages, applesauce and puddings.

Use only the calibrated dropper provided with this product. Draw into the dropper the amount prescribed for a single dose. Then squeeze the dropper contents into a liquid or semi-solid food. Stir the liquid or food gently for a few seconds. The Intensol formulation blends quickly and completely. The entire amount of the mixture, of drug and liquid or drug and food, should be consumed immediately. Do not store for future use.

Contraindications

The information provided in Contraindications of Kratium is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kratium of the medicine (Diazepam). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Kratium directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Injectable

Diazepam is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to this drug and, because of lack of sufficient clinical experience, in children under 6 months of age. Diazepam is also contraindicated in patients with myasthenia gravis, severe respiratory insufficiency, severe hepatic insufficiency, and sleep apnea syndrome. It may be used in patients with open angle glaucoma who are receiving appropriate therapy, but is contraindicated in acute narrow angle glaucoma.

Kratium is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to diazepam and, because of lack of sufficient clinical experience, in pediatric patients under 6 months of age. Kratium is also contraindicated in patients with myasthenia gravis, severe respiratory insufficiency, severe hepatic insufficiency, and sleep apnea syndrome. It may be used in patients with open-angle glaucoma who are receiving appropriate therapy, but is contraindicated in acute narrow-angle glaucoma.

Special warnings and precautions for use

The information provided in Special warnings and precautions for use of Kratium is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kratium of the medicine (Diazepam). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special warnings and precautions for use in the instructions to the drug Kratium directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Concentrate
Injectable

WARNINGS

Diazepam is not recommended in the treatment of psychotic patients and should not be employed instead of appropriate treatment.

Since diazepam has a central nervous system depressant effect, patients should be advised against the simultaneous ingestion of alcohol and other CNS-depressant drugs during diazepam therapy.

As with other agents that have anticonvulsant activity, when diazepam is used as an adjunct in treating convulsive disorders, the possibility of an increase in the frequency and/or severity of grand mal seizures may require an increase in the dosage of standard anticonvulsant medication.

Pregnancy

An increased risk of congenital malformations and other developmental abnormalities associated with the use of benzodiazepine drugs during pregnancy has been suggested. There may also be nonteratogenic risks associated with the use of benzodiazepines during pregnancy. There have been reports of neonatal flaccidity, respiratory and feeding difficulties, and hypothermia in children born to mothers who have been receiving benzodiazepines late in pregnancy. In addition, children born to mothers receiving benzodiazepines on a regular basis late in pregnancy may be at some risk of experiencing withdrawal symptoms during the postnatal period.

Diazepam has been shown to be teratogenic in mice and hamsters when given orally at daily doses of 100 mg/kg or greater (approximately eight times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD = 1 mg/kg/day] or greater on a mg/m² basis). Cleft palate and encephalopathy are the most common and consistently reported malformations produced in these species by administration of high, maternally toxic doses of diazepam during organogenesis. Rodent studies have indicated that prenatal exposure to diazepam doses similar to those used clinically can produce long-term changes in cellular immune responses, brain neurochemistry, and behavior.

In general, the use of diazepam in women of childbearing potential, and more specifically during known pregnancy, should be considered only when the clinical situation warrants the risk to the fetus. The possibility that a woman of childbearing potential may be pregnant at the time of institution of therapy should be considered. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Patients should also be advised that if they become pregnant during therapy or intend to become pregnant, they should communicate with their physicians about the desirability of discontinuing the drug.

Labor And Delivery

Special care must be taken when diazepam is used during labor and delivery, as high single doses may produce irregularities in the fetal heart rate and hypotonia, poor sucking, hypothermia, and moderate respiratory depression in the neonate. With newborn infants it must be remembered that the enzyme system involved in the breakdown of the drug is not fully developed (especially in premature infants).

Nursing Mothers

Diazepam passes into breast milk. Breastfeeding is therefore not recommended in patients receiving diazepam.

PRECAUTIONS

General

If diazepam is to be combined with other psychotropic agents or anticonvulsant drugs, careful consideration should be given to the pharmacology of the agents to be employed - particularly with known compounds which may potentiate the action of diazepam such as phenothiazines, narcotics, barbiturates, MAO inhibitors and other antidepressants (see DRUG INTERACTIONS).

The usual precautions are indicated for severely depressed patients or those in whom there is any evidence of latent depression or anxiety associated with depression, particularly the recognition that suicidal tendencies may be present and protective measures may be necessary.

Psychiatric and paradoxical reactions are known to occur when using benzodiazepines (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Should this occur, use of the drug should be discontinued. These reactions are more likely to occur in children and the elderly.

A lower dose is recommended for patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency, due to the risk of respiratory depression.

Benzodiazepines should be used with extreme caution in patients with a history of alcohol or drug abuse (see Drug Abuse And Dependence).

In debilitated patients, it is recommended that the dosage be limited to the smallest effective amount to preclude the development of ataxia or oversedation (2 mg to 2.5 mg once or twice daily, initially, to be increased gradually as needed and tolerated).

Some loss of response to the effects of benzodiazepines may develop after repeated use of diazepam for a prolonged time.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

In studies in which mice and rats were administered diazepam in the diet at a dose of 75 mg/kg/day (approximately 6 and 12 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD = 1 mg/kg/day] on a mg/m² basis) for 80 and 104 weeks, respectively, an increased incidence of liver tumors was observed in males of both species. The data currently available are inadequate to determine the mutagenic potential of diazepam. Reproduction studies in rats showed decreases in the number of pregnancies and in the number of surviving offspring following administration of an oral dose of 100 mg/kg/day (approximately 16 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis) prior to and during mating and throughout gestation and lactation. No adverse effects on fertility or offspring viability were noted at a dose of 80 mg/kg/day (approximately 13 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis).

Pregnancy

Category D (See WARNINGS: Pregnancy).

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 6 months have not been established.

Geriatric Use

In elderly patients, it is recommended that the dosage be limited to the smallest effective amount to preclude the development of ataxia or oversedation (2 mg to 2.5 mg once or twice daily, initially to be increased gradually as needed and tolerated).

Extensive accumulation of diazepam and its major metabolite, desmethyldiazepam, has been noted following chronic administration of diazepam in healthy elderly male subjects. Metabolites of this drug are known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

Hepatic Insufficiency

Decreases in clearance and protein binding, and increases in volume of distribution and half-life have been reported in patients with cirrhosis. In such patients, a 2- to 5-fold increase in mean half-life has been reported. Delayed elimination has also been reported for the active metabolite desmethyldiazepam. Benzodiazepines are commonly implicated in hepatic encephalopathy. Increases in half-life have also been reported in hepatic fibrosis and in both acute and chronic hepatitis (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics in Special Populations: Hepatic Insufficiency).

WARNINGS

Kratium is not recommended in the treatment of psychotic patients and should not be employed instead of appropriate treatment.

Since Kratium has a central nervous system depressant effect, patients should be advised against the simultaneous ingestion of alcohol and other CNSdepressant drugs during Kratium therapy.

As with other agents that have anticonvulsant activity, when Kratium is used as an adjunct in treating convulsive disorders, the possibility of an increase in the frequency and/or severity of grand mal seizures may require an increase in the dosage of standard anticonvulsant medication. Abrupt withdrawal of Kratium in such cases may also be associated with a temporary increase in the frequency and/or severity of seizures.

Pregnancy

An increased risk of congenital malformations and other developmental abnormalities associated with the use of benzodiazepine drugs during pregnancy has been suggested. There may also be non-teratogenic risks associated with the use of benzodiazepines during pregnancy. There have been reports of neonatal flaccidity, respiratory and feeding difficulties, and hypothermia in children born to mothers who have been receiving benzodiazepines late in pregnancy. In addition, children born to mothers receiving benzodiazepines on a regular basis late in pregnancy may be at some risk of experiencing withdrawal symptoms during the postnatal period.

Diazepam has been shown to be teratogenic in mice and hamsters when given orally at daily doses of 100 mg/kg or greater (approximately eight times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD=1 mg/kg/day] or greater on a mg/m² basis). Cleft palate and encephalopathy are the most common and consistently reported malformations produced in these species by administration of high, maternally toxic doses of diazepam during organogenesis. Rodent studies have indicated that prenatal exposure to diazepam doses similar to those used clinically can produce long-term changes in cellular immune responses, brain neurochemistry, and behavior.

In general, the use of diazepam in women of childbearing potential, and more specifically during known pregnancy, should be considered only when the clinical situation warrants the risk to the fetus. The possibility that a woman of childbearing potential may be pregnant at the time of institution of therapy should be considered. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Patients should also be advised that if they become pregnant during therapy or intend to become pregnant they should communicate with their physician about the desirability of discontinuing the drug.

Labor And Delivery

Special care must be taken when Kratium is used during labor and delivery, as high single doses may produce irregularities in the fetal heart rate and hypotonia, poor sucking, hypothermia, and moderate respiratory depression in the neonates. With newborn infants it must be remembered that the enzyme system involved in the breakdown of the drug is not yet fully developed (especially in premature infants).

Nursing Mothers

Diazepam passes into breast milk. Breastfeeding is therefore not recommended in patients receiving Kratium.

PRECAUTIONS

General

If Kratium is to be combined with other psychotropic agents or anticonvulsant drugs, careful consideration should be given to the pharmacology of the agents to be employed - particularly with known compounds that may potentiate the action of diazepam, such as phenothiazines, narcotics, barbiturates, MAO inhibitors and other antidepressants (see DRUG INTERACTIONS).

The usual precautions are indicated for severely depressed patients or those in whom there is any evidence of latent depression or anxiety associated with depression, particularly the recognition that suicidal tendencies may be present and protective measures may be necessary.

Psychiatric and paradoxical reactions are known to occur when using benzodiazepines (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Should this occur, use of the drug should be discontinued. These reactions are more likely to occur in children and the elderly.

A lower dose is recommended for patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency, due to the risk of respiratory depression.

Benzodiazepines should be used with extreme caution in patients with a history of alcohol or drug abuse (see Drug Abuse And Dependence).

In debilitated patients, it is recommended that the dosage be limited to the smallest effective amount to preclude the development of ataxia or oversedation (2 mg to 2.5 mg once or twice daily, initially, to be increased gradually as needed and tolerated).

Some loss of response to the effects of benzodiazepines may develop after repeated use of Kratium for a prolonged time.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

In studies in which mice and rats were administered diazepam in the diet at a dose of 75 mg/kg/day (approximately 6 and 12 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD=1 mg/kg/day] on a mg/m² basis) for 80 and 104 weeks, respectively, an increased incidence of liver tumors was observed in males of both species. The data currently available are inadequate to determine the mutagenic potential of diazepam. Reproduction studies in rats showed decreases in the number of pregnancies and in the number of surviving offspring following administration of an oral dose of 100 mg/kg/day (approximately 16 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis) prior to and during mating and throughout gestation and lactation. No adverse effects on fertility or offspring viability were noted at a dose of 80 mg/kg/day (approximately 13 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis).

Pregnancy

Category D (see WARNINGS: Pregnancy).

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 6 months have not been established.

Geriatric Use

In elderly patients, it is recommended that the dosage be limited to the smallest effective amount to preclude the development of ataxia or oversedation (2 mg to 2.5 mg once or twice daily, initially to be increased gradually as needed and tolerated).

Extensive accumulation of diazepam and its major metabolite, desmethyldiazepam, has been noted following chronic administration of diazepam in healthy elderly male subjects. Metabolites of this drug are known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

Hepatic Insufficiency

Decreases in clearance and protein binding, and increases in volume of distribution and half-life have been reported in patients with cirrhosis. In such patients, a 2- to 5- fold increase in mean half-life has been reported. Delayed elimination has also been reported for the active metabolite desmethyldiazepam. Benzodiazepines are commonly implicated in hepatic encephalopathy. Increases in half-life have also been reported in hepatic fibrosis and in both acute and chronic hepatitis (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics in Special Populations: Hepatic Insufficiency).

Effects on ability to drive and use machines

The information provided in Effects on ability to drive and use machines of Kratium is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kratium of the medicine (Diazepam). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Effects on ability to drive and use machines in the instructions to the drug Kratium directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Sedation, amnesia, impaired concentration and impaired muscular function may adversely effect the ability to drive or to use machines. If insufficient sleep duration occurs, the likelihood of impaired alertness may be increased (see also Interactions). Patients should be warned that effects on the central nervous system may persist into the day after administration even after a single dose.

This medicine can impair cognitive function and can affect a patient's ability to drive safely. This class of medicine is in the list of drugs included in regulations under 5a of the Road Traffic Act 1988. When prescribing this medicine, patients should be told:

- The medicine is likely to affect your ability to drive

- Do not drive until you know how the medicine affects you

- It is an offence to drive while under the influence of this medicine

- However, you would not be committing an offence (called 'statutory defence') if:

- The medicine has been prescribed to treat a medical or dental problem and

- You have taken it according to the instructions given by the prescriber and in the information provided with the medicine and

- It was not affecting your ability to drive safely

Undesirable effects

The information provided in Undesirable effects of Kratium is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kratium of the medicine (Diazepam). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Undesirable effects in the instructions to the drug Kratium directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Concentrate
Injectable

Side effects most commonly reported were drowsiness, fatigue, muscle weakness and ataxia. The following have also been reported:

Central Nervous System: confusion, depression, dysarthria, headache, slurred speech, tremor, vertigo

Gastrointestinal System: constipation, nausea, gastrointestinal disturbances

Special Senses: blurred vision, diplopia, dizziness

Cardiovascular System: hypotension

Psychiatric and Paradoxical Reactions: stimulation, restlessness, acute hyperexcited states, anxiety, agitation, aggressiveness, irritability, rage, hallucinations, psychoses, delusions, increased muscle spasticity, insomnia, sleep disturbances, and nightmares. Inappropriate behavior and other adverse behavioral effects have been reported when using benzodiazepines. Should these occur, use of the drug should be discontinued. They are more likely to occur in children and in the elderly.

Urogenital System: incontinence, changes in libido, urinary retention

Skin and Appendages: skin reactions

Laboratories: elevated transaminases and alkaline phosphatase

Other: changes in salivation, including dry mouth, hypersalivation

Anterograde amnesia may occur using therapeutic dosages, the risk increasing at higher dosages. Amnestic effects may be associated with inappropriate behavior.

Minor changes in EEG patterns, usually low-voltage fast activity, have been observed in patients during and after diazepam therapy and are of no known significance.

Because of isolated reports of neutropenia and jaundice, periodic blood counts and liver function tests are advisable during long-term therapy.

Postmarketing Experience

Injury, Poisoning And Procedural Complications

There have been reports of falls and fractures in benzodiazepine users. The risk is increased in those taking concomitant sedatives (including alcohol), and in the elderly.

Drug Abuse And Dependence

Diazepam is subject to Schedule IV control under the Controlled Substance Act of 1970. Abuse and dependence of benzodiazepines have been reported. Addiction-prone individuals (such as drug addicts or alcoholics) should be under careful surveillance when receiving diazepam or other psychotropic agents because of the predisposition of such patients to habituation and dependence. Once physical dependence to benzodiazepines has developed, termination of treatment will be accompanied by withdrawal symptoms. The risk is more pronounced in patients on long-term therapy.

Withdrawal symptoms, similar in character to those noted with barbiturates and alcohol have occurred following abrupt discontinuance of diazepam. These withdrawal symptoms may consist of tremor, abdominal and muscle cramps, vomiting, sweating, headache, muscle pain, extreme anxiety, tension, restlessness, confusion and irritability. In severe cases, the following symptoms may occur: derealization, depersonalization, hyperacusis, numbness and tingling of the extremities, hypersensitivity to light, noise and physical contact, hallucinations or epileptic seizures. The more severe withdrawal symptoms have usually been limited to those patients who received excessive doses over an extended period of time. Generally milder withdrawal symptoms (e.g., dysphoria and insomnia) have been reported following abrupt discontinuance of benzodiazepines taken continuously at therapeutic levels for several months. Consequently, after extended therapy, abrupt discontinuance should generally be avoided and a gradual dosage tapering schedule followed.

Chronic use (even at therapeutic doses) may lead to the development of physical dependence: discontinuation of the therapy may result in withdrawal or rebound phenomena.

Rebound Anxiety

A transient syndrome whereby the symptoms that led to treatment with diazepam recur in an enhanced form. This may occur upon discontinuation of treatment. It may be accompanied by other reactions including mood changes, anxiety and restlessness.

Since the risk of withdrawal phenomena and rebound phenomena is greater after abrupt discontinuation of treatment, it is recommended that the dosage be decreased gradually.

Side effects most commonly reported were drowsiness, fatigue, muscle weakness, and ataxia. The following have also been reported:

Central Nervous System: confusion, depression, dysarthria, headache, slurred speech, tremor, vertigo

Gastrointestinal System: constipation, nausea, gastrointestinal disturbances

Special Senses: blurred vision, diplopia, dizziness

Cardiovascular System: hypotension

Psychiatric and Paradoxical Reactions: stimulation, restlessness, acute hyperexcited states, anxiety, agitation, aggressiveness, irritability, rage, hallucinations, psychoses, delusions, increased muscle spasticity, insomnia, sleep disturbances, and nightmares. Inappropriate behavior and other adverse behavioral effects have been reported when using benzodiazepines. Should these occur, use of the drug should be discontinued. They are more likely to occur in children and in the elderly.

Urogenital System: incontinence, changes in libido, urinary retention

Skin and Appendages: skin reactions

Laboratories: elevated transaminases and alkaline phosphatase

Other: changes in salivation, including dry mouth, hypersalivation

Antegrade amnesia may occur using therapeutic dosages, the risk increasing at higher dosages. Amnestic effects may be associated with inappropriate behavior.

Minor changes in EEG patterns, usually low-voltage fast activity, have been observed in patients during and after Kratium therapy and are of no known significance.

Because of isolated reports of neutropenia and jaundice, periodic blood counts and liver function tests are advisable during long-term therapy.

Postmarketing Experience

Injury, Poisoning and Procedural Complications: There have been reports of falls and fractures in benzodiazepine users. The risk is increased in those taking concomitant sedatives (including alcohol), and in the elderly.

Drug Abuse And Dependence

Diazepam is subject to Schedule IV control under the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. Abuse and dependence of benzodiazepines have been reported. Addiction-prone individuals (such as drug addicts or alcoholics) should be under careful surveillance when receiving diazepam or other psychotropic agents because of the predisposition of such patients to habituation and dependence. Once physical dependence to benzodiazepines has developed, termination of treatment will be accompanied by withdrawal symptoms. The risk is more pronounced in patients on long-term therapy.

Withdrawal symptoms, similar in character to those noted with barbiturates and alcohol have occurred following abrupt discontinuance of diazepam. These withdrawal symptoms may consist of tremor, abdominal and muscle cramps, vomiting, sweating, headache, muscle pain, extreme anxiety, tension, restlessness, confusion and irritability. In severe cases, the following symptoms may occur: derealization, depersonalization, hyperacusis, numbness and tingling of the extremities, hypersensitivity to light, noise and physical contact, hallucinations or epileptic seizures. The more severe withdrawal symptoms have usually been limited to those patients who had received excessive doses over an extended period of time. Generally milder withdrawal symptoms (e.g., dysphoria and insomnia) have been reported following abrupt discontinuance of benzodiazepines taken continuously at therapeutic levels for several months. Consequently, after extended therapy, abrupt discontinuation should generally be avoided and a gradual dosage tapering schedule followed.

Chronic use (even at therapeutic doses) may lead to the development of physical dependence: discontinuation of the therapy may result in withdrawal or rebound phenomena.

Rebound Anxiety: A transient syndrome whereby the symptoms that led to treatment with Kratium recur in an enhanced form. This may occur upon discontinuation of treatment. It may be accompanied by other reactions including mood changes, anxiety, and restlessness. Since the risk of withdrawal phenomena and rebound phenomena is greater after abrupt discontinuation of treatment, it is recommended that the dosage be decreased gradually.

Overdose

The information provided in Overdose of Kratium is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kratium of the medicine (Diazepam). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Overdose in the instructions to the drug Kratium directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Overdose of benzodiazepines is usually manifested by central nervous system depression ranging from drowsiness to coma. In mild cases, symptoms include drowsiness, confusion and lethargy. In more serious cases, symptoms may include ataxia, diminished reflexes, hypotonia, hypotension, respiratory depression, coma (rarely), and death (very rarely). Overdose of benzodiazepines in combination with other CNS depressants (including alcohol) may be fatal and should be closely monitored.

Management Of Overdosage

Following overdose with oral benzodiazepines, general supportive measures should be employed including the monitoring of respiration, pulse and blood pressure. Vomiting should be induced (within 1 hour) if the patient is conscious. Gastric lavage should be undertaken with the airway protected if the patient is unconscious. Intravenous fluids should be administered. If there is no advantage in emptying the stomach, activated charcoal should be given to reduce absorption. Special attention should be paid to respiratory and cardiac function in intensive care. General supportive measures should be employed, along with intravenous fluids, and an adequate airway maintained. Should hypotension develop, treatment may include intravenous fluid therapy, repositioning, judicious use of vasopressors appropriate to the clinical situation, if indicated, and other appropriate countermeasures. Dialysis is of limited value.

As with the management of intentional overdosage with any drug, it should be considered that multiple agents may have been ingested.

Flumazenil, a specific benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, is indicated for the complete or partial reversal of the sedative effects of benzodiazepines and may be used in situations when an overdose with a benzodiazepine is known or suspected. Prior to the administration of flumazenil, necessary measures should be instituted to secure airway, ventilation, and intravenous access. Flumazenil is intended as an adjunct to, not as a substitute for, proper management of benzodiazepine overdose. Patients treated with flumazenil should be monitored for re-sedation, respiratory depression, and other residual benzodiazepine effects for an appropriate period after treatment. The prescriber should be aware of a risk of seizure in association with flumazenil treatment, particularly in long-term benzodiazepine users and in cyclic antidepressant overdose. Caution should be observed in the use of flumazenil in epileptic patients treated with benzodiazepines. The complete flumazenil package insert including

Pharmacodynamic properties

The information provided in Pharmacodynamic properties of Kratium is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kratium of the medicine (Diazepam). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacodynamic properties in the instructions to the drug Kratium directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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ATC code: N05B A01

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Kratium is a benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties.

Pharmacokinetic properties

The information provided in Pharmacokinetic properties of Kratium is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kratium of the medicine (Diazepam). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacokinetic properties in the instructions to the drug Kratium directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Absorption

After oral administration of diazepam, > 90% of diazepam is absorbed and the average time to achieve peak plasma concentrations is 1 to 1.5 hours with a range of 0.25 to 2.5 hours. Absorption is delayed and decreased when administered with a moderate fat meal. In the presence of food, mean lag times are approximately 45 minutes as compared with 15 minutes when fasting. There is also an increase in the average time to achieve peak concentrations to about 2.5 hours in the presence of food as compared with 1.25 hours when fasting. This results in an average decrease in Cmax of 20% in addition to a 27% decrease in AUC (range 15% to 50%) when administered with food.

Distribution

Diazepam and its metabolites are highly bound to plasma proteins (diazepam 98%). Diazepam and its metabolites cross the blood-brain and placental barriers and are also found in breast milk in concentrations approximately one tenth of those in maternal plasma (days 3 to 9 post-partum). In young healthy males, the volume of distribution at steady-state is 0.8 to 1.0 L/kg. The decline in the plasma concentration-time profile after oral administration is biphasic. The initial distribution phase has a halflife of approximately 1 hour, although it may range up to > 3 hours.

Metabolism

Diazepam is N-demethylated by CYP3A4 and 2C19 to the active metabolite N-desmethyldiazepam, and is hydroxylated by CYP3A4 to the active metabolite temazepam. N-desmethyl diazepam and temazepam are both further metabolized to oxazepam. Temazepam and oxazepam are largely eliminated by glucuronidation.

Elimination

The initial distribution phase is followed by a prolonged terminal elimination phase (half-life up to 48 hours). The terminal elimination half-life of the active metabolite N-desmethyldiazepam is up to 100 hours. Diazepam and its metabolites are excreted mainly in the urine, predominantly as their glucuronide conjugates. The clearance of diazepam is 20 to 30 mL/min in young adults. Diazepam accumulates upon multiple dosing and there is some evidence that the terminal elimination half-life is slightly prolonged.

Pharmacotherapeutic group

The information provided in Pharmacotherapeutic group of Kratium is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kratium of the medicine (Diazepam). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacotherapeutic group in the instructions to the drug Kratium directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Kratium is a benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties.

Preclinical safety data

The information provided in Preclinical safety data of Kratium is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kratium of the medicine (Diazepam). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Preclinical safety data in the instructions to the drug Kratium directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Not applicable.

Incompatibilities

The information provided in Incompatibilities of Kratium is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kratium of the medicine (Diazepam). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Incompatibilities in the instructions to the drug Kratium directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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None known.

Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The information provided in Special precautions for disposal and other handling of Kratium is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kratium of the medicine (Diazepam). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special precautions for disposal and other handling in the instructions to the drug Kratium directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Not applicable.

Administrative data
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