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Components:
Ondansetron
Method of action:
Anti-Abstinence, Antiemetic
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Medically reviewed by Militian Inessa Mesropovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2019.12.12

Name of the medicinal product

Kliran

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Ondansetron

Therapeutic indications

The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Kliran is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kliran of the medicine (Ondansetron). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Therapeutic indications in the instructions to the drug Kliran directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Lozenges; Lyophilized tablets; Rectal suppositories; Solution for intravenous and intramuscular injection; Suppository; Syrup
Substance; Substance-powder
Orodispersible film

Adults:

Kliran Melt is indicated for the management of nausea and vomiting induced by cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

Kliran Melt is indicated for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV).

For treatment of established PONV, administration by injection is recommended.

Paediatric Population:

Kliran is indicated for the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in children aged >6 months

No studies have been conducted on the use of orally administered ondansetron in the prevention and treatment of PONV in children aged >1 month, administration by IV injection is recommended for this purpose.

  1. Prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy, including cisplatin ≥50 mg/m2.
  2. Prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of moderately emetogenic cancer chemotherapy.
  3. Prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with radiotherapy in patients receiving either total body irradiation, single high-dose fraction to the abdomen, or daily fractions to the abdomen.
  4. Prevention of postoperative nausea and/or vomiting. As with other antiemetics, routine prophylaxis is not recommended for patients in whom there is little expectation that nausea and/or vomiting will occur postoperatively. In patients where nausea and/or vomiting must be avoided postoperatively, Kliran tablets are recommended even where the incidence of postoperative nausea and/or vomiting is low.

Adults:

- Prophylaxis of acute nausea and vomiting induced by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy.

- Prophylaxis and treatment of delayed nausea and vomiting induced by moderately to highly emetogenic chemotherapy.

- Prophylaxis and treatment of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting induced by highly emetogenic radiotherapy.

- Prophylaxis and treatment of post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV).

Paediatric Population:

- Management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in children aged >6 months.

- Prophylaxis and treatment of post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in children aged >4 years.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administration of Kliran is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kliran of the medicine (Ondansetron). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Kliran directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Lozenges; Lyophilized tablets; Rectal suppositories; Solution for intravenous and intramuscular injection; Suppository; Syrup
Substance; Substance-powder
Orodispersible film

Place the Melt on top of the tongue, where it will disperse within seconds, then swallow.

Chemotherapy and radiotherapy induced nausea and vomiting.

Adults:

The emetogenic potential of cancer treatment varies according to the doses and combinations of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens used. The selection of dose regimen should be determined by the severity of the emetogenic challenge.

Emetogenic chemotherapy and radiotherapy: Kliran can be given either by rectal, oral (as Melt, tablets or syrup) intravenous or intramuscular administration.

For oral administration: 8 mg taken 1 to 2 hours before chemotherapy or radiation treatment, followed by 8 mg every 12 hours for a maximum of 5 days to protect against delayed or prolonged emesis.

For highly emetogenic chemotherapy: a single dose of up to 24 mg Kliran taken with 12 mg oral dexamethasone sodium phosphate, 1 to 2 hours before chemotherapy, may be used.

To protect against delayed or prolonged emesis after the first 24 hours, oral or rectal treatment with Kliran may be continued for up to 5 days after a course of treatment.

The recommended dose for oral administration is 8 mg to be taken twice daily.

Paediatric Population:

CINV in children aged > 6 months and adolescents

The dose for CINV can be calculated based on body surface area (BSA) or weight - see below. In paediatric clinical studies, ondansetron was given by IV infusion diluted in 25 to 50 mL of saline or other compatible infusion fluid and infused over not less than 15 minutes. Weight-based dosing results in higher total daily doses compared to BSA-based dosing.

There are no data from controlled clinical trials on the use of Kliran in the prevention of delayed or prolonged CINV. There are no data from controlled clinical trials on the use of Kliran for radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in children.

Dosing by BSA:

Kliran should be administered immediately before chemotherapy as a single intravenous dose of 5 mg/m2. The single intravenous dose must not exceed 8 mg.

Oral dosing can commence 12 hours later and may be continued for up to 5 days (Table 1).

The total dose over 24 hours (given as divided doses) must not exceed adult dose of 32 mg.

Table 1: BSA-based dosing for Chemotherapy - Children aged >6 months and adolescents

BSA

Day 1 (a,b)

Days 2-6(b)

< 0.6 m2

5 mg/m2 IV. plus

2 mg syrup after 12 hours

2 mg syrup every 12 hours

> 0.6 m2 to ≤1.2 m2

5 mg/m2 IV plus

4 mg syrup or tablet after 12 hours

4 mg syrup or tablet every 12 hours

>1.2 m2

5 mg/m2 or 8 mg IV plus

8 mg syrup or tablet after 12 hours

8 mg syrup or tablet every 12 hours

a The intravenous dose must not exceed 8 mg.

b The total dose over 24 hours (given as divided doses) must not exceed adult dose of 32 mg

Dosing by bodyweight:

Weight-based dosing results in higher total daily doses compared to BSA-based dosing.

Kliran should be administered immediately before chemotherapy as a single intravenous dose of 0.15 mg/kg. The single intravenous dose must not exceed 8 mg. Two further intravenous doses may be given in 4-hourly intervals.

Oral dosing can commence 12 hours later and may be continued for up to 5 days (Table 2).

The total dose over 24 hours (given as divided doses) must not exceed adult dose of 32 mg.

Table 2: Weight-based dosing for Chemotherapy - Children aged >6 months and adolescents

Weight

Day 1 (a,b)

Days 2-6(b)

≤ 10 kg

Up to 3 doses of 0.15 mg/kg IV every 4 hours

2 mg syrup every 12 hours

> 10 kg

Up to 3 doses of 0.15 mg/kg IV every 4 hours

4 mg syrup or tablet every 12 hours

a The intravenous dose must not exceed 8 mg.

b The total dose over 24 hours (given as divided doses) must not exceed adult dose of 32 mg.

Elderly:

No alteration of oral dose or frequency of administration is required.

Post operative nausea and vomiting (PONV)

Adults:

For the prevention of PONV: Kliran may be administered either orally (as Melt, tablets or syrup) or by intravenous or intramuscular injection.

For oral administration: 16 mg taken one hour prior to anaesthesia.

For the treatment of established PONV: Intravenous or intramuscular administration is recommended.

Paediatric population:

PONV in children aged > 1 month and adolescents

Oral formulation:

No studies have been conducted on the use of orally administered ondansetron in the prevention or treatment of post-operative nausea and vomiting; slow IV injection (not less than 30 seconds) is recommended for this purpose.

Injection:

For prevention of PONV in paediatric patients having surgery performed under general anaesthesia, a single dose of ondansetron may be administered by slow intravenous injection (not less than 30 seconds) at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg up to a maximum of 4 mg either prior to, at or after induction of anaesthesia.

For the treatment of PONV after surgery in paediatric patients having surgery performed under general anaesthesia, a single dose of Kliran may be administered by slow intravenous injection (not less than 30 seconds) at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg up to a maximum of 4 mg.

There are no data on the use of Kliran in the treatment of PONV in children below 2 years of age.

Elderly:

There is limited experience in the use of Kliran in the prevention and treatment of PONV in the elderly, however Kliran is well tolerated in patients over 65 years receiving chemotherapy.

For both indications

Patients with renal impairment:

No alteration of daily dosage or frequency of dosing, or route of administration are required.

Patients with hepatic impairment:

Clearance of Kliran is significantly reduced and serum half life significantly prolonged in subjects with moderate or severe impairment of hepatic function. In such patients a total daily dose of 8 mg should not be exceeded.

Patients with poor sparteine/debrisoquine metabolism:

The elimination half-life of ondansetron is not altered in subjects classified as poor metabolisers of sparteine and debrisoquine. Consequently in such patients repeat dosing will give drug exposure levels no different from those of the general population. No alteration of daily dosage or frequency of dosing is required.

Prevention Of Nausea And Vomiting Associated With Highly Emetogenic Cancer Chemotherapy

The recommended adult oral dosage of Kliran tablet is 24 mg given as three 8 mg tablets administered 30 minutes before the start of single-day highly emetogenic chemotherapy, including cisplatin ≥50 mg/m2. Multiday, single-dose administration of a 24 mg dosage has not been studied.

Pediatric Use

There is no experience with the use of a 24 mg dosage in pediatric patients.

Geriatric Use

The dosage recommendation is the same as for the general population.

Prevention Of Nausea And Vomiting Associated With Moderately Emetogenic Cancer Chemotherapy

The recommended adult oral dosage is one 8 mg Kliran tablet given twice a day. The first dose should be administered 30 minutes before the start of emetogenic chemotherapy, with a subsequent dose 8 hours after the first dose. One 8 mg Kliran tablet should be administered twice a day (every 12 hours) for 1 to 2 days after completion of chemotherapy.

Pediatric Use

For pediatric patients 12 years of age and older, the dosage is the same as for adults. For pediatric patients 4 through 11 years of age, the dosage is one 4 mg Kliran tablet given 3 times a day. The first dose should be administered 30 minutes before the start of emetogenic chemotherapy, with subsequent doses 4 and 8 hours after the first dose. One 4 mg ondansetron hydrochloride tablet should be administered 3 times a day (every 8 hours) for 1 to 2 days after completion of chemotherapy.

Geriatric Use

The dosage is the same as for the general population.

Prevention Of Nausea And Vomiting Associated With Radiotherapy, Either Total Body Irradiation, Or Single High-Dose Fraction Or Daily Fractions To The Abdomen

The recommended oral dosage is one 8 mg Kliran tablet given 3 times a day.

For total body irradiation, one 8 mg Kliran tablet should be administered 1 to 2 hours before each fraction of radiotherapy administered each day.

For single high-dose fraction radiotherapy to the abdomen, one 8 mg Kliran tablet should be administered 1 to 2 hours before radiotherapy, with subsequent doses every 8 hours after the first dose for 1 to 2 days after completion of radiotherapy.

For daily fractionated radiotherapy to the abdomen, one 8 mg Kliran tablet should be administered 1 to 2 hours before radiotherapy, with subsequent doses every 8 hours after the first dose for each day radiotherapy is given.

Pediatric Use

There is no experience with the use of Kliran tablets in the prevention of radiationinduced nausea and vomiting in pediatric patients.

Geriatric Use

The dosage recommendation is the same as for the general population.

Postoperative Nausea And Vomiting

The recommended dosage is 16 mg given as two 8 mg Kliran tablets 1 hour before induction of anesthesia.

Pediatric Use

There is no experience with the use of Kliran tablets in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in pediatric patients.

Geriatric Use

The dosage is the same as for the general population.

Dosage Adjustment For Patients With Impaired Renal Function

The dosage recommendation is the same as for the general population. There is no experience beyond first-day administration of ondansetron.

Dosage Adjustment For Patients With Impaired Hepatic Function

In patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh2 score of 10 or greater), clearance is reduced and apparent volume of distribution is increased with a resultant increase in plasma half-life. In such patients, a total daily dose of 8 mg should not be exceeded.

Kliran is only indicated for oral use. Please refer to the relevant SmPC for other dosage forms of ondansetron.

Kliran may be recommended in patients with an enhanced risk of aspiration. It can be useful for patients that experience difficulties in swallowing, e.g., children or the elderly.

Method of administration:

- Kliran orodispersible film should be removed from each individual sachet taking care not to damage the film.

- Open the sachet only at the tear tag and tear this off slowly. Do not cut the sachet.

- Before use check the film for damage. Only undamaged films should be used.

- The patients' mouth should be empty and their fingers dry before placing Kliran orodispersible film on to the tongue.

- The film should disintegrate on the tongue without water in a few seconds (in saliva which should be subsequently swallowed).

Posology

4.2.1 Chemotherapy and radiotherapy induced nausea and vomiting

Adults

The emetogenic potential of cancer treatment varies according to the doses and combinations of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens used. The selection of dose regimen should be determined by the severity of the emetogenic challenge.

Emetogenic chemotherapy and radiotherapy

Ondansetron can be given either by rectal, oral, intravenous or intramuscular administration.

Kliran is an oral formulation. The recommended oral dose is 8mg 1 to 2 hours before treatment, followed by 8mg orally 12 hours later.

To protect against delayed or prolonged emesis after the first 24 hours, oral treatment with Kliran should be continued for up to 5 days after a course of treatment. The recommended oral dosage is 8mg to be taken twice daily.

Highly emetogenic chemotherapy (e.g. high dose cisplatin)

Ondansetron can be given either by oral, rectal, intravenous or intramuscular administration.

Kliran is an oral formulation. The recommended oral dose is 24 mg taken together with oral dexamethasone sodium phosphate 12mg, 1 to 2 hours before treatment.

To protect against delayed or prolonged emesis after the first 24 hours, oral treatment with Kliran should be continued for up to 5 days after a course of treatment. The recommended oral dosage is 8mg to be taken twice daily.

Paediatric Population

Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV)

The dose for CINV can be calculated based on body surface area (BSA) or weight - see table 1 below. Weight - based dosing results in higher total daily doses compared to BSA based dosing.

There are no data from controlled clinical trials on the use of ondansetron in the prevention of delayed or prolonged CINV or on the use of ondansetron for radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV) in children.

Ondansetron should be administered immediately before chemotherapy as a single intravenous dose. The intravenous dose must not exceed 8 mg.

Oral dosing can commence twelve hours later and may be continued for up to 5 days. See Table 1 below.

The total daily dose must not exceed adult dose of 32 mg.

Table 1: BSA and weight based dosing for Chemotherapy

BSA

Day 1a,b

Day 2-6b

<0.6m2

5 mg/m2 i.v*plus

2 mg** orally after 12 hrs

2 mg** orally every 12 hrs

>0.6m2

5 mg/m2 i.v* plus

4 mg orally after 12 hrs

4 mg orally every 12 hrs

Weight

Day 1a,b

Day 2-6b

≤10 kg

Up to 3 i.v* doses of 0.15mg/kg every 4 hrs

2 mg** orally every 12 hrs

>10 kg

Up to 3 i.v* doses of 0.15mg/kg every 4 hrs

4 mg orally every 12 hrs

a The intravenous dose must not exceed 8 mg.

b The total daily dose must not exceed adult dose of 32 mg

*Kliran is an oral preparation only, and is not available in an intravenous formulation

**Kliran is only available in films of 4mg and 8mg. It is not possible to divide the film to obtain a 2mg dosage.

Elderly

Ondansetron is well tolerated by patients over 65 years and no alteration of dosage, dosing frequency or route of administration is required.

Prescribers intending to use ondansetron in the prevention of delayed nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy in adults, adolescents or children should take into consideration current practice and appropriate guidelines.

4.2.2 Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV)

Adults

Prevention of Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV)

For the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting, the recommended oral dose is 16mg given 1 hour prior to anaesthesia.

Alternatively, use 8 mg one hour prior to anaesthesia followed by two further doses of 8 mg at eight hourly intervals.

Treatment of established Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV)

For the treatment of established PONV, intravenous or intramuscular administration is recommended.

Paediatric population:

Post-operative nausea and vomiting

For the prevention and treatment of PONV, slow intravenous injection is recommended.

Alternatively, for administration in children weighing > 40kg Kliran can be administered orally as a 4 mg dose, one hour prior to anaesthesia, followed by one further dose of 4 mg after 12 hours.

There are no data on the use of ondansetron for the treatment of PONV in children under 2 years of age.

Elderly:

There is limited experience in the use of ondansetron in the prevention and treatment of PONV in the elderly; however ondansetron is well tolerated in patients over 65 years receiving chemotherapy.

Special populations - both indications:

Patients with renal impairment:

No alteration of daily dosage or frequency of dosing, or route of administration are required.

Patients with hepatic impairment:

Clearance of ondansetron is significantly reduced and serum half-life significantly prolonged in subjects with moderate or severe impairment of hepatic function. In such patients a total daily dose of 8mg should not be exceeded.

Patients with poor sparteine/debrisoquine metabolism:

The elimination half-life of ondansetron is not altered in subjects classified as poor metabolisers of sparteine and debrisoquine. Consequently in such patients repeat dosing will give drug exposure levels no different from those of the general population. No alteration of daily dosage or frequency of dosing is required.

Contraindications

The information provided in Contraindications of Kliran is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kliran of the medicine (Ondansetron). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Kliran directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Lozenges; Lyophilized tablets; Rectal suppositories; Solution for intravenous and intramuscular injection; Suppository; Syrup
Substance; Substance-powder
Orodispersible film

Concomitant use with apomorphine

Hypersensitivity to any component of the preparation.

Kliran tablets are contraindicated for patients known to have hypersensitivity to the drug.

-

- Based on reports of profound hypotension and loss of consciousness when ondansetron was administered with apomorphine hydrochloride, concomitant use with apomorphine is contraindicated.

Special warnings and precautions for use

The information provided in Special warnings and precautions for use of Kliran is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kliran of the medicine (Ondansetron). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special warnings and precautions for use in the instructions to the drug Kliran directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close
Film-coated tablet; Lozenges; Lyophilized tablets; Rectal suppositories; Solution for intravenous and intramuscular injection; Suppository; Syrup
Substance; Substance-powder
Orodispersible film

Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported in patients who have exhibited hypersensitivity to other selective 5HT3 receptor antagonists. Respiratory events should be treated symptomatically and clinicians should pay particular attention to them as precursors of hypersensitivity reactions.

Ondansetron prolongs the QT interval in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, post-marketing cases of Torsade de Pointes have been reported in patients using ondansetron. Avoid ondansetron in patients with congenital long QT syndrome. Ondansetron should be administered with caution to patients who have or may develop prolongation of QTc, including patients with electrolyte abnormalities, congestive heart failure, bradyarrhythmias or patients taking other medicinal products that lead to QT prolongation or electrolyte abnormalities.

Hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia should be corrected prior to ondansetron administration.

There have been post-marketing reports describing patients with serotonin syndrome (including altered mental status, autonomic instability and neuromuscular abnormalities) following the concomitant use of ondansetron and other serotonergic drugs (including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)). If concomitant treatment with ondansetron and other serotonergic drugs is clinically warranted, appropriate observation of the patient is advised.

As ondansetron is known to increase large bowel transit time, patients with signs of subacute intestinal obstruction should be monitored following administration.

In patients with adenotonsillar surgery prevention of nausea and vomiting with ondansetron may mask occult bleeding. Therefore, such patients should be followed carefully after ondansetron.

Kliran Melt formulation contains aspartame and therefore should be taken with caution in patients with phenylketonuria.

Paediatric Population:

Paediatric patients receiving ondansetron with hepatotoxic chemotherapeutic agents should be monitored closely for impaired hepatic function.

CINV: When calculating the dose on an mg/kg basis and administering three doses at 4-hour intervals, the total daily dose will be higher than if one single dose of 5 mg/m2 followed by an oral dose is given. The comparative efficacy of these two different dosing regimens has not been investigated in clinical trials. Cross-trial comparison indicates similar efficacy for both regimens.

WARNINGS

Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported in patients who have exhibited hypersensitivity to other selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Ondansetron is not a drug that stimulates gastric or intestinal peristalsis. It should not be used instead of nasogastric suction. The use of ondansetron in patients following abdominal surgery or in patients with chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting may mask a progressive ileus and/or gastric distension.

Rarely and predominantly with intravenous ondansetron, transient ECG changes including QT interval prolongation have been reported.

Phenytoin, Carbamazepine, And Rifampicin

In patients treated with potent inducers of CYP3A4 (i.e., phenytoin, carbamazepine, and rifampicin), the clearance of ondansetron was significantly increased and ondansetron blood concentrations were decreased. However, on the basis of available data, no dosage adjustment for ondansetron is recommended for patients on these drugs.1,3

Tramadol

Although no pharmacokinetic drug interaction between ondansetron and tramadol has been observed, data from 2 small studies indicate that ondansetron may be associated with an increase in patient controlled administration of tramadol.4,5

Chemotherapy

Tumor response to chemotherapy in the P-388 mouse leukemia model is not affected by ondansetron. In humans, carmustine, etoposide, and cisplatin do not affect the pharmacokinetics of ondansetron.

In a crossover study in 76 pediatric patients, I.V. ondansetron did not increase blood levels of highdose methotrexate.

Use In Surgical Patients

The coadministration of ondansetron had no effect on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of temazepam.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Carcinogenic effects were not seen in 2-year studies in rats and mice with oral ondansetron doses up to 10 and 30 mg/kg/day, respectively. Ondansetron was not mutagenic in standard tests for mutagenicity. Oral administration of ondansetron up to 15 mg/kg/day did not affect fertility or general reproductive performance of male and female rats.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category B.

Reproduction studies have been performed in pregnant rats and rabbits at daily oral doses up to 15 and 30 mg/kg/day, respectively, and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to ondansetron. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

Ondansetron is excreted in the breast milk of rats. It is not known whether ondansetron is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when ondansetron is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Little information is available about dosage in pediatric patients 4 years of age or younger (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections for use in pediatric patients 4 to 18 years of age).

Geriatric Use

Of the total number of subjects enrolled in cancer chemotherapy-induced and postoperative nausea and vomiting in US- and foreign-controlled clinical trials, for which there were subgroup analyses, 938 were 65 years of age and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Dosage adjustment is not needed in patients over the age of 65 (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

REFERENCE

1. Britto MR, Hussey EK, Mydlow P, et al. Effect of enzyme inducers on ondansetron (OND) metabolism in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997;61:228.

2. Villikka K, Kivisto KT, Neuvonen PJ. The effect of rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous ondansetron. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999;65:377-381.

3. De Witte JL, Schoenmaekers B, Sessler DI, et al. Anesth Analg 2001;92:1319-1321.

4. Arcioni R, della Rocca M, Romanò R, et al. Anesth Analg 2002;94:1553-1557.

Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported in patients who have exhibited hypersensitivity to other selective 5HT3 receptor antagonists. Respiratory events should be treated symptomatically and clinicians should pay particular attention to them as precursors of hypersensitivity reactions.

Ondansetron prolongs the QT interval in a dose-dependent manner (see Clinical Pharmacology). In addition, post-marketing cases of Torsade de Pointes have been reported in patients using ondansetron. Avoid ondansetron in patients with congenital long QT syndrome. Ondansetron should be administered with caution to patients who have or may develop prolongation of QTc, including patients with electrolyte abnormalities, congestive heart failure, bradyarrhythmias or patients taking other medicinal products that lead to QT prolongation or electrolyte abnormalities.

Hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia should be corrected prior to ondansetron administration.

There have been post-marketing reports describing patients with serotonin syndrome (including altered mental status, autonomic instability and neuromuscular abnormalities) following the concomitant use of ondansetron and other serotonergic drugs (including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)). If concomitant treatment with ondansetron and other serotonergic drugs is clinically warranted, appropriate observation of the patient is advised.

As ondansetron is known to increase large bowel transit time, patients with signs of sub-acute intestinal obstruction should therefore be monitored following administration.

In patients with adeno-tonsillar surgery prevention of nausea and vomiting with ondansetron may mask occult bleeding. Therefore, such patients should be followed carefully after ondansetron administration.

Paediatric Population:

Paediatric patients receiving ondansetron with hepatotoxic chemo-therapeutic agents should be monitored closely for impaired hepatic function.

Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting:

When calculating the dose on a mg/kg basis and administering three doses at 4 hourly intervals, the total daily dose will be higher than if one single dose of 5mg/m2 followed by an oral dose is given.

Effects on ability to drive and use machines

The information provided in Effects on ability to drive and use machines of Kliran is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kliran of the medicine (Ondansetron). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Effects on ability to drive and use machines in the instructions to the drug Kliran directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Lozenges; Lyophilized tablets; Rectal suppositories; Solution for intravenous and intramuscular injection; Suppository; Syrup
Orodispersible film

In psychomotor testing ondansetron does not impair performance nor cause sedation. No detrimental effects on such activities are predicted from the pharmacology of ondansetron

Ondansetron has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.

Undesirable effects

The information provided in Undesirable effects of Kliran is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kliran of the medicine (Ondansetron). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Undesirable effects in the instructions to the drug Kliran directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close
Film-coated tablet; Lozenges; Lyophilized tablets; Rectal suppositories; Solution for intravenous and intramuscular injection; Suppository; Syrup
Substance; Substance-powder
Orodispersible film

Adverse events are listed below by system organ class and frequency. Frequencies are defined as: very common (>1/10), common (>1/100 to <1/10), uncommon (>1/1000 to <1/100), rare (>1/10,000 to <1/1000) and very rare (<1/10,000). Very common, common and uncommon events were generally determined from clinical trial data. The incidence in placebo was taken into account. Rare and very rare events were generally determined from post-marketing spontaneous data.

The following frequencies are estimated at the standard recommended doses of ondansetron. The adverse event profiles in children and adolescents were comparable to that seen in adults.

Immune system disorders

Rare:

Immediate hypersensitivity reactions sometimes severe, including anaphylaxis.

Nervous system disorders

Very common:

Headache.

Uncommon:

Seizures, movement disorders (including extrapyramidal reactions such as dystonic reactions, oculogyric crisis and dyskinesia)(1)

Rare:

Dizziness predominantly during rapid IV administration.

Eye disorders

Rare:

Transient visual disturbances (e.g. blurred vision) predominantly during IV administration.

Very rare:

Transient blindness predominantly during IV administration.(2)

Cardiac disorders

Uncommon:

Arrhythmias, chest pain with or without ST segment depression, bradycardia.

Rare:

QTc prolongation (including Torsade de Pointes)

Vascular disorders

Common:

Sensation of warmth or flushing.

Uncommon:

Hypotension.

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Uncommon:

Hiccups.

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common:

Constipation.

Hepatobiliary disorders

Uncommon:

Asymptomatic increases in liver function tests.(3)

1. Observed without definitive evidence of persistent clinical sequelae.

2. The majority of the blindness cases reported resolved within 20 minutes. Most patients had received chemotherapeutic agents, which included cisplatin. Some cases of transient blindness were reported as cortical in origin.

3. These events were observed commonly in patients receiving chemotherapy with cisplatin.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.

The following have been reported as adverse events in clinical trials of patients treated with ondansetron, the active ingredient of Kliran tablets. A causal relationship to therapy with Kliran has been unclear in many cases.

Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea And Vomiting

The adverse events in Table 5 have been reported in ≥5% of adult patients receiving a single 24 mg Kliran tablet in 2 trials. These patients were receiving concurrent highly emetogenic cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimens (cisplatin dose ≥50 mg/m2 ).

Table 5. Principal Adverse Events in US Trials : Single Day Therapy With 24 mg Kliran Tablets (Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy)

Event Ondansetron 24 mg q.d.
n = 300
Ondansetron 8 mg b.i.d.
n = 124
Ondansetron 32 mg q.d.
n = 117
Headache 33 (11%) 16 (13%) 17 (15%)
Diarrhea 13 (4%) 9 (7%) 3 (3%)

The adverse events in Table 6 have been reported in ≥5% of adults receiving either 8 mg of Kliran tablets 2 or 3 times a day for 3 days or placebo in 4 trials. These patients were receiving concurrent moderately emetogenic chemotherapy, primarily cyclophosphamide-based regimens.

Table 6. Principal Adverse Events in US Trials : 3 Days of Therapy With 8 mg Kliran Tablets (Moderately Emetogenic Chemotherapy)

Event Ondansetron 8 mg b.i.d.
n = 242
Ondansetron 8 mg t.i.d.
n = 415
Placebo
n = 262
Headache 58 (24%) 113 (27%) 34 (13%)
Malaise/fatigue 32 (13%) 37 (9%) 6 (2%)
Constipation 22 (9%) 26 (6%) 1 (<1%)
Diarrhea 15 (6%) 16 (4%) 10 (4%)
Dizziness 13 (5%) 18 (4%) 12 (5%)

Central Nervous System

There have been rare reports consistent with, but not diagnostic of, extrapyramidal reactions in patients receiving ondansetron.

Hepatic

In 723 patients receiving cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy in US clinical trials, AST and/or ALT values have been reported to exceed twice the upper limit of normal in approximately 1% to 2% of patients receiving Kliran tablets. The increases were transient and did not appear to be related to dose or duration of therapy. On repeat exposure, similar transient elevations in transaminase values occurred in some courses, but symptomatic hepatic disease did not occur. The role of cancer chemotherapy in these biochemical changes cannot be clearly determined.

There have been reports of liver failure and death in patients with cancer receiving concurrent medications including potentially hepatotoxic cytotoxic chemotherapy and antibiotics. The etiology of the liver failure is unclear.

Integumentary

Rash has occurred in approximately 1% of patients receiving ondansetron.

Other

Rare cases of anaphylaxis, bronchospasm, tachycardia, angina (chest pain), hypokalemia, electrocardiographic alterations, vascular occlusive events, and grand mal seizures have been reported. Except for bronchospasm and anaphylaxis, the relationship to Kliran was unclear.

Radiation-Induced Nausea And Vomiting

The adverse events reported in patients receiving Kliran tablets and concurrent radiotherapy were similar to those reported in patients receiving Kliran tablets and concurrent chemotherapy. The most frequently reported adverse events were headache, constipation, and diarrhea.

Postoperative Nausea And Vomiting

The adverse events in Table 7 have been reported in ≥5% of patients receiving ondansetron hydrochloride tablets at a dosage of 16 mg orally in clinical trials. With the exception of headache, rates of these events were not significantly different in the ondansetron and placebo groups. These patients were receiving multiple concomitant perioperative and postoperative medications.

Table 7. Frequency of Adverse Events From Controlled Studies With Kliran Tablets (Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting)

Adverse Event Ondansetron 16 mg
(n = 550)
Placebo
(n = 531)
Wound problem 152 (28%) 162 (31%)
Drowsiness/sedation 112 (20%) 122 (23%)
Headache 49 (9%) 27 (5%)
Hypoxia 49 (9%) 35 (7%)
Pyrexia 45 (8%) 34 (6%)
Dizziness 36 (7%) 34 (6%)
Gynecological disorder 36 (7%) 33 (6%)
Anxiety/agitation 33 (6%) 29 (5%)
Bradycardia 32 (6%) 30 (6%)
Shiver(s) 28 (5%) 30 (6%)
Urinary retention 28 (5%) 18 (3%)
Hypotension 27 (5%) 32 (6%)
Pruritus 27 (5%) 20 (4%)

Observed During Clinical Practice

In addition to adverse events reported from clinical trials, the following events have been identified during post-approval use of oral formulations of Kliran. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. The events have been chosen for inclusion due to a combination of their seriousness, frequency of reporting, or potential causal connection to Kliran.

Cardiovascular: Rarely and predominantly with intravenous ondansetron, transient ECG changes including QT interval prolongation have been reported.

General: Flushing. Rare cases of hypersensitivity reactions, sometimes severe (e.g., anaphylaxis/anaphylactoid reactions, angioedema, bronchospasm, shortness of breath, hypotension, laryngeal edema, stridor) have also been reported. Laryngospasm, shock, and cardiopulmonary arrest have occurred during allergic reactions in patients receiving injectable ondansetron.

Hepatobiliary: Liver enzyme abnormalities

Lower Respiratory: Hiccups

Neurology: Oculogyric crisis, appearing alone, as well as with other dystonic reactions

Skin: Urticaria

Special Senses: Eye Disorders: Cases of transient blindness, predominantly during intravenous administration, have been reported. These cases of transient blindness were reported to resolve within a few minutes up to 48 hours.

Adverse events are listed below by system organ class and frequency. Frequencies are defined as: very common (> 1/10), common (> 1/100 and <1/10), uncommon (> 1/1000 and <1/100), rare (> 1/10,000 and <1/1000) and very rare (<1/10,000). Very common, common and uncommon events were generally determined from clinical trial data. The incidence in placebo was taken into account. Rare and very rare events were generally determined from post marketing spontaneous data.

The following frequencies are estimated at the standard recommended doses of ondansetron according to indication and formulation.

Immune system disorders

Rare: Immediate hypersensitivity reactions sometimes severe, including anaphylaxis.

Nervous system disorders

Very common: Headache.

Uncommon: seizures, movement disorders including extrapyramidal reactions (such as dystonic reactions, oculogyric crisis and dyskinesia have been observed without definitive evidence of persistent clinical sequelae).

Rare: Dizziness during rapid intravenous administration.

Eye disorders

Rare: Transient visual disturbances (e.g. blurred vision) predominantly during intravenous administration.

Very rare: transient blindness predominantly during intravenous administration.

The majority of the blindness cases reported resolved within 20 minutes. Most patients had received chemotherapeutic agents, which included cisplatin. Some cases of transient blindness were reported as cortical in origin.

Cardiac disorders

Uncommon: Arrhythmias, chest pain with or without ST segment depression, bradycardia.

Rare: QTc prolongation (including Torsade de Pointes)

Vascular disorders

Common: Sensation of warmth or flushing.

Uncommon: Hypotension.

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Uncommon: Hiccups.

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common: Constipation

Hepatobiliary disorders

Uncommon: Asymptomatic increases in liver function tests. These events were observed commonly in patients receiving chemotherapy with cisplatin.

Paediatric Population

The adverse event profile in children and adolescents was comparable to that seen in adults.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via Yellow Card Scheme: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.

Overdose

The information provided in Overdose of Kliran is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kliran of the medicine (Ondansetron). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Overdose in the instructions to the drug Kliran directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Symptoms and Signs

There is limited experience of ondansetron overdose. In the majority of cases, symptoms were similar to those already reported in patients receiving recommended doses. Manifestations that have been reported include visual disturbances, severe constipation, hypotension and a vasovagal episode with transient second-degree AV block.

Ondansetron prolongs the QT interval in a dose-dependent fashion. ECG monitoring is recommended in cases of overdose.

Paediatric population

Paediatric cases consistent with serotonin syndrome have been reported after inadvertent oral overdoses of ondansetron (exceeded estimated ingestion of 4 mg/kg) in infants and children aged 12 months to 2 years.

Treatment

There is no specific antidote for ondansetron, therefore in all cases of suspected overdose, symptomatic and supportive therapy should be given as appropriate.

Further management should be as clinically indicated or as recommended by the national poisons centre, where available.

The use of ipecacuanha to treat overdose with ondansetron is not recommended, as patients are unlikely to respond due to the anti-emetic action of ondansetron itself.

There is no specific antidote for ondansetron overdose. Patients should be managed with appropriate supportive therapy. Individual intravenous doses as large as 150 mg and total daily intravenous doses as large as 252 mg have been inadvertently administered without significant adverse events. These doses are more than 10 times the recommended daily dose.

In addition to the adverse events listed above, the following events have been described in the setting of ondansetron overdose: "Sudden blindness" (amaurosis) of 2 to 3 minutes' duration plus severe constipation occurred in 1 patient that was administered 72 mg of ondansetron intravenously as a single dose. Hypotension (and faintness) occurred in a patient that took 48 mg of Kliran tablets. Following infusion of 32 mg over only a 4-minute period, a vasovagal episode with transient second-degree heart block was observed. In all instances, the events resolved completely.

Little is known at present about over-dosage with ondansetron, however, a limited number of patients received overdoses. Manifestations that have been reported include visual disturbances, severe constipation, hypotension and vaso-vagal episodes with transient second degree AV block. In all instances, the events resolved completely.

Ondansetron prolongs QT interval in a dose-dependent manner. ECG monitoring is recommended in cases of overdose.

There is no specific antidote for ondansetron, therefore in all cases of suspected overdose, symptomatic and supportive therapy should be given as appropriate.

The use of ipecacuanha to treat overdose with ondansetron is not recommended, as patients are unlikely to respond due to the anti-emetic action of ondansetron itself.

Paediatric population

Peadiatric cases consistent with serotonin syndrome have been reported after inadvertent oral overdoses of ondansetron (exceeded estimated ingestion of 4 mg/kg) in infants and children aged 12 months to 2 years

Pharmacodynamic properties

The information provided in Pharmacodynamic properties of Kliran is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kliran of the medicine (Ondansetron). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacodynamic properties in the instructions to the drug Kliran directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Mechanism of Action

Ondansetron is a potent, highly selective 5HT3 receptor-antagonist. Its precise mode of action in the control of nausea and vomiting is not known. Chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy may cause release of 5HT in the small intestine initiating a vomiting reflex by activating vagal afferents via 5HT3 receptors. Ondansetron blocks the initiation of this reflex. Activation of vagal afferents may also cause a release of 5HT in the area postrema, located on the floor of the fourth ventricle, and this may also promote emesis through a central mechanism. Thus, the effect of ondansetron in the management of the nausea and vomiting induced by cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy is probably due to antagonism of 5HT3 receptors on neurons located both in the peripheral and central nervous system.

The mechanisms of action in post-operative nausea and vomiting are not known but there may be common pathways with cytotoxic induced nausea and vomiting.

Ondansetron does not alter plasma prolactin concentrations.

The role of ondansetron in opiate-induced emesis is not yet established.

QT Prolongation

The effect of ondansetron on the QTc interval was evaluated in a double blind, randomized, placebo and positive (moxifloxacin) controlled, crossover study in 58 healthy adult men and women. Ondansetron doses included 8 mg and 32 mg infused intravenously over 15 minutes. At the highest tested dose of 32 mg, the maximum mean (upper limit of 90% CI) difference in QTcF from placebo after baseline-correction was 19.6 (21.5) msec. At the lower tested dose of 8 mg, the maximum mean (upper limit of 90% CI) difference in QTcF from placebo after baseline-correction was 5.8 (7.8) msec. In this study, there were no QTcF measurements greater than 480 msec and no QTcF prolongation was greater than 60 msec.

Paediatric population:

CINV

The efficacy of ondansetron in the control of emesis and nausea induced by cancer chemotherapy was assessed in a double-blind randomised trial in 415 patients aged 1 to 18 years (S3AB3006). On the days of chemotherapy, patients received either ondansetron 5 mg/m2 intravenous and ondansetron 4 mg orally after 8-12 hours or ondansetron 0.45 mg/kg intravenous and placebo orally after 8 to 12 hours. Post-chemotherapy both groups received 4 mg ondansetron syrup twice daily for 3 days. Complete control of emesis on worst day of chemotherapy was 49% (5 mg/m2 intravenous and ondansetron 4 mg orally) and 41% (0.45 mg/kg intravenous and placebo orally). Post-chemotherapy both groups received 4 mg ondansetron syrup twice daily for 3 days. There was no difference in the overall incidence or nature of adverse events between the two treatment groups.

A double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial (S3AB4003) in 438 patients aged 1 to 17 years demonstrated complete control of emesis on worst day of chemotherapy in:

- 73% of patients when ondansetron was administered intravenously at a dose of 5 mg/m2 intravenous together with 2 to 4 mg dexamethasone orally

- 71% of patients when ondansetron was administered as syrup at a dose of 8 mg together with 2 to 4 mg dexamethasone orally on the days of chemotherapy.

Post-chemotherapy both groups received 4 mg ondansetron syrup twice daily for 2 days. There was no difference in the overall incidence or nature of adverse events between the two treatment groups.

The efficacy of ondansetron in 75 children aged 6 to 48 months was investigated in an open-label, non-comparative, single-arm study (S3A40320). All children received three 0.15 mg/kg doses of intravenous ondansetron, administered 30 minutes before the start of chemotherapy and then at 4 and 8 hours after the first dose. Complete control of emesis was achieved in 56% of patients.

Another open-label, non-comparative, single-arm study (S3A239) investigated the efficacy of one intravenous dose of 0.15 mg/kg ondansetron followed by two oral ondansetron doses of 4 mg for children aged < 12 years and 8 mg for children aged > 12 years (total no. of children n = 28). Complete control of emesis was achieved in 42% of patients.

PONV

The efficacy of a single dose of ondansetron in the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting was investigated in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 670 children aged 1 to 24 months (post-conceptual age >44 weeks, weight > 3 kg). Included subjects were scheduled to undergo elective surgery under general anaesthesia and had an ASA status ≤ III. A single dose of ondansetron 0.1 mg/kg was administered within five minutes following induction of anaesthesia. The proportion of subjects who experienced at least one emetic episode during the 24-hour assessment period (ITT) was greater for patients on placebo than those receiving ondansetron (28% vs. 11%, p <0.0001).

Four double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have been performed in 1469 male and female patients (2 to 12 years of age) undergoing general anaesthesia. Patients were randomised to either single intravenous doses of ondansetron (0.1 mg/kg for paediatric patients weighing 40 kg or less, 4 mg for paediatric patients weighing more than 40 kg; number of patients = 735) or placebo (number of patients = 734). Study drug was administered over at least 30 seconds, immediately prior to or following anaesthesia induction. Ondansetron was significantly more effective than placebo in preventing nausea and vomiting. The results of these studies are summarised in Table 3.

Table 3: Prevention and treatment of PONV in Paediatric Patients - Treatment response over 24 hours

Study

Endpoint

Ondansetron %

Placebo %

p value

S3A380

CR

68

39

≤0.001

S3GT09

CR

61

35

≤0.001

S3A381

CR

53

17

≤0.001

S3GT11

no nausea

64

51

0.004

S3GT11

no emesis

60

47

0.004

CR = no emetic episodes, rescue or withdrawal

Ondansetron is a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist. While its mechanism of action has not been fully characterized, ondansetron is not a dopamine-receptor antagonist. Serotonin receptors of the 5-HT3 type are present both peripherally on vagal nerve terminals and centrally in the chemoreceptor trigger zone of the area postrema. It is not certain whether ondansetron's antiemetic action is mediated centrally, peripherally, or in both sites. However, cytotoxic chemotherapy appears to be associated with release of serotonin from the enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine. In humans, urinary 5-HIAA (5- hydroxyindoleacetic acid) excretion increases after cisplatin administration in parallel with the onset of emesis. The released serotonin may stimulate the vagal afferents through the 5-HT3 receptors and initiate the vomiting reflex.

In animals, the emetic response to cisplatin can be prevented by pretreatment with an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, bilateral abdominal vagotomy and greater splanchnic nerve section, or pretreatment with a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist.

In normal volunteers, single intravenous doses of 0.15 mg/kg of ondansetron had no effect on esophageal motility, gastric motility, lower esophageal sphincter pressure, or small intestinal transit time. Multiday administration of ondansetron has been shown to slow colonic transit in normal volunteers. Ondansetron has no effect on plasma prolactin concentrations.

Ondansetron does not alter the respiratory depressant effects produced by alfentanil or the degree of neuromuscular blockade produced by atracurium. Interactions with general or local anesthetics have not been studied.

Pharmaco-therapeutic group: Anti-emetics and anti-nauseants, Serotonin (5-HT3) antagonists

ATC Code: A04AA01

Ondansetron is a potent, highly selective 5-HT3 receptor-antagonist.

Its precise mode of action in the control of nausea and vomiting is not known. Chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy may cause release of 5HT in the small intestine initiating a vomiting reflex by activating vagal afferents via 5HT3 receptors. Ondansetron blocks the initiation of this reflex. Activation of vagal afferents may also cause a release of 5HT in the area postrema, located on the floor of the fourth ventricle, and this may also promote emesis through a central mechanism. Thus, the effect of ondansetron in the management of the nausea and vomiting induced by cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy is probably due to antagonism of 5HT3 receptors on neurons located both in the peripheral and central nervous system. The mechanisms of action in post-operative nausea and vomiting are not known but there may be common pathways with cytotoxic induced nausea and vomiting.

Ondansetron does not alter plasma prolactin concentrations.

The role of ondansetron in opiate-induced emesis is not yet established.

The effect of ondansetron on the QTc interval was evaluated in a double-blind, randomised, placebo and positive (moxifloxacin) controlled, crossover study in 58 healthy adult men and women. Ondansetron doses included 8 mg and 32 mg infused intravenously over 15 minutes. At the highest tested dose of 32 mg, the maximum mean (upper limit of 90% CI) difference in QTcF from placebo after baseline-correction was 19.6 (21.5) msec. At the lower tested dose of 8 mg, the maximum mean (upper limit of 90% CI) difference in QTcF from placebo after baseline correction was 5.8 (7.8) msec. In this study, there were no QTcF measurements greater than 480 msec and no QTcF prolongation was greater than 60 msec. No significant changes were seen in the measured electrocardiographic PR or QRS intervals.

Paediatric Population:

Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

The efficacy of ondansetron in the control of emesis and nausea induced by cancer chemotherapy was assessed in a double-blind randomised trial in 415 patients aged 1 to 18 years. On the days of chemotherapy, patients received either ondansetron 5 mg/m2 intravenously + ondansetron 4 mg orally after 8-12 hrs; or ondansetron 0.45 mg/kg intravenous + placebo orally after 8-12 hrs. Post-chemotherapy both groups received 4 mg ondansetron orally twice daily for 3 days. Complete control of emesis on worst day of chemotherapy was 49% (5 mg/m2 intravenously + ondansetron 4 mg orally) and 41% (0.45 mg/kg intravenously + placebo orally). Post-chemotherapy both groups received 4 mg ondansetron syrup twice daily for 3 days. There was no difference in the overall incidence or nature of adverse events between the two treatment groups.

A double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial in 438 patients aged 1 to 17 years demonstrated complete control of emesis on the worst day of chemotherapy in:

- 73% of patients when ondansetron was administered intravenously at a dose of 5 mg/m2 intravenous together with 2-4 mg dexamethasone orally

- 71% of patients when ondansetron was administered orally at a dose of 8 mg + 2 - 4 mg dexamethasone orally on the days of chemotherapy.

Post-chemotherapy both groups received 4 mg ondansetron orally twice daily for 2 days. There was no difference in the overall incidence or nature of adverse events between the two treatment groups.

The efficacy of ondansetron in 75 children aged 6 to 48 months was investigated in an open-label, non-comparative, single-arm study. All children received three 0.15 mg/kg doses of intravenous ondansetron, administered 30 minutes before the start of chemotherapy and then at four and eight hours after the first dose. Complete control of emesis was achieved in 56% of patients.

Another open-label, non-comparative, single-arm study investigated the efficacy of one intravenous dose of 0.15 mg/kg ondansetron followed by two oral ondansetron doses of 4 mg for children aged < 12 yrs and 8 mg for children aged 12 yrs (total number of children n= 28). Complete control of emesis was achieved in 42% of patients.

Prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting

The efficacy of a single dose of ondansetron in the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting was investigated in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 670 children aged 1 to 24 months (post-conceptual age44 weeks, weight 3 kg). Included subjects were scheduled to undergo elective surgery under general anaesthesia and had an ASA statusIII. A single dose of ondansetron 0.1 mg/kg was administered within five minutes following induction of anaesthesia. The proportion of subjects who experienced at least one emetic episode during the 24-hour assessment period (ITT) was greater for patients on placebo than those receiving ondansetron (28% vs. 11%, p <0.0001).

Four double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have been performed in 1469 male and female patients (2 to 12 years of age) undergoing general anaesthesia. Patients were randomised to either single intravenous doses of ondansetron (0.1 mg/kg for paediatric patients weighing 40 kg or less, 4 mg for paediatric patients weighing more than 40 kg; number of patients = 735) or placebo (number of patients = 734). Study drug was administered over at least 30 seconds, immediately prior to or following anaesthesic induction. Ondansetron was significantly more effective than placebo in preventing nausea and vomiting.

Pharmacokinetic properties

The information provided in Pharmacokinetic properties of Kliran is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kliran of the medicine (Ondansetron). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacokinetic properties in the instructions to the drug Kliran directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Following oral administration of ondansetron, absorption is rapid with maximum peak plasma concentrations of about 30 ng/mL being attained and achieved in approximately 1.5 hours after an 8 mg dose. The syrup and tablet formulations are bioequivalent and have an absolute oral bioavailability of 60%. The disposition of ondansetron following oral, intravenous and intramuscular dosing is similar with a terminal elimination half-life of approximately 3 hours and a steady-state volume of distribution of about 140 L. Ondansetron is not highly protein bound (70-76%) and is cleared from the systemic circulation predominantly by hepatic metabolism through multiple enzymatic pathways. Less than 5% of the absorbed dose is excreted unchanged in the urine. The absence of the enzyme CYP2D6 (the debrisoquine polymorphism) has no effect on the pharmacokinetics of ondansetron. The pharmacokinetic properties of ondansetron are unchanged on repeat dosing.

Special Patient Populations

Gender

Gender differences were shown in the disposition of ondansetron, with females having a greater rate and extent of absorption following an oral dose and reduced systemic clearance and volume of distribution (adjusted for weight).

Children and Adolescents (aged 1 month to 17 years)

In paediatric patients aged 1 to 4 months (n=19) undergoing surgery, weight normalised clearance was approximately 30% slower than in patients aged 5 to 24 months (n=22) but comparable to the patients aged 3 to 12 years. The half-life in the patient population aged 1 to 4 month was reported to average 6.7 hours compared to 2.9 hours for patients in the 5 to 24 month and 3 to 12 year age range. The differences in pharmacokinetic parameters in the 1 to 4 month patient population can be explained in part by the higher percentage of total body water in neonates and infants and a higher volume of distribution for water soluble drugs like ondansetron.

In paediatric patients aged 3 to 12 years undergoing elective surgery with general anaesthesia, the absolute values for both the clearance and volume of distribution of ondansetron were reduced in comparison to values with adult patients. Both parameters increased in a linear fashion with weight and by 12 years of age, the values were approaching those of young adults. When clearance and volume of distribution values were normalised by body weight, the values for these parameters were similar between the different age group populations. Use of weight-based dosing compensates for age-related changes and is effective in normalising systemic exposure in paediatric patients.

Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on 428 subjects (cancer patients, surgery patients and healthy volunteers) aged 1 month to 44 years following intravenous administration of ondansetron. Based on this analysis, systemic exposure (AUC) of ondansetron following oral or IV dosing in children and adolescents was comparable to adults, with the exception of infants aged 1 to 4 months. Volume was related to age and was lower in adults than in infants and children. Clearance was related to weight but not to age with the exception of infants aged 1 to 4 months. It is difficult to conclude whether there was an additional reduction in clearance related to age in infants 1 to 4 months or simply inherent variability due to the low number of subjects studied in this age group. Since patients less than 6 months of age will only receive a single dose in PONV a decreased clearance is not likely to be clinically relevant.

Elderly

Early Phase I studies in healthy elderly volunteers showed a slight age-related decrease in clearance, and an increase in half-life of ondansetron. However, wide inter-subject variability resulted in considerable overlap in pharmacokinetic parameters between young (< 65 years of age) and elderly subjects (> 65 years of age) and there were no overall differences in safety or efficacy observed between young and elderly cancer patients enrolled in CINV clinical trials to support a different dosing recommendation for the elderly.

Based on more recent ondansetron plasma concentrations and exposure-response modelling, a greater effect on QTcF is predicted in patients >75 years of age compared to young adults. Specific dosing information is provided for patients over 65 years of age and over 75 years of age for intravenous dosing.

Renal impairment

In patients with renal impairment (creatinine clearance 15-60 mL/min), systemic clearance and volume of distribution are reduced, resulting in a slight, but clinically insignificant increase in elimination half-life (5.4 hours). A study in patients with severe renal impairment who required regular haemodialysis (studied between dialyses) showed ondansetron's pharmacokinetics to be essentially unchanged.

Hepatic impairment

In patients with severe hepatic impairment, systemic clearance is markedly reduced with prolonged elimination half-lives (15-32 hours) and an oral bioavailability approaching 100% because of reduced pre-systemic metabolism.

). Because ondansetron is metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P-450 drug-metabolizing enzymes (CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP1A2), inducers or inhibitors of these enzymes may change the clearance and, hence, the half-life of ondansetron. On the basis of available data, no dosage adjustment is recommended for patients on these drugs.

Drug Abuse And Dependence

Animal studies have shown that ondansetron is not discriminated as a benzodiazepine nor does it substitute for benzodiazepines in direct addiction studies.

Warnings & Precautions

WARNINGS

Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported in patients who have exhibited hypersensitivity to other selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Ondansetron is not a drug that stimulates gastric or intestinal peristalsis. It should not be used instead of nasogastric suction. The use of ondansetron in patients following abdominal surgery or in patients with chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting may mask a progressive ileus and/or gastric distension.

Rarely and predominantly with intravenous ondansetron, transient ECG changes including QT interval prolongation have been reported.

Phenytoin, Carbamazepine, And Rifampicin

In patients treated with potent inducers of CYP3A4 (i.e., phenytoin, carbamazepine, and rifampicin), the clearance of ondansetron was significantly increased and ondansetron blood concentrations were decreased. However, on the basis of available data, no dosage adjustment for ondansetron is recommended for patients on these drugs.1,3

Tramadol

Although no pharmacokinetic drug interaction between ondansetron and tramadol has been observed, data from 2 small studies indicate that ondansetron may be associated with an increase in patient controlled administration of tramadol.4,5

Chemotherapy

Tumor response to chemotherapy in the P-388 mouse leukemia model is not affected by ondansetron. In humans, carmustine, etoposide, and cisplatin do not affect the pharmacokinetics of ondansetron.

In a crossover study in 76 pediatric patients, I.V. ondansetron did not increase blood levels of highdose methotrexate.

Use In Surgical Patients

The coadministration of ondansetron had no effect on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of temazepam.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Carcinogenic effects were not seen in 2-year studies in rats and mice with oral ondansetron doses up to 10 and 30 mg/kg/day, respectively. Ondansetron was not mutagenic in standard tests for mutagenicity. Oral administration of ondansetron up to 15 mg/kg/day did not affect fertility or general reproductive performance of male and female rats.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category B.

Reproduction studies have been performed in pregnant rats and rabbits at daily oral doses up to 15 and 30 mg/kg/day, respectively, and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to ondansetron. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

Ondansetron is excreted in the breast milk of rats. It is not known whether ondansetron is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when ondansetron is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Little information is available about dosage in pediatric patients 4 years of age or younger (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections for use in pediatric patients 4 to 18 years of age).

Geriatric Use

Of the total number of subjects enrolled in cancer chemotherapy-induced and postoperative nausea and vomiting in US- and foreign-controlled clinical trials, for which there were subgroup analyses, 938 were 65 years of age and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Dosage adjustment is not needed in patients over the age of 65 (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

REFERENCE

1. Britto MR, Hussey EK, Mydlow P, et al. Effect of enzyme inducers on ondansetron (OND) metabolism in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997;61:228.

2. Villikka K, Kivisto KT, Neuvonen PJ. The effect of rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous ondansetron. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999;65:377-381.

3. De Witte JL, Schoenmaekers B, Sessler DI, et al. Anesth Analg 2001;92:1319-1321.

4. Arcioni R, della Rocca M, Romanò R, et al. Anesth Analg 2002;94:1553-1557.

Overdosage & Contraindications

OVERDOSE

There is no specific antidote for ondansetron overdose. Patients should be managed with appropriate supportive therapy. Individual intravenous doses as large as 150 mg and total daily intravenous doses as large as 252 mg have been inadvertently administered without significant adverse events. These doses are more than 10 times the recommended daily dose.

In addition to the adverse events listed above, the following events have been described in the setting of ondansetron overdose: "Sudden blindness" (amaurosis) of 2 to 3 minutes' duration plus severe constipation occurred in 1 patient that was administered 72 mg of ondansetron intravenously as a single dose. Hypotension (and faintness) occurred in a patient that took 48 mg of Kliran tablets. Following infusion of 32 mg over only a 4-minute period, a vasovagal episode with transient second-degree heart block was observed. In all instances, the events resolved completely.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Kliran tablets are contraindicated for patients known to have hypersensitivity to the drug.

Clinical Pharmacology

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Pharmacodynamics

Ondansetron is a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist. While its mechanism of action has not been fully characterized, ondansetron is not a dopamine-receptor antagonist. Serotonin receptors of the 5-HT3 type are present both peripherally on vagal nerve terminals and centrally in the chemoreceptor trigger zone of the area postrema. It is not certain whether ondansetron's antiemetic action is mediated centrally, peripherally, or in both sites. However, cytotoxic chemotherapy appears to be associated with release of serotonin from the enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine. In humans, urinary 5-HIAA (5- hydroxyindoleacetic acid) excretion increases after cisplatin administration in parallel with the onset of emesis. The released serotonin may stimulate the vagal afferents through the 5-HT3 receptors and initiate the vomiting reflex.

In animals, the emetic response to cisplatin can be prevented by pretreatment with an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, bilateral abdominal vagotomy and greater splanchnic nerve section, or pretreatment with a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist.

In normal volunteers, single intravenous doses of 0.15 mg/kg of ondansetron had no effect on esophageal motility, gastric motility, lower esophageal sphincter pressure, or small intestinal transit time. Multiday administration of ondansetron has been shown to slow colonic transit in normal volunteers. Ondansetron has no effect on plasma prolactin concentrations.

Ondansetron does not alter the respiratory depressant effects produced by alfentanil or the degree of neuromuscular blockade produced by atracurium. Interactions with general or local anesthetics have not been studied.

Pharmacokinetics

Ondansetron is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and undergoes some first-pass metabolism. Mean bioavailability in healthy subjects, following administration of a single 8 mg tablet, is approximately 56%.

Ondansetron systemic exposure does not increase proportionately to dose. AUC from a 16 mg tablet was 24% greater than predicted from an 8 mg tablet dose. This may reflect some reduction of first-pass metabolism at higher oral doses. Bioavailability is also slightly enhanced by the presence of food but unaffected by antacids.

Ondansetron is extensively metabolized in humans, with approximately 5% of a radiolabeled dose recovered as the parent compound from the urine. The primary metabolic pathway is hydroxylation on the indole ring followed by subsequent glucuronide or sulfate conjugation. Although some nonconjugated metabolites have pharmacologic activity, these are not found in plasma at concentrations likely to significantly contribute to the biological activity of ondansetron.

In vitro metabolism studies have shown that ondansetron is a substrate for human hepatic cytochrome P- 450 enzymes, including CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4. In terms of overall ondansetron turnover, CYP3A4 played the predominant role. Because of the multiplicity of metabolic enzymes capable of metabolizing ondansetron, it is likely that inhibition or loss of one enzyme (e.g., CYP2D6 genetic deficiency) will be compensated by others and may result in little change in overall rates of ondansetron elimination. Ondansetron elimination may be affected by cytochrome P-450 inducers. In a pharmacokinetic study of 16 epileptic patients maintained chronically on CYP3A4 inducers, carbamazepine, or phenytoin, reduction in AUC, Cmax, and T1/2 of ondansetron was observed. This resulted in a significant increase in clearance. However, on the basis of available data, no dosage adjustment for ondansetron is recommended (see DRUG INTERACTIONS).

In humans, carmustine, etoposide, and cisplatin do not affect the pharmacokinetics of ondansetron.

Gender differences were shown in the disposition of ondansetron given as a single dose. The extent and rate of ondansetron's absorption is greater in women than men. Slower clearance in women, a smaller apparent volume of distribution (adjusted for weight), and higher absolute bioavailability resulted in higher plasma ondansetron levels. These higher plasma levels may in part be explained by differences in body weight between men and women. It is not known whether these gender-related differences were clinically important. More detailed pharmacokinetic information is contained in Tables 1 and 2 taken from 2 studies.

Table 1. Pharmacokinetics in Normal Volunteers : Single 8 mg Kliran Tablet Dose

Age-group
(years )
Mean
Weight
(kg)
n Peak Plas ma
Concentration
(ng/mL)
Time of Peak
Plas ma
Concentration
(h)
Mean
Elimination
Half-life
(h)
Sys temic
Plas ma
Clearance
L/h/kg
Abs olute
Bioavailability
18-40 M 69.0 6 26.2 2.0 3.1 0.403 0.483
F 62.7 5 42.7 1.7 3.5 0.354 0.663
61-74 M 77.5 6 24.1 2.1 4.1 0.384 0.585
F 60.2 6 52.4 1.9 4.9 0.255 0.643
≥75 M 78.0 5 37.0 2.2 4.5 0.277 0.619
F 67.6 6 46.1 2.1 6.2 0.249 0.747

Table 2. Pharmacokinetics in Normal Volunteers : Single 24 mg Kliran Tablet Dose

Age-group
(years )
Mean Weight
(kg)
n Peak Plasma Concentration
(ng/mL)
Time of Peak Plasma
Concentration
(h)
Mean Elimination Halflife
(h)
18-43 M 84.1 8 125.8 1.9 4.7
F 71.8 8 194.4 1.6 5.8

A reduction in clearance and increase in elimination half-life are seen in patients over 75 years of age. In clinical trials with cancer patients, safety and efficacy was similar in patients over 65 years of age and those under 65 years of age; there was an insufficient number of patients over 75 years of age to permit conclusions in that age-group. No dosage adjustment is recommended in the elderly.

In patients with mild-to-moderate hepatic impairment, clearance is reduced 2-fold and mean half-life is increased to 11.6 hours compared to 5.7 hours in normals. In patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh2 score of 10 or greater), clearance is reduced 2-fold to 3-fold and apparent volume of distribution is increased with a resultant increase in half-life to 20 hours. In patients with severe hepatic impairment, a total daily dose of 8 mg should not be exceeded.

Due to the very small contribution (5%) of renal clearance to the overall clearance, renal impairment was not expected to significantly influence the total clearance of ondansetron. However, ondansetron oral mean plasma clearance was reduced by about 50% in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min). This reduction in clearance is variable and was not consistent with an increase in half-life. No reduction in dose or dosing frequency in these patients is warranted.

Plasma protein binding of ondansetron as measured in vitro was 70% to 76% over the concentration range of 10 to 500 ng/mL. Circulating drug also distributes into erythrocytes.

One 24 mg Kliran tablet is bioequivalent to and interchangeable with three 8 mg Kliran tablets.

Clinical Trials

Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea And Vomiting

Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy

In 2 randomized, double-blind, monotherapy trials, a single 24 mg Kliran tablet was superior to a relevant historical placebo control in the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy, including cisplatin ≥50 mg/m2. Steroid administration was excluded from these clinical trials. More than 90% of patients receiving a cisplatin dose ≥50 mg/m2 in the historical placebo comparator experienced vomiting in the absence of antiemetic therapy.

The first trial compared oral doses of ondansetron 24 mg once a day, 8 mg twice a day, and 32 mg once a day in 357 adult cancer patients receiving chemotherapy regimens containing cisplatin ≥50 mg/m2. A total of 66% of patients in the ondansetron 24 mg once a day group, 55% in the ondansetron 8 mg twice a day group, and 55% in the ondansetron 32 mg once a day group completed the 24-hour study period with 0 emetic episodes and no rescue antiemetic medications, the primary endpoint of efficacy. Each of the 3 treatment groups was shown to be statistically significantly superior to a historical placebo control.

In the same trial, 56% of patients receiving oral ondansetron 24 mg once a day experienced no nausea during the 24-hour study period, compared with 36% of patients in the oral ondansetron 8 mg twice a day group (p = 0.001) and 50% in the oral ondansetron 32 mg once a day group.

In a second trial, efficacy of the oral ondansetron 24 mg once a day regimen in the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy, including cisplatin ≥50 mg/m2 , was confirmed.

Moderately Emetogenic Chemotherapy

In 1 double-blind US study in 67 patients, Kliran tablets 8 mg administered twice a day were significantly more effective than placebo in preventing vomiting induced by cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy containing doxorubicin. Treatment response is based on the total number of emetic episodes over the 3-day study period. The results of this study are summarized in Table 3:

Table 3. Emetic Episodes : Treatment Response

  Ondans etron 8 mg b.i.d. Ondans etron Hydrochloride Tablets* Placebo p Value
Number of patients 33 34  
Treatment response
  0 Emetic episodes 20 (61%) 2 (6%) <0.001
  1-2 Emetic episodes 6 (18%) 8 (24%)  
  More than 2 emetic episodes/ withdrawn 7 (21%) 24 (71%) <0.001
Median number of emetic episodes 0.0 Undefined  
Median time to first emetic episode (h) Undefined 6.5  
*The first dose was administered 30 minutes before the start of emetogenic chemotherapy, with a subsequent dose 8 hours after the first dose. An 8 mg Kliran tablet was administered twice a day for 2 days after completion of chemotherapy.
Median undefined since at least 50% of the patients were withdrawn or had more than 2 emetic episodes.
Median undefined since at least 50% of patients did not have any emetic episodes.

In 1 double-blind US study in 336 patients, Kliran tablets 8 mg administered twice a day were as effective as Kliran tablets 8 mg administered 3 times a day in preventing nausea and vomiting induced by cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy containing either methotrexate or doxorubicin. Treatment response is based on the total number of emetic episodes over the 3-day study period. The results of this study are summarized in Table 4:

Table 4. Emetic Epis odes : Treatment Response

  Ondansetron
8 mg b.i.d. Ondans etron Hydrochloride Tablets* 8 mg t.i.d. Ondans etron Hydrochloride Tablets
Number of patients 165 171
Treatment response
  0 Emetic episodes 101 (61%) 99 (58%)
  1-2 Emetic episodes 16 (10%) 17 (10%)
  More than 2 emetic episodes/withdrawn 48 (29%) 55 (32%)
Median number of emetic episodes 0.0 0.0
Median time to first emetic episode (h) Undefined Undefined
Median nausea scores (0- 100)§ 6 6
*The first dose was administered 30 minutes before the start of emetogenic chemotherapy, with a subsequent dose 8 hours after the first dose. An 8 mg Kliran tablet was administered twice a day for 2 days after completion of chemotherapy.
The first dose was administered 30 minutes before the start of emetogenic chemotherapy, with subsequent doses 4 and 8 hours after the first dose. An 8 mg Kliran tablet was administered 3 times a day for 2 days after completion of chemotherapy.
Median undefined since at least 50% of patients did not have any emetic episodes.
§Visual analog scale assessment: 0 = no nausea, 100 = nausea as bad as it can be.

Re-Treatment

In uncontrolled trials, 148 patients receiving cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy were re-treated with Kliran tablets 8 mg 3 times daily during subsequent chemotherapy for a total of 396 re-treatment courses. No emetic episodes occurred in 314 (79%) of the re-treatment courses, and only 1 to 2 emetic episodes occurred in 43 (11 %) of the re-treatment courses.

Pediatric Studies

Three open-label, uncontrolled, foreign trials have been performed with 182 pediatric patients 4 to 18 years old with cancer who were given a variety of cisplatin or noncisplatin regimens. In these foreign trials, the initial dose of Kliran Injection ranged from 0.04 to 0.87 mg/kg for a total dose of 2.16 to 12 mg. This was followed by the administration of Kliran tablets ranging from 4 to 24 mg daily for 3 days. In these studies, 58% of the 170 evaluable patients had a complete response (no emetic episodes) on day 1. Two studies showed the response rates for patients less than 12 years of age who received Kliran tablets 4 mg 3 times a day to be similar to those in patients 12 to 18 years of age who received Kliran tablets 8 mg 3 times daily. Thus, prevention of emesis in these pediatric patients was essentially the same as for patients older than 18 years of age. Overall, Kliran tablets were well tolerated in these pediatric patients.

Radiation-Induced Nausea And Vomiting

Total Body Irradiation

In a randomized, double-blind study in 20 patients, Kliran tablets (8 mg given 1.5 hours before each fraction of radiotherapy for 4 days) were significantly more effective than placebo in preventing vomiting induced by total body irradiation. Total body irradiation consisted of 11 fractions(120 cGy per fraction) over 4 days for a total of 1,320 cGy. Patients received 3 fractions for 3 days, then 2 fractions on day 4.

Single High-Dose Fraction Radiotherapy

Ondansetron was significantly more effective than metoclopramide with respect to complete control of emesis (0 emetic episodes) in a double-blind trial in 105 patients receiving single high-dose radiotherapy (800 to 1,000 cGy) over an anterior or posterior field size of ≥80 cm2 to the abdomen. Patients received the first dose of Kliran tablets (8 mg) or metoclopramide (10 mg) 1 to 2 hours before radiotherapy. If radiotherapy was given in the morning, 2 additional doses of study treatment were given (1 tablet late afternoon and 1 tablet before bedtime). If radiotherapy was given in the afternoon, patients took only 1 further tablet that day before bedtime. Patients continued the oral medication on a 3 times a day basis for 3 days.

Daily Fractionated Radiotherapy

Ondansetron was significantly more effective than prochlorperazine with respect to complete control of emesis (0 emetic episodes) in a double-blind trial in 135 patients receiving a 1- to 4-week course of fractionated radiotherapy (180 cGy doses) over a field size of ≥100 cm2 to the abdomen. Patients received the first dose of Kliran tablets (8 mg) or prochlorperazine (10 mg) 1 to 2 hours before the patient received the first daily radiotherapy fraction, with 2 subsequent doses on a 3 times a day basis. Patients continued the oral medication on a 3 times a day basis on each day of radiotherapy.

Postoperative Nausea And Vomiting

Surgical patients who received ondansetron 1 hour before the induction of general balanced anesthesia (barbiturate: thiopental, methohexital, or thiamylal; opioid: alfentanil, sufentanil, morphine, or fentanyl; nitrous oxide; neuromuscular blockade: succinylcholine/curare or gallamine and/or vecuronium, pancuronium, or atracurium; and supplemental isoflurane or enflurane) were evaluated in 2 double-blind studies (1 US study, 1 foreign) involving 865 patients. Kliran tablets (16 mg) were significantly more effective than placebo in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting.

The study populations in all trials thus far consisted of women undergoing inpatient surgical procedures. No studies have been performed in males. No controlled clinical study comparing Kliran tablets to Kliran injection has been performed.

Kliran is an orodispersible film. Once in contact with saliva, it disintegrates in a few seconds.

Following oral administration of ondansetron, absorption is rapid with maximum peak plasma concentrations of about 30ng/ml being attained and achieved in approximately 1.5 hours after an 8mg dose. The syrup and tablet formulations are bioequivalent and have an absolute oral bioavailability of 60%.

The disposition of ondansetron following oral, intravenous and intramuscular dosing is similar with a terminal elimination half-life of approximately 3 hours and a steady-state volume of distribution of about 140L. Ondansetron is not highly protein bound (70-76%) and is cleared from the systemic circulation predominantly by hepatic metabolism through multiple enzymatic pathways. Less than 5% of the absorbed dose is excreted unchanged in the urine.

The absence of the enzyme CYP2D6 (the debrisoquine polymorphism) has no effect on the pharmacokinetics of ondansetron. The pharmacokinetic properties of ondansetron are unchanged on repeat dosing.

Special Patient Populations

Children and Adolescents (aged 1 month to 17 years)

In paediatric patients aged 1 to 4 months (n=19) undergoing surgery, weight normalised clearance was approximately 30% slower than in patients aged 5 to 24 months (n=22) but comparable to the patients aged 3 to 12 years. The half-life in the patient population aged 1 to 4 months was reported to average 6.7 hours compared to 2.9 hours for patients in the 5 to 24 month and 3 to 12 year age range. The differences in pharmacokinetic parameters in the 1 to 4 month patient population can be explained in part by the higher percentage of total body water in neonates and infants and a higher volume of distribution for water soluble drugs like ondansetron.

In paediatric patients aged between 3 and 12 years undergoing elective surgery with general anaesthesia, the absolute values for both the clearance and volume of distribution of ondansetron were reduced in comparison to values with adult patients. Both parameters increased in a linear fashion with weight and by 12 years of age, the values were approaching those of young adults. When clearance and volume of distribution values were normalized by body weight, the values for these parameters were similar between the different age group populations. Use of weight-based dosing compensates for age-related changes and is effective in normalizing systemic exposure in paediatric patients.

Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on 428 subjects (cancer patients, surgery patients and healthy volunteers) aged 1 month to 44 years following intravenous administration of ondansetron. Based on this analysis, systemic exposure (AUC) of ondansetron following oral or IV dosing in children and adolescents was comparable to adults, with the exception of infants aged 1 to 4 months. Volume was related to age and was lower in adults than in infants and children. Clearance was related to weight but not to age with the exception of infants aged 1 to 4 months. It is difficult to conclude whether there was an additional reduction in clearance related to age in infants 1 to 4 months or simply inherent variability due to the low number of subjects studied in this age group. Since patients less than 6 months of age will only receive a single dose in PONV a decreased clearance is not likely to be clinically relevant.

Elderly

Studies in healthy elderly volunteers have shown a slight but clinically insignificant, age-related increases in both oral bioavailability (65%) and half-life (5h) of ondansetron. Gender differences were shown in the disposition of ondansetron, with females having a greater rate and extent of absorption following an oral dose and reduced systemic clearance and volume of distribution (adjusted for weight).

Renal impairment

In patients with renal impairment (creatinine clearance >15 ml/min), systemic clearance and volume of distribution are reduced, resulting in a slight, but clinically insignificant increase in elimination half-life (5.4h). A study in patients with severe renal impairment who required regular haemodialysis (studied between dialyses) showed ondansetron's pharmacokinetics to be essentially unchanged.

Hepatic impairment

In patients with severe hepatic impairment, systemic clearance is markedly reduced with prolonged elimination half-lives (15-32h) and an oral bioavailability approaching 100% because of reduced pre-systemic metabolism.

Preclinical safety data

The information provided in Preclinical safety data of Kliran is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kliran of the medicine (Ondansetron). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Preclinical safety data in the instructions to the drug Kliran directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Lozenges; Lyophilized tablets; Rectal suppositories; Solution for intravenous and intramuscular injection; Suppository; Syrup
Orodispersible film

No additional data of relevance.

Preclinical data revealed no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenic potential.

Ondansetron and its metabolites accumulate in the milk of rats, milk/plasma-ratio was 5.2:1.

A study in cloned human cardiac ion channels has shown ondansetron has the potential to affect cardiac repolarisation via blockade of HERG potassium channels.

Incompatibilities

The information provided in Incompatibilities of Kliran is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kliran of the medicine (Ondansetron). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Incompatibilities in the instructions to the drug Kliran directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Lozenges; Lyophilized tablets; Rectal suppositories; Solution for intravenous and intramuscular injection; Suppository; Syrup
Orodispersible film

None reported.

Not applicable.

Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The information provided in Special precautions for disposal and other handling of Kliran is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kliran of the medicine (Ondansetron). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special precautions for disposal and other handling in the instructions to the drug Kliran directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Lozenges; Lyophilized tablets; Rectal suppositories; Solution for intravenous and intramuscular injection; Suppository; Syrup
Orodispersible film

Do not attempt to push Kliran Melt through the lidding foil.

Peel back the lidding foil of one blister and gently remove the Kliran Melt.

Place the Melt on top of the tongue, where it will disperse within seconds then swallow.

No special requirements.

Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

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