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Components:
Fluticasone Propionate
Method of action:
Antiallergic, Anti-Inflammatory, Antipruritic, Bronchodilator, Corticosteroids, Dermatological Preparations, Decongestant, Decongestant Local, Drugs For Obstructive Airway Diseases, Glucocorticoid, Nasal Preparations
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Medically reviewed by Oliinyk Elizabeth Ivanovna, Pharmacy. Last updated on 2019.12.14

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Fluticasone Propionate

Therapeutic indications

The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Kirigamil is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kirigamil of the medicine (Fluticasone Propionate). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Therapeutic indications in the instructions to the drug Kirigamil directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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[D] Powder for solution for injection or infusion; Cream for external use; Ointment for external use; Powder for solution for injection or infusion
Nasal dosing spray
Aerosol for inhalation dosed

TREATMENT OF INFLAMMATORY DERMATOSES

Adults:

Fluticasone propionate cream is a potent topical corticosteroid indicated for the relief of the inflammatory and pruritic manifestations of corticosteroid-responsive dermatoses; these include the following:

- Atopic dermatitis

- Nummular dermatitis (discoid eczemas)

- Prurigo nodularis

- Psoriasis (excluding widespread plaque psoriasis)

- Lichen simplex chronicus (neurodermatitis) and lichen planus

- Seborrhoeic dermatitis

- Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis

- Discoid lupus erythematosus

- An adjunct to systemic steroid therapy in generalised erythroderma

- Insect bite reactions

- Miliaria (prickly heat)

Children:

For children and infants aged three months and over who are unresponsive to lower potency corticosteroids, Kirigamil cream is indicated for the relief of the inflammatory and pruritic manifestations of atopic dermatitis under the supervision of a specialist. Expert opinion should be sought prior to the use of Kirigamil cream in other corticosteroid-responsive dermatoses in children.

The prophylaxis and treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis (including hay fever) and perennial rhinitis. Fluticasone propionate has potent anti-inflammatory activity but when used topically on the nasal mucosa has no detectable systemic activity.

Fluticasone propionate given by inhalation offers prophylactic treatment for asthma.

Adults:

Mild asthma: Patients requiring intermittent symptomatic bronchodilator asthma medication on a regular daily basis.

Moderate asthma: Patients with unstable or worsening asthma despite prophylactic therapy or bronchodilator alone.

Severe asthma: Patients with severe chronic asthma and those who are dependent on systemic corticosteroids for adequate control of symptoms. On introduction of inhaled fluticasone propionate many of these patients may be able to reduce significantly, or to eliminate, their requirement for oral corticosteroids.

Children:

Any child who requires prophylactic medication, including patients not controlled on currently available prophylactic medication.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administration of Kirigamil is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kirigamil of the medicine (Fluticasone Propionate). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Kirigamil directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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[D] Powder for solution for injection or infusion; Cream for external use; Ointment for external use; Powder for solution for injection or infusion
Nasal dosing spray
Aerosol for inhalation dosed

Route of administration: Cutaneous

Adults, elderly, children and infants aged 3 months and over

Cream

Creams are especially appropriate for moist or weeping surfaces.

Apply thinly and gently rub in using only enough to cover the entire affected area once or twice a day for up to 4 weeks until improvement occurs, then reduce the frequency of application or change the treatment to a less potent preparation. Allow adequate time for absorption after each application before applying an emollient.

Therapy with topical corticosteroids should be gradually discontinued once control is achieved and an emollient continued as maintenance therapy.

Rebound of pre-existing dermatoses can occur with abrupt discontinuation of topical steroids especially with potent preparations.

Duration of treatment for adults and elderly

If the condition worsens or does not improve within four weeks, treatment and diagnosis should be re-evaluated.

Children over 3 months

Children are more likely to develop local and systemic side effects of topical corticosteroids and, in general, require shorter courses and less potent agents than adults.

Care should be taken when using fluticasone propionate to ensure the amount applied is the minimum that provides therapeutic benefit.

Duration of treatment for children and Infants

When Kirigamil is used in the treatment of children, if there is no improvement within 7 - 14 days, treatment should be withdrawn and the child re-evaluated. Once the condition has been controlled (usually within 7-14 days), frequency of application should be reduced to the lowest effective dose for the shortest possible time. Continuous daily treatment for longer than 4 weeks is not recommended

Elderly

Clinical studies have not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. The greater frequency of decreased hepatic or renal function in the elderly may delay elimination if systemic absorption occurs. Therefore the minimum quantity should be used for the shortest duration to achieve the desired clinical benefit.

Renal / Hepatic Impairment

In case of systemic absorption (when application is over a large surface area for a prolonged period) metabolism and elimination may be delayed therefore increasing the risk of systemic toxicity. Therefore the minimum quantity should be used for the shortest duration to achieve the desired clinical benefit.

Kirigamil Aqueous Nasal Spray is for administration by the intranasal route only.

Contact with the eyes should be avoided.

Adults and children over 12 years of age:

For the prophylaxis and treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis and perennial rhinitis. Two sprays into each nostril once a day, preferably in the morning. In some cases two sprays into each nostril twice daily may be required. Once symptoms are under control a maintenance dose of one spray per nostril once a day may be used. If symptoms recur the dosage may be increased accordingly. The minimum dose should be used at which effective control of symptoms is maintained. The maximum daily dose should not exceed four sprays into each nostril.

Elderly patients:

The normal adult dosage is applicable.

Children under 12 years of age:

For the prophylaxis and treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis and perennal rhinitis in children aged 4-11 years a dose of one spray into each nostril once daily preferably in the morning is recommended. In some cases one spray into each nostril twice daily may be required. The maximum daily dose should not exceed two sprays into each nostril. The minimum dose should be used at which effective control of symptoms is maintained.

For full therapeutic benefit regular usage is essential. The absence of an immediate effect should be explained to the patient, as maximum relief may not be obtained until after 3 to 4 days of treatment.

Patients should be made aware of the prophylactic nature of therapy with inhaled fluticasone propionate and that it should be taken regularly even when they are asymptomatic.

If patients find that relief with short-acting bronchodilator treatment becomes less effective or they need more inhalations than usual, medical attention must be sought.

Flixtide Evohaler is for oral inhalation use only. Kirigamil Evohaler may be used with a Volumatic spacer device by patients who find it difficult to synchronise aerosol actuation with inspiration of breath.

Patients should be made aware of the prophylactic nature of therapy with Kirigamil Evohaler and that it should be taken regularly even when they are asymptomatic. The onset of therapeutic effect is within 4 to 7 days.

Adults and children over 16 years: 100 to 1,000 micrograms twice daily, usually as two twice daily inhalations.

Prescribers should be aware that fluticasone propionate is as effective as other inhaled steroids approximately at half the microgram daily dose. For example, a 100mcg of fluticasone propionate is approximately equivalent to 200mcg dose of beclometasone dipropionate (CFC containing) or budesonide.

Due to the risk of systemic effects, doses above 500 micrograms twice daily should be prescribed only for adult patients with severe asthma where additional clinical benefit is expected, demonstrated by either an improvement in pulmonary function and/or symptom control, or by a reduction in oral corticosteroid therapy (see 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use and 4.8 Undesirable Effects).

Patients should be given a starting dose of inhaled fluticasone propionate which is appropriate to the severity of their disease.

The dose may be increased until control is achieved or reduced to the minimum effective dose, according to the individual response.

Typical Adult Starting Doses:

For patients with mild asthma, a typical starting dose is 100 micrograms twice daily. In moderate and more severe asthma, starting doses may need to be 250 to 500 micrograms twice daily. Where additional clinical benefit is expected, doses of up to 1000 micrograms twice daily may be used. Initiation of such doses should be prescribed only by a specialist in the management of asthma (such as a consultant physician or general practitioner with appropriate experience).

The dose should be titrated down to the lowest dose at which effective control of asthma is maintained

Typical starting doses for children over 4years of age:

50 to 100 micrograms twice daily.

Many children's asthma will be well controlled using the 50 to 100 microgram twice daily dosing regime. For those patients whose asthma is not sufficiently controlled, additional benefit may be obtained by increasing the dose up to 200 micrograms twice daily.

The maximum licensed dose in children is 200 micrograms twice daily.

The starting dose should be appropriate to the severity of the disease. The dose should be titrated down to the lowest dose at which effective control of asthma is maintained.

Should Kirigamil 50 microgram Evohaler presentation not offer the exact paediatric dose prescribed by the physician, please see data sheets of alternative Kirigamil presentation (Accuhaler, Nebules).

Administration of doses above 1000 micrograms (500 micrograms twice daily) should be via a spacer device to help reduce side-effects in the mouth and throat.

Special patient groups:

There is no need to adjust the dose in elderly patients or those with hepatic or renal impairment.

Contraindications

The information provided in Contraindications of Kirigamil is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kirigamil of the medicine (Fluticasone Propionate). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Kirigamil directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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[D] Powder for solution for injection or infusion; Cream for external use; Ointment for external use; Powder for solution for injection or infusion
Nasal dosing spray
Aerosol for inhalation dosed

The following conditions should not be treated with fluticasone propionate:

- Untreated cutaneous infections

- Rosacea

- Acne vulgaris

- Perioral dermatitis

- Perianal and genital pruritus

- Pruritus without inflammation

- Dermatoses in infants under three months of age, including dermatitis and nappy rash.

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Special warnings and precautions for use

The information provided in Special warnings and precautions for use of Kirigamil is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kirigamil of the medicine (Fluticasone Propionate). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special warnings and precautions for use in the instructions to the drug Kirigamil directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close
[D] Powder for solution for injection or infusion; Cream for external use; Ointment for external use; Powder for solution for injection or infusion
Nasal dosing spray
Aerosol for inhalation dosed

Fluticasone propionate should be used with caution in patients with a history of local hypersensitivity to other corticosteroids. Local hypersensitivity reactions may resemble symptoms of the condition under treatment.

Manifestations of hypercortisolism (Cushing's Syndrome) and reversible hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression, leading to glucocorticosteroid insufficiency, can occur in some individuals as a result of increased systemic absorption of topical steroids. If either of the above are observed, withdraw the drug gradually by reducing the frequency of application, or by substituting a less potent corticosteroid. Abrupt withdrawal of treatment may result in glucocorticosteroid insufficiency .

Risk factors for increased systemic effects are:

- Potency and formulation of topical steroid

- Duration of exposure

- Application to a large surface area

- Use on occluded areas of skin (e.g. on intertriginous areas or under occlusive dressings (in infants the nappy may act as an occlusive dressing)

- Increasing hydration of the stratum corneum

- Use on thin skin areas such as the face

- Use on broken skin or other conditions where the skin barrier may be impaired

- In comparison with adults, children and infants may absorb proportionally larger amounts of topical corticosteroids and thus be more susceptible to systemic adverse effects. This is because children have an immature skin barrier and a greater surface area to body weight ratio compared with adults.

Children

In infants and children under 12 years of age, long-term continuous topical corticosteroid therapy should be avoided where possible, as adrenal suppression is more likely to occur.

Use in psoriasis

Topical steroids should be used with caution in psoriasis as rebound relapses, development of tolerance, risk of generalised pustular psoriasis and development of local or systemic toxicity due to impaired barrier function of the skin have been reported in some cases. If used in psoriasis, careful patient supervision is important.

Application to the face

Prolonged application to the face is undesirable as this area is more susceptible to atrophic changes.

Application to the eyelids

If applied to the eyelids, care is needed to ensure that the preparation does not enter the eye, as cataract and glaucoma might result from repeated exposure.

Visual disturbance

Visual disturbance may be reported with systemic and topical corticosteroid use. If a patient presents with symptoms such as blurred vision or other visual disturbances, the patient should be considered for referral to an ophthalmologist for evaluation of possible causes which may include cataract, glaucoma or rare diseases such as central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) which have been reported after use of systemic and topical corticosteroids.

Concomitant infection

Appropriate antimicrobial therapy should be used whenever treating inflammatory lesions which have become infected. Any spread of infection requires withdrawal of topical corticosteroid therapy and administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy.

Infection risk with occlusion

Bacterial infection is encouraged by the warm, moist conditions within skin folds or caused by occlusive dressings. When using occlusive dressings, the skin should be cleansed before a fresh dressing is applied.

Chronic leg ulcers

Topical corticosteroids are sometimes used to treat the dermatitis around chronic leg ulcers. However, this use may be associated with a higher occurrence of local hypersensitivity reactions and an increased risk of local infection.

Overt suppression of the HPA-axis (morning plasma cortisol less than 5 micrograms/dL) is very unlikely to result from therapeutic use of fluticasone propionate cream or ointment unless treating more than 50% of an adult's body surface and applying more than 20 g per day.

Fluticasone propionate cream contains the excipient imidurea which releases traces of formaldehyde as a breakdown product. Formaldehyde may cause allergic sensitisation or irritation upon contact with the skin.

Fluticasone propionate cream contains the excipient cetostearyl alcohol which may cause local skin reactions (e.g. local dermatitis).

Healthcare professionals should be aware that if this product comes into contact with dressings, clothing and bedding, the fabric can be easily ignited with a naked flame. Patients should be warned of this risk and advised to keep away from fire when using this product.

Fluticasone propionate cream contains the excipient propylene glycol which may cause local skin irritation.

Local infections: infections of the nasal airways should be appropriately treated but do not constitute a specific contra-indication to treatment with Kirigamil Aqueous Nasal Spray.

The full benefit of Kirigamil Aqueous Nasal Spray may not be achieved until treatment has been administered for several days.

Care must be taken while transferring patients from systemic steroid treatment to Kirigamil Aqueous Nasal Spray if there is any reason to suppose that their adrenal function is impaired.

Although Kirigamil Aqueous Nasal Spray will control seasonal allergic rhinitis in most cases, an abnormally heavy challenge of summer allergens may in certain instances necessitate appropriate additional therapy.

Systemic effects of nasal corticosteroids may occur particularly at high doses prescribed for prolonged periods.2). Potential systemic effects may include Cushing's syndrome, Cushingoid features, adrenal suppression, growth retardation in children and adolescents and more rarely, a range of psychological or behavioural effects including psychomotor hyperactivity, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression or aggression (particularly in children).

Growth retardation has been reported in children receiving some nasal corticosteroids at licensed doses. It is recommended that the height of children receiving prolonged treatment with nasal corticosteroids is regularly monitored. If growth is slowed, therapy should be reviewed with the aim of reducing the dose of nasal corticosteroid, if possible, to the lowest dose at which effective control of symptoms is maintained. In addition, consideration should be given to referring the patient to a paediatric specialist.

The full benefit of fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray may not be achieved until treatment has been administered for several days.

Ritonavir can greatly increase the concentration of fluticasone propionate in plasma. Therefore, concomitant use should be avoided, unless the potential benefit to the patient outweighs the risk of systemic corticosteroid side effects. There is also an increased risk of systemic side effects when combining fluticasone propionate with other potent CYP3A inhibitors (see

and 4.8 Undesirable Effects).

Patients should be given a starting dose of inhaled fluticasone propionate which is appropriate to the severity of their disease.

The dose may be increased until control is achieved or reduced to the minimum effective dose, according to the individual response.

Typical Adult Starting Doses:

For patients with mild asthma, a typical starting dose is 100 micrograms twice daily. In moderate and more severe asthma, starting doses may need to be 250 to 500 micrograms twice daily. Where additional clinical benefit is expected, doses of up to 1000 micrograms twice daily may be used. Initiation of such doses should be prescribed only by a specialist in the management of asthma (such as a consultant physician or general practitioner with appropriate experience).

The dose should be titrated down to the lowest dose at which effective control of asthma is maintained

Typical starting doses for children over 4years of age:

50 to 100 micrograms twice daily.

Many children's asthma will be well controlled using the 50 to 100 microgram twice daily dosing regime. For those patients whose asthma is not sufficiently controlled, additional benefit may be obtained by increasing the dose up to 200 micrograms twice daily.

The maximum licensed dose in children is 200 micrograms twice daily.

The starting dose should be appropriate to the severity of the disease. The dose should be titrated down to the lowest dose at which effective control of asthma is maintained.

Should Kirigamil 50 microgram Evohaler presentation not offer the exact paediatric dose prescribed by the physician, please see data sheets of alternative Kirigamil presentation (Accuhaler, Nebules).

Administration of doses above 1000 micrograms (500 micrograms twice daily) should be via a spacer device to help reduce side-effects in the mouth and throat.

Special patient groups:

There is no need to adjust the dose in elderly patients or those with hepatic or renal impairment.

4.3 Contraindications <

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

The management of asthma should follow a stepwise programme, and patient response should be monitored clinically and by lung function tests.

Patients' inhaler technique should be checked regularly to make sure that inhaler actuation is synchronised with inspiration to ensure optimum delivery to the lungs. During inhalation, the patient should preferably sit or stand. The inhaler has been designed for use in a vertical position.

Sudden and progressive deterioration in asthma control is potentially life-threatening and consideration should be given to increasing corticosteroid dosage. In patients considered at risk, daily peak flow monitoring may be instituted.

Kirigamil Evohaler is not designed to relieve acute symptoms for which an inhaled short-acting bronchodilator is required. Patients should be advised to have such rescue medication available.

Severe asthma requires regular medical assessment, including lung-function testing, as patients are at risk of severe attacks and even death. Increasing use of short-acting inhaled β2-agonists to relieve symptoms indicates deterioration of asthma control. If patients find that short-acting relief bronchodilator treatment becomes less effective, or they need more inhalations than usual, medical attention must be sought. In this situation patients should be reassessed and consideration given to the need for increased anti-inflammatory therapy (e.g. higher doses of inhaled corticosteroids or a course of oral corticosteroids). Severe exacerbations of asthma must be treated in the normal way.

There have been very rare reports of increases in blood glucose levels, in patients with or without a history of diabetes mellitus (See 4.8 'Undesirable Effects'). This should be considered in particular when prescribing to patients with a history of diabetes mellitus.

As with other inhalation therapy, paradoxical bronchospasm may occur with an immediate increase in wheezing after dosing. Kirigamil Evohaler should be discontinued immediately, the patient assessed and alternative therapy instituted if necessary.

Systemic effects of inhaled corticosteroids may occur, particularly at high doses prescribed for prolonged periods. These effects are much less likely to occur than with oral corticosteroids. Possible systemic effects include Cushing's syndrome, Cushingoid features, adrenal suppression, growth retardation in children and adolescents, decrease in bone mineral density and more rarely, a range of psychological or behavioural effects including psychomotor hyperactivity, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression or aggression (particularly in children). It is important therefore that the dose of inhaled corticosteroid is reviewed regularly and reduced to the lowest dose at which effective control of asthma is maintained.

Prolonged treatment with high doses of inhaled corticosteroids may result in adrenal suppression and acute adrenal crisis. Children aged < 16 years taking higher than licensed doses of fluticasone (typically >1000mcg/day) may be at particular risk. Situations, which could potentially trigger acute adrenal crisis, include trauma, surgery, infection or any rapid reduction in dosage. Presenting symptoms are typically vague and may include anorexia, abdominal pain, weight loss, tiredness, headache, nausea, vomiting, decreased level of consciousness, hypoglycaemia, and seizures. Additional systemic corticosteroid cover should be considered during periods of stress or elective surgery.

It is recommended that the height of children receiving prolonged treatment with inhaled corticosteroids is regularly monitored. If growth is slowed, therapy should be reviewed with the aim of reducing the dose of inhaled corticosteroid, if possible, to the lowest dose at which effective control of asthma is maintained. In addition, consideration should be given to referring the patient to a paediatric respiratory specialist.

Certain individuals can show greater susceptibility to the effects of inhaled corticosteroid than do most patients.

Administration of high doses, above 1000 mcg daily is recommended through a spacer to reduce side effects in the mouth and throat. However, as systemic absorption is largely through the lungs, the use of a spacer plus metered dose inhaler may increase drug delivery to the lungs. It should be noted that this could potentially lead to an increase in the risk of systemic adverse effects. A lower dose may be required.

The benefits of inhaled fluticasone propionate should minimise the need for oral steroids. However, patients transferred from oral steroids, remain at risk of impaired adrenal reserve for a considerable time after transferring to inhaled fluticasone propionate. The possibility of adverse effects may persist for some time. These patients may require specialised advice to determine the extent of adrenal impairment before elective procedures. The possibility of residual impaired adrenal response should always be considered in emergency (medical or surgical) and elective situations likely to produce stress, and appropriate corticosteroid treatment considered.

Lack of response or severe exacerbations of asthma should be treated by increasing the dose of inhaled fluticasone propionate and, if necessary, by giving a systemic steroid and/or an antibiotic if there is an infection.

Replacement of systemic steroid treatment with inhaled therapy sometimes unmasks allergies such as allergic rhinitis or eczema previously controlled by the systemic drug. These allergies should be symptomatically treated with antihistamine and/or topical preparations, including topical steroids.

As with all inhaled corticosteroids, special care is necessary in patients with active or quiescent pulmonary tuberculosis.

Treatment with Kirigamil Evohaler should not be stopped abruptly.

For the transfer of patients being treated with oral corticosteroids:

The transfer of oral steroid-dependent patients to Kirigamil Evohaler and their subsequent management needs special care as recovery from impaired adrenocortical function, caused by prolonged systemic steroid therapy, may take a considerable time.

Patients who have been treated with systemic steroids for long periods of time or at a high dose may have adrenocortical suppression. With these patients adrenocortical function should be monitored regularly and their dose of systemic steroid reduced cautiously.

After approximately a week, gradual withdrawal of the systemic steroid is commenced. Decrements in dosages should be appropriate to the level of maintenance systemic steroid, and introduced at not less than weekly intervals. For maintenance doses of prednisolone (or equivalent) of 10mg daily or less, the decrements in dose should not be greater than 1mg per day, at not less than weekly intervals. For maintenance doses of prednisolone in excess of 10mg daily, it may be appropriate to employ cautiously, larger decrements in dose at weekly intervals.

Some patients feel unwell in a non-specific way during the withdrawal phase despite maintenance or even improvement of the respiratory function. They should be encouraged to persevere with inhaled fluticasone propionate and to continue withdrawal of systemic steroid, unless there are objective signs of adrenal insufficiency.

Patients weaned off oral steroids whose adrenocortical function is still impaired should carry a steroid warning card indicating that they need supplementary systemic steroid during periods of stress, e.g. worsening asthma attacks, chest infections, major intercurrent illness, surgery, trauma, etc.

Ritonavir can greatly increase the concentration of fluticasone propionate in plasma. Therefore, concomitant use should be avoided, unless the potential benefit to the patient outweighs the risk of systemic corticosteroid side-effects. There is also an increased risk of systemic side effects when combining fluticasone propionate with other potent CYP3A inhibitors (see

Effects on ability to drive and use machines

The information provided in Effects on ability to drive and use machines of Kirigamil is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kirigamil of the medicine (Fluticasone Propionate). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Effects on ability to drive and use machines in the instructions to the drug Kirigamil directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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[D] Powder for solution for injection or infusion; Cream for external use; Ointment for external use; Powder for solution for injection or infusion
Nasal dosing spray
Aerosol for inhalation dosed

There have been no studies to investigate the effect of fluticasone propionate on driving performance or the ability to operate machinery. A detrimental effect on such activities would not be anticipated from the adverse reaction profile of topical fluticasone propionate.

None reported.

Fluticasone propionate is unlikely to produce an effect.

Undesirable effects

The information provided in Undesirable effects of Kirigamil is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kirigamil of the medicine (Fluticasone Propionate). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Undesirable effects in the instructions to the drug Kirigamil directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close
[D] Powder for solution for injection or infusion; Cream for external use; Ointment for external use; Powder for solution for injection or infusion
Nasal dosing spray
Aerosol for inhalation dosed

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are listed below by MedDRA system organ class and by frequency. Frequencies are defined as: very common (>1/10), common (>1/100 and <1/10), uncommon (>1/1,000 and <1/100), rare (>1/10,000 and <1/1,000) and very rare (<1/10,000), including isolated reports.

Post-Marketing Data

Infections and infestations

Very rare:

opportunistic infection

Immune system disorders

Very rare:

Hypersensitivity.

Endocrine disorders

Very rare:

Hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis suppression:

- Increased weight / obesity

- Delayed weight gain/growth retardation in children

- Cushingoid features (e.g. moon face, central obesity)

- Decreased endogenous cortisol levels

- Hyperglycaemia/glucosuria

- Hypertension

- Osteoporosis

- Cataract

- Glaucoma

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Common:

Pruritus.

Uncommon:

Local skin burning.

Very rare:

Skin thinning, atrophy, striae, telangiectasias, pigmentation changes hypertrichosis, allergic contact dermatitis, exacerbation of underlying symptoms, pustular psoriasis, erythema, rash, urticaria

Eye disorders

Not known:

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.

Adverse events are listed below by system organ class and frequency. Frequencies are defined as: very common (>1/10), common (>1/100 and <1/10), uncommon (>1/1000 and <1/100), rare (>1/10,000 and <1/1000) and very rare (<1/10,000) including isolated reports and not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). Very common, common and uncommon events were generally determined from clinical trial data. Rare and very rare events were generally determined from spontaneous data. In assigning adverse event frequencies, the background rates in placebo groups were not taken into account.

System Organ Class

Adverse Event

Frequency

Immune system disorders

Hypersensitivity reactions with the following manifestations:

Cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions

Very rare

Angioedema (mainly facial and oropharyngeal oedema)

Very rare

Respiratory symptoms (bronchospasm)

Very rare

Anaphylactic reactions

Very rare

Nervous system disorders

Headache, unpleasant taste, unpleasant smell.

Common

Eye disorders

Glaucoma, raised intraocular pressure, cataract

These events have been identified from spontaneous reports following prolonged treatment.

Very rare

Vision, blurred

Not known

Respiratory, Thoracic & Mediastinal disorders

Epistaxis

Very common

Nasal dryness, nasal irritation, throat dryness, throat irritation.

Common

Nasal septal perforation.

Very rare

Nasal ulcers

Not known

As with other nasal sprays, unpleasant taste and smell and headache have been reported.

As with other nasal sprays, dryness and irritation of the nose and throat, and epistaxis have been reported. Nasal septal perforation has also been reported following the use of intranasal corticosteroids.

Systemic effects of some nasal corticosteroids may occur, particularly when prescribed at high doses for prolonged periods.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in Google Play or Apple App Store.

).

Patients should be given a starting dose of inhaled fluticasone propionate which is appropriate to the severity of their disease.

The dose may be increased until control is achieved or reduced to the minimum effective dose, according to the individual response.

Typical Adult Starting Doses:

For patients with mild asthma, a typical starting dose is 100 micrograms twice daily. In moderate and more severe asthma, starting doses may need to be 250 to 500 micrograms twice daily. Where additional clinical benefit is expected, doses of up to 1000 micrograms twice daily may be used. Initiation of such doses should be prescribed only by a specialist in the management of asthma (such as a consultant physician or general practitioner with appropriate experience).

The dose should be titrated down to the lowest dose at which effective control of asthma is maintained

Typical starting doses for children over 4years of age:

50 to 100 micrograms twice daily.

Many children's asthma will be well controlled using the 50 to 100 microgram twice daily dosing regime. For those patients whose asthma is not sufficiently controlled, additional benefit may be obtained by increasing the dose up to 200 micrograms twice daily.

The maximum licensed dose in children is 200 micrograms twice daily.

The starting dose should be appropriate to the severity of the disease. The dose should be titrated down to the lowest dose at which effective control of asthma is maintained.

Should Kirigamil 50 microgram Evohaler presentation not offer the exact paediatric dose prescribed by the physician, please see data sheets of alternative Kirigamil presentation (Accuhaler, Nebules).

Administration of doses above 1000 micrograms (500 micrograms twice daily) should be via a spacer device to help reduce side-effects in the mouth and throat.

Special patient groups:

There is no need to adjust the dose in elderly patients or those with hepatic or renal impairment.

4.3 Contraindications <

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

The management of asthma should follow a stepwise programme, and patient response should be monitored clinically and by lung function tests.

Patients' inhaler technique should be checked regularly to make sure that inhaler actuation is synchronised with inspiration to ensure optimum delivery to the lungs. During inhalation, the patient should preferably sit or stand. The inhaler has been designed for use in a vertical position.

Sudden and progressive deterioration in asthma control is potentially life-threatening and consideration should be given to increasing corticosteroid dosage. In patients considered at risk, daily peak flow monitoring may be instituted.

Kirigamil Evohaler is not designed to relieve acute symptoms for which an inhaled short-acting bronchodilator is required. Patients should be advised to have such rescue medication available.

Severe asthma requires regular medical assessment, including lung-function testing, as patients are at risk of severe attacks and even death. Increasing use of short-acting inhaled β2-agonists to relieve symptoms indicates deterioration of asthma control. If patients find that short-acting relief bronchodilator treatment becomes less effective, or they need more inhalations than usual, medical attention must be sought. In this situation patients should be reassessed and consideration given to the need for increased anti-inflammatory therapy (e.g. higher doses of inhaled corticosteroids or a course of oral corticosteroids). Severe exacerbations of asthma must be treated in the normal way.

There have been very rare reports of increases in blood glucose levels, in patients with or without a history of diabetes mellitus (See 4.8 'Undesirable Effects'). This should be considered in particular when prescribing to patients with a history of diabetes mellitus.

As with other inhalation therapy, paradoxical bronchospasm may occur with an immediate increase in wheezing after dosing. Kirigamil Evohaler should be discontinued immediately, the patient assessed and alternative therapy instituted if necessary.

Systemic effects of inhaled corticosteroids may occur, particularly at high doses prescribed for prolonged periods. These effects are much less likely to occur than with oral corticosteroids. Possible systemic effects include Cushing's syndrome, Cushingoid features, adrenal suppression, growth retardation in children and adolescents, decrease in bone mineral density and more rarely, a range of psychological or behavioural effects including psychomotor hyperactivity, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression or aggression (particularly in children). It is important therefore that the dose of inhaled corticosteroid is reviewed regularly and reduced to the lowest dose at which effective control of asthma is maintained.

Prolonged treatment with high doses of inhaled corticosteroids may result in adrenal suppression and acute adrenal crisis. Children aged < 16 years taking higher than licensed doses of fluticasone (typically >1000mcg/day) may be at particular risk. Situations, which could potentially trigger acute adrenal crisis, include trauma, surgery, infection or any rapid reduction in dosage. Presenting symptoms are typically vague and may include anorexia, abdominal pain, weight loss, tiredness, headache, nausea, vomiting, decreased level of consciousness, hypoglycaemia, and seizures. Additional systemic corticosteroid cover should be considered during periods of stress or elective surgery.

It is recommended that the height of children receiving prolonged treatment with inhaled corticosteroids is regularly monitored. If growth is slowed, therapy should be reviewed with the aim of reducing the dose of inhaled corticosteroid, if possible, to the lowest dose at which effective control of asthma is maintained. In addition, consideration should be given to referring the patient to a paediatric respiratory specialist.

Certain individuals can show greater susceptibility to the effects of inhaled corticosteroid than do most patients.

Administration of high doses, above 1000 mcg daily is recommended through a spacer to reduce side effects in the mouth and throat. However, as systemic absorption is largely through the lungs, the use of a spacer plus metered dose inhaler may increase drug delivery to the lungs. It should be noted that this could potentially lead to an increase in the risk of systemic adverse effects. A lower dose may be required.

The benefits of inhaled fluticasone propionate should minimise the need for oral steroids. However, patients transferred from oral steroids, remain at risk of impaired adrenal reserve for a considerable time after transferring to inhaled fluticasone propionate. The possibility of adverse effects may persist for some time. These patients may require specialised advice to determine the extent of adrenal impairment before elective procedures. The possibility of residual impaired adrenal response should always be considered in emergency (medical or surgical) and elective situations likely to produce stress, and appropriate corticosteroid treatment considered.

Lack of response or severe exacerbations of asthma should be treated by increasing the dose of inhaled fluticasone propionate and, if necessary, by giving a systemic steroid and/or an antibiotic if there is an infection.

Replacement of systemic steroid treatment with inhaled therapy sometimes unmasks allergies such as allergic rhinitis or eczema previously controlled by the systemic drug. These allergies should be symptomatically treated with antihistamine and/or topical preparations, including topical steroids.

As with all inhaled corticosteroids, special care is necessary in patients with active or quiescent pulmonary tuberculosis.

Treatment with Kirigamil Evohaler should not be stopped abruptly.

For the transfer of patients being treated with oral corticosteroids:

The transfer of oral steroid-dependent patients to Kirigamil Evohaler and their subsequent management needs special care as recovery from impaired adrenocortical function, caused by prolonged systemic steroid therapy, may take a considerable time.

Patients who have been treated with systemic steroids for long periods of time or at a high dose may have adrenocortical suppression. With these patients adrenocortical function should be monitored regularly and their dose of systemic steroid reduced cautiously.

After approximately a week, gradual withdrawal of the systemic steroid is commenced. Decrements in dosages should be appropriate to the level of maintenance systemic steroid, and introduced at not less than weekly intervals. For maintenance doses of prednisolone (or equivalent) of 10mg daily or less, the decrements in dose should not be greater than 1mg per day, at not less than weekly intervals. For maintenance doses of prednisolone in excess of 10mg daily, it may be appropriate to employ cautiously, larger decrements in dose at weekly intervals.

Some patients feel unwell in a non-specific way during the withdrawal phase despite maintenance or even improvement of the respiratory function. They should be encouraged to persevere with inhaled fluticasone propionate and to continue withdrawal of systemic steroid, unless there are objective signs of adrenal insufficiency.

Patients weaned off oral steroids whose adrenocortical function is still impaired should carry a steroid warning card indicating that they need supplementary systemic steroid during periods of stress, e.g. worsening asthma attacks, chest infections, major intercurrent illness, surgery, trauma, etc.

Ritonavir can greatly increase the concentration of fluticasone propionate in plasma. Therefore, concomitant use should be avoided, unless the potential benefit to the patient outweighs the risk of systemic corticosteroid side-effects. There is also an increased risk of systemic side effects when combining fluticasone propionate with other potent CYP3A inhibitors (see 4.5 Interaction with Other Medicinal Products and Other Forms of Interaction).

Visual disturbance

Visual disturbance may be reported with systemic and topical corticosteroid use. If a patient presents with symptoms such as blurred vision or other visual disturbances, the patient should be considered for referral to an ophthalmologist for evaluation of possible causes, which may include cataract, glaucoma or rare diseases such as central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) which have been reported after use of systemic and topical corticosteroids.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Under normal circumstances, low plasma concentrations of fluticasone propionate are achieved after inhaled dosing, due to extensive first pass metabolism and high systemic clearance mediated by cytochrome P450 3A4 in the gut and liver. Hence, clinically significant drug interactions mediated by fluticasone propionate are unlikely.

In an interaction study in healthy subjects with intranasal fluticasone propionate, ritonavir (a highly potent cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor) 100 mg b.i.d. increased the fluticasone propionate plasma concentrations several hundred fold, resulting in markedly reduced serum cortisol concentrations. Information about this interaction is lacking for inhaled fluticasone propionate, but a marked increase in fluticasone propionate plasma levels is expected. Cases of Cushing's syndrome and adrenal suppression have been reported. The combination should be avoided unless the benefit outweighs the increased risk of systemic glucocorticoid side-effects.

In a small study in healthy volunteers, the slightly less potent CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole increased the exposure of fluticasone propionate after a single inhalation by 150%. This resulted in a greater reduction of plasma cortisol as compared with fluticasone propionate alone. Co-treatment with other potent CYP3A inhibitors, such as itraconazole, is also expected to increase the systemic fluticasone propionate exposure and the risk of systemic side-effects. Caution is recommended and long-term treatment with such drugs should, if possible, be avoided.

Co-treatment with other potent CYP3A inhibitors, including cobicistat-containing products, is expected to increase the risk of systemic side-effects.

Other inhibitors of CYP3A4 produce negligible (erythromycin) and minor (ketoconazole) increases in systemic exposure to fluticasone propionate without notable reductions in serum cortisol concentrations. Combinations should be avoided unless the benefit outweighs the potential increased risk of systemic corticosteroid side-effects, in which case patients should be monitored for systemic corticosteroid side-effects.

4.6 Pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

There is inadequate evidence of safety of fluticasone propionate in human pregnancy. Data on a limited number (200) of exposed pregnancies indicate no adverse effects of Kirigamil Evohaler on pregnancy or the health of the foetus/new born child. To date no other relevant epidemological data are available. Administration of corticosteroids to pregnant animals can cause abnormalities of fetal development, including cleft palate and intra-uterine growth retardation. There may therefore be a very small risk of such effects in the human fetus. It should be noted, however, that the fetal changes in animals occur after relatively high systemic exposure. Because Kirigamil Evohaler delivers fluticasone propionate directly to the lungs by the inhaled route it avoids the high level of exposure that occurs when corticosteroids are given by systemic routes. Administration of fluticasone propionate during pregnancy should only be considered if the expected benefit to the mother is greater than any possible risk to the fetus.

Breast-feeding

The secretion of fluticasone propionate in human breast milk has not been investigated. Subcutaneous administration of fluticasone propionate to lactating laboratory rats produced measurable plasma levels and evidence of fluticasone propionate in the milk. However, plasma levels in humans after inhalation at recommended doses are likely to be low. When fluticasone propionate is used in breast-feeding mothers the therapeutic benefits must be weighed against the potential hazards to mother and baby.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Fluticasone propionate is unlikely to produce an effect.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Adverse events are listed below by system organ class and frequency. Frequencies are defined as: very common (>1/10), common (>1/100 and <1/10), uncommon (>1/1000 and <1/100), rare (>1/10,000 and <1/1000), very rare (<1/10,000) and not known (cannot be estimated from the available data) including isolated reports. Very common, common and uncommon events were generally determined from clinical trial data. Rare and very rare events were generally determined from spontaneous data.

System Organ Class

Adverse Event

Frequency

Infections & Infestations

Candidiasis of the mouth and throat

Pneumonia (in COPD patients)

Oesophageal candidiasis

Very Common

Common

Rare

Immune System Disorders

Hypersensitivity reactions with the following manifestations:

Cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions

Angioedema (mainly facial and oropharyngeal oedema),

Respiratory symptoms (dyspnoea and/or bronchospasm),

Anaphylactic reactions

 

Uncommon

Very Rare

Very Rare

Very Rare

Eye disorders

Vision, blurred

Not known

Endocrine Disorders

Cushing's syndrome, Cushingoid features, adrenal suppression, growth retardation in children and adolescents, decreased bone mineral density, cataract, glaucoma

Very Rare

Metabolism & Nutrition Disorders

Hyperglycaemia (see 4.4 'Special Warnings and Precautions for Use')

Very Rare

Psychiatric Disorders

Anxiety, sleep disorders, behavioural changes, including hyperactivity and irritability (predominantly in children)

Depression, aggression (predominantly in children)

Very Rare
 

Not known

Respiratory, Thoracic & Mediastinal Disorders

Hoarseness/dysphonia

Paradoxical bronchospasm

Epistaxis

Common

Very Rare

Unknown

Gastrointestinal Disorders

Dyspepsia

Very Rare

Skin & Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders

Contusions

Common

Musculoskeletal & Connective Tissue Disorders

Arthralgia

Very Rare

Hoarseness and candidiasis of the mouth and throat (thrush) occurs in some patients. Such patients may find it helpful to rinse out their mouth with water after using the inhaler. Symptomatic candidiasis can be treated with topical anti-fungal therapy whilst still continuing with Kirigamil Evohaler.

Possible systemic effects include Cushing's syndrome, Cushingoid features, adrenal suppression, growth retardation, decreased bone mineral density, cataract, glaucoma (see 4.4 Special Warning and Special Precautions for Use).

As with other inhalation therapy, paradoxical bronchospasm may occur (see 4.4 'Special Warnings and Precautions for Use'). This should be treated immediately with a fast-acting inhaled bronchodilator. Kirigamil Evohaler should be discontinued immediately, the patient assessed, and if necessary alternative therapy instituted.

There was an increased reporting of pneumonia in studies of patients with COPD receiving Kirigamil 500 micrograms. Physicians should remain vigilant for the possible development of pneumonia in patients with COPD as the clinical features of pneumonia and exacerbation frequently overlap.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.

Overdose

The information provided in Overdose of Kirigamil is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kirigamil of the medicine (Fluticasone Propionate). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Overdose in the instructions to the drug Kirigamil directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Aerosol for inhalation dosed

Symptoms and Signs

Topically applied fluticasone propionate may be absorbed in sufficient amounts to produce systemic effects. Acute overdosage is very unlikely to occur, however, in the case of chronic overdosage or misuse, the features of hypercortisolism may appear.

Treatment

In the event of overdose, fluticasone propionate should be withdrawn gradually by reducing the frequency of application, or by substituting a less potent corticosteroid because of the risk of glucocorticosteroid insufficiency.

Further management should be as clinically indicated or as recommended by the national poisons centre, where available.

There are no data from patients available on the effects of acute or chronic overdosage with Kirigamil Aqueous Nasal Spray. Intranasal administration of 2 mg fluticasone propionate twice daily for seven days to healthy human volunteers has no effect on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function.

Inhalation or oral administration of high doses of corticosteroids over a long period may lead to suppression of HPA axis function.

Treatment

Administration of doses higher than those recommended over a long period of time may lead to temporary suppression of adrenal function.

In these patients, treatment with fluticasone propionate should be continued at a dose sufficient to control.

Acute: Inhalation of the drug in doses in excess of those recommended may lead to temporary suppression of adrenal function. This does not necessitate emergency action being taken. In these patients treatment with fluticasone propionate by inhalation should be continued at a dose sufficient to control asthma adrenal function recovers in a few days and can be verified by measuring plasma cortisol.

If higher than approved doses are continued over prolonged periods, significant adrenocortical suppression is possible. There have been very rare reports of acute adrenal crisis occurring in children exposed to higher than approved doses (typically 1000 micrograms daily and above), over prolonged periods (several months or years); observed features included hypoglycaemia and sequelae of decreased consciousness and/or convulsions. Situations which could potentially trigger acute adrenal crisis include exposure to trauma, surgery, infection or any rapid reduction in dosage.

<: risk of adrenal suppression. Monitoring of adrenal reserve may be indicated. Treatment with inhaled fluticasone propionate should be continued at a dose sufficient to control asthma.

Treatment

Patients receiving higher than approved doses should be managed closely and the dose reduced gradually.

Pharmacodynamic properties

The information provided in Pharmacodynamic properties of Kirigamil is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kirigamil of the medicine (Fluticasone Propionate). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacodynamic properties in the instructions to the drug Kirigamil directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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ATC Code: D07AC Corticosteroid, potent (Group III)

Topical corticosteroids, have anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, and vasoconstrictive properties.

They act as anti-inflammatory agents via multiple mechanisms to inhibit late phase allergic reactions including decreasing the density of mast cells, decreasing chemotaxis and activation of eosinophils, decreasing cytokine production by lymphocytes, monocytes, mast cells and eosinophils, and inhibiting the metabolism of arachidonic acid.

Fluticasone propionate is a glucocorticoid with high topical anti-inflammatory potency but low HPA-axis suppressive activity after dermal administration. It therefore has a therapeutic index which is greater than most of the commonly available steroids.

It shows high systemic glucocorticoid potency after subcutaneous administration but very weak oral activity, probably due to metabolic inactivation. In vitro studies show a strong affinity for, and agonist activity at, human glucocorticoid receptors.

Fluticasone propionate has no unexpected hormonal effects, and no overt, marked effects upon the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gastrointestinal system, or the cardiovascular or respiratory systems.

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Decongestants and other nasal preparations for topical use Corticosteroids.

ATC Code: R01AD08

Fluticasone propionate causes little or no hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression following intranasal administration.

Following intranasal dosing of fluticasone propionate, (200mcg/day) no significant change in 24h serum cortisol AUC was found compared to placebo (ratio1.01, 90%CI 0.9-1.14).

In a 1-year randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group growth study in pre-pubescent children aged 3 to 9 years (56 patients receiving intranasal fluticasone propionate and 52 receiving placebo,) no statistically significant difference in growth velocity was observed in patients receiving intranasal fluticasone propionate (200 micrograms per day nasal spray) compared to placebo. The estimated growth velocity over one year of treatment was 6.20 cm/year (SE=0.23) in the placebo group and 5.99 cm/year (SE=0.23) in the fluticasone propionate group; the mean difference between treatments in growth velocity after one year was 0.20 cm/year (SE=0.28, 95% CI= -0.35, 0.76). No evidence of clinically relevant changes in HPA axis function or bone mineral density was observed as assessed by 12-hour urinary cortisol excretion and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, respectively.

Fluticasone propionate given by inhalation at recommended doses has a potent glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory action within the lungs, resulting in a reduction of both symptoms and exacerbations of asthma, with a lower incidence and severity of adverse effects than those observed when corticosteroids are administered systemically.

Pharmacokinetic properties

The information provided in Pharmacokinetic properties of Kirigamil is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kirigamil of the medicine (Fluticasone Propionate). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacokinetic properties in the instructions to the drug Kirigamil directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Pharmacokinetic data for the rat and dog indicate rapid elimination and extensive metabolic clearance. Bioavailability is very low after topical or oral administration, due to limited absorption through the skin or from the gastrointestinal tract, and because of extensive first-pass metabolism. Distribution studies have shown that only minute traces of orally administered compound reach the systemic circulation, and that any systemically-available radiolabel is rapidly eliminated in the bile and excreted in the faeces.

Fluticasone propionate does not persist in any tissue, and does not bind to melanin. The major route of metabolism is hydrolysis of the S-fluoromethyl carbothioate group, to yield a carboxylic acid (GR36264), which has very weak glucocorticoid or anti-inflammatory activity. In all test animal species, the route of excretion of radioactivity is independent of the route of administration of radiolabelled fluticasone propionate. Excretion is predominantly faecal and is essentially complete within 48 hours.

In man too, metabolic clearance is extensive, and elimination is consequently rapid. Thus drug entering the systemic circulation via the skin, will be rapidly inactivated. Oral bioavailability approaches zero, due to poor absorption and extensive first-pass metabolism. Therefore systemic exposure to any ingestion of the topical formulation will be low.

Absorption: Following intranasal dosing of fluticasone propionate, (200mcg/day) steady-state maximum plasma concentrations were not quantifiable in most subjects (<0.01ng/mL). The highest Cmax observed was 0.017ng/mL. Direct absorption in the nose is negligible due to the low aqueous solubility with the majority of the dose being eventually swallowed. When administered orally the systemic exposure is <1% due to poor absorption and pre-systemic metabolism. The total systemic absorption arising from both nasal and oral absorption of the swallowed dose is therefore negligible.

Distribution: Fluticasone propionate has a large volume of distribution at steady-state (approximately 318L). Plasma protein binding is moderately high (91%).

Metabolism: Fluticasone propionate is cleared rapidly from the systemic circulation, principally by hepatic metabolism to an inactive carboxylic acid metabolite, by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP3A4. Swallowed fluticasone propionate is also subject to extensive first pass metabolism. Care should be taken when co-administering potent CYP3A4 inhibitors such as ketoconazole and ritonavir as there is potential for increased systemic exposure to fluticasone propionate.

Elimination: The elimination rate of intravenous administered fluticasone propionate is linear over the 250-1000mcg dose range and are characterized by a high plasma clearance (CL=1.1L/min). Peak plasma concentrations are reduced by approximately 98% within 3-4 hours and only low plasma concentrations were associated with the 7.8h terminal half-life. The renal clearance of fluticasone propionate is negligible (<0.2%) and less than 5% as the carboxylic acid metabolite. The major route of elimination is the excretion of fluticasone propionate and its metabolites in the bile.

In healthy subjects the mean systemic bioavailability of Kirigamil Evohaler is 28.6%. In patients with asthma (FEV 1 < 75% predicted) the mean systemic absolute bioavailability was reduced by 62%. Systemic absorption occurs mainly through the lungs and has been shown to be linearly related to dose over the dose range 500 to 2000 micrograms. Absorption is initially rapid then prolonged and the remainder of the dose may be swallowed.

Absolute oral bioavailability is negligible (<1%) due to a combination of incomplete absorption from the GI tract and extensive first-pass metabolism.

87-100% of an oral dose is excreted in the faeces, up to 75% as parent compound. There is also a non-active major metabolite.

After an intravenous dose, fluticasone propionate is extensively distributed in the body. The very high clearance rate indicates extensive hepatic clearance.

Pharmacotherapeutic group

The information provided in Pharmacotherapeutic group of Kirigamil is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kirigamil of the medicine (Fluticasone Propionate). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacotherapeutic group in the instructions to the drug Kirigamil directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Decongestants and other nasal preparations for topical use Corticosteroids.

Preclinical safety data

The information provided in Preclinical safety data of Kirigamil is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kirigamil of the medicine (Fluticasone Propionate). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Preclinical safety data in the instructions to the drug Kirigamil directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Aerosol for inhalation dosed

Reproductive studies suggest that administration of corticosteroids to pregnant animals can result in abnormalities of foetal development including cleft palate/lip. However, in humans, there is no convincing evidence of congenital abnormalities, such as cleft palate or lip.

Studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential, fertility and general reproductive performance revealed no special hazard for humans, other than that anticipated for a potent steroid.

There are no preclinical data of relevance to the prescriber which are additional to that already included in other sections of the SPC.

Toxicology has shown only those class effects typical of potent corticosteroids, and these only at doses greatly in excess of that proposed for therapeutic use. No novel effects were identified in repeat dose toxicity tests, reproductive studies or teratology studies. Fluticasone propionate is devoid of mutagenic activity in vitro and in vivo and showed no tumorigenic potential in rodents. It is both non-irritant and non-sensitising in animal models.

The non-CFC propellant, HFA 134a, has been shown to have no toxic effect at very high vapour concentrations, far in excess of those likely to be experienced by patients, in a wide range of animal species exposed daily for periods of two years.

The use of HFA 134a as a propellant has not altered the toxicity profile of fluticasone propionate compared to that using the conventional CFC propellant.

Incompatibilities

The information provided in Incompatibilities of Kirigamil is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kirigamil of the medicine (Fluticasone Propionate). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Incompatibilities in the instructions to the drug Kirigamil directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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None reported.

Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The information provided in Special precautions for disposal and other handling of Kirigamil is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kirigamil of the medicine (Fluticasone Propionate). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special precautions for disposal and other handling in the instructions to the drug Kirigamil directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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[D] Powder for solution for injection or infusion; Cream for external use; Ointment for external use; Powder for solution for injection or infusion
Nasal dosing spray
Aerosol for inhalation dosed

No special instructions.

Shake gently before use.

The aerosol spray is inhaled through the mouth into the lungs. After shaking the inhaler the patient should exhale, the mouthpiece should be placed in the mouth and the lips closed around it. The actuator is depressed to release a spray, which must coincide with inspiration of breath.

For detailed instructions for use refer to the Patient Information Leaflet in every pack.

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