Medically reviewed by Militian Inessa Mesropovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2020-03-15
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Replacement therapy in adults, children and adolescents (2-18 years) in:
- Primary immunodeficiency syndromes with impaired antibody production.
- Hypogammaglobulinaemia and recurrent bacterial infections in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, in whom prophylactic antibiotics have failed.
- Hypogammaglobulinaemia and recurrent bacterial infections in plateau phase multiple myeloma patients who failed to respond to pneumococcal immunisation.
- Hypogammaglobulinaemia in patients after allogenic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
- Congenital AIDS with recurrent bacterial infections.
Immunomodulation in adults, children and adolescents (2-18 years) in:
- Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), in patients at high risk of bleeding or prior to surgery to correct the platelet count.
- Guillain BarrÃ© syndrome.
- Kawasaki disease.
Replacement therapy should be initiated and monitored under the supervision of a physician experienced in the treatment of immunodeficiency.
The dose and dose regimen is dependent on the indication.
In replacement therapy the dose may need to be individualised for each patient dependent on the pharmacokinetic and clinical response. The following dose regimens are given as a guideline.
Replacement therapy in primary immunodeficiency syndromes
The dose regimen should achieve a trough level of IgG (measured before the next infusion) of at least 5 to 6 g/l. Three to six months are required after the initiation of therapy for equilibration to occur. The recommended starting dose is 0.4 - 0.8 g/kg given once, followed by at least 0.2 g/kg given every three to four weeks.
The dose required to achieve a trough level of 5-6 g/l is of the order of 0.2 - 0.8 g/kg/month. The dose interval when steady state has been reached varies from 3 - 4 weeks.
Trough levels should be measured and assessed in conjunction with the incidence of infection. To reduce the rate of infection, it may be necessary to increase the dosage and aim for higher trough levels.
Hypogammaglobulinaemia and recurrent bacterial infections in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, in whom prophylactic antibiotics have failed; hypogammaglobulinaemia and recurrent bacterial infections in plateau phase multiple myeloma patients who have failed to respond to pneumococcal immunisation; congenital AIDS with recurrent bacterial infections
The recommended dose is 0.2 - 0.4 g/kg every three to four weeks.
Hypogammaglobulinaemia in patients after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation
The recommended dose is 0.2-0.4 g/kg every three to four weeks. The trough levels should be maintained above 5 g/l.
Primary immune thrombocytopenia
There are two alternative treatment schedules:
- 0.8-1 g/kg given on day one; this dose may be repeated once within 3 days
- 0.4 g/kg given daily for two to five days.
The treatment can be repeated if relapse occurs.
Guillain BarrÃ© syndrome
0.4 g/kg/day over 5 days.
1.6 - 2.0 g/kg should be administered in divided doses over two to five days or 2.0 g/kg as a single dose. Patients should receive concomitant treatment with acetylsalicylic acid.
The dose recommendations are summarised in the following table:
Frequency of injections
Replacement therapy in primary immunodeficiency
Replacement therapy in secondary immunodeficiency
Hypogammaglobulinaemia (< 4 g/l) in patients after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation
- starting dose:
0.4 - 0.8 g/kg
0.2 - 0.8 g/kg
0.2 - 0.4 g/kg
0.2 - 0.4 g/kg
0.2 - 0.4 g/kg
every 3 - 4 weeks to obtain IgG trough level of at least 5 - 6 g/l
every 3 - 4 weeks to obtain IgG trough level of at least 5 - 6 g/l
every 3 - 4 weeks
every 3 - 4 weeks to obtain IgG trough level above 5 g/l
Primary immune thrombocytopenia
Guillain BarrÃ© syndrome
0.8 - 1 g/kg
1.6 - 2 g/kg
on day 1, possibly repeated once within 3 days
for 2 - 5 days
for 5 days
in divided doses over 2 - 5 days in association with acetylsalicylic acid
in one dose in association with acetylsalicylic acid
Kiovig 50 mg/ml is contraindicated in children aged 0 to 2 years.
The posology in children and adolescents (2-18 years) is not different to that of adults as the posology for each indication is given by body weight and adjusted to the clinical outcome of the above mentioned conditions.
Method of administration
For intravenous use.
Kiovig 50 mg/ml should be infused intravenously at an initial rate of 0.01 - 0.02 ml/kg/min for the first thirty minutes. If well tolerated , the rate of administration may gradually be increased to a maximum of 0.1 ml/kg/min.
Hypersensitivity to human immunoglobulins, especially in patients with antibodies against IgA.
In babies and young children (aged 0-2 years) hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) may not yet be diagnosed and may be fatal, thus, they must not receive this medicinal product.
Each ml of this medicinal product contains 50 mg of sorbitol. Patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance must not take this medicine.
In persons more than 2 years old with HFI, a spontaneous aversion for fructose-containing foods develops and may be combined with the onset of symptoms (vomiting, gastro-intestinal disorders, apathy, height and weight retardation). Therefore a detailed history with regard to HFI symptoms has to be taken of each patient prior to receiving Kiovig.
In case of inadvertent administration and suspicion of fructose intolerance the infusion has to be stopped immediately, normal glycaemia has to be re-established and organ function has to be stabilized by means of intensive care.
Interferences with determination of blood glucose levels are not expected.
Certain severe adverse reactions may be related to the rate of infusion. Patients must be closely monitored and carefully observed for any symptoms throughout the infusion period.
Certain adverse reactions may occur more frequently
- in case of high rate of infusion
- in patients who receive human normal immunoglobulin for the first time or, in rare cases, when the human normal immunoglobulin product is switched or when there has been a long interval since the previous infusion.
Potential complications can often be avoided by ensuring that patients:
- are not sensitive to human normal immunoglobulin by initially injecting the product slowly (at an initial rate of 0.01-0.02 ml/kg/min)
- are carefully monitored for any symptoms throughout the infusion period. In particular, patients naive to human normal immunoglobulin, patients switched from an alternative IVIg product or when there has been a long interval since the previous infusion should be monitored during the first infusion and for the first hour after the first infusion, in order to detect potential adverse signs. All other patients should be observed for at least 20 minutes after administration.
In case of adverse reaction, either the rate of administration must be reduced or the infusion stopped.
The treatment required depends on the nature and severity of the adverse reaction.
In case of shock, standard medical treatment for shock should be implemented.
In all patients, IVIg administration requires:
- adequate hydration prior to the initiation of the infusion of IVIg
- monitoring of urine output
- monitoring of serum creatinine levels
- avoidance of concomitant use of loop diuretics.
True hypersensitivity reactions are rare. They can occur in patients with anti-IgA antibodies.
IVIg is not indicated in patients with selective IgA deficiency where the IgA deficiency is the only abnormality of concern.
Rarely, human normal immunoglobulin can induce a fall in blood pressure with anaphylactic reaction, even in patients who had tolerated previous treatment with human normal immunoglobulin.
There is clinical evidence of an association between IVIg administration and thromboembolic events such as myocardial infarction, cerebral vascular accident (including stroke), pulmonary embolism and deep vein thromboses which is assumed to be related to a relative increase in blood viscosity through the high influx of immunoglobulin in at-risk patients. Caution should be exercised in prescribing and infusing IVIg in obese patients and in patients with pre-existing risk factors for thrombotic events (such as advanced age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and a history of vascular disease or thrombotic episodes, patients with acquired or inherited thrombophilic disorders, patients with prolonged periods of immobilisation, severely hypovolemic patients, and patients with diseases which increase blood viscosity).
In patients at risk for thromboembolic adverse reactions, IVIg products should be administered at the minimum rate of infusion and dose practicable.
Acute renal failure
Cases of acute renal failure have been reported in patients receiving IVIg therapy. In most cases, risk factors have been identified, such as pre-existing renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, hypovolaemia, overweight, concomitant nephrotoxic medicinal products or age over 65.
In case of renal impairment, IVIg discontinuation should be considered. While these reports of renal dysfunction and acute renal failure have been associated with the use of many of the licensed IVIg products containing various excipients such as sucrose, glucose and maltose, those containing sucrose as a stabiliser accounted for a disproportionate share of the total number. In patients at risk, the use of IVIg products that do not contain these excipients may be considered. Kiovig does not contain sucrose, maltose or glucose.
In patients at risk for acute renal failure, IVIg products should be administered at the minimum rate of infusion and dose practicable.
Aseptic meningitis syndrome (AMS)
Aseptic meningitis syndrome has been reported to occur in association with IVIg treatment. Discontinuation of IVIg treatment has resulted in remission of AMS within several days without sequelae. The syndrome usually begins within several hours to 2 days following IVIg treatment. Cerebrospinal fluid studies are frequently positive with pleocytosis up to several thousand cells per mm3, predominantly from the granulocytic series, and elevated protein levels up to several hundred mg/dl. AMS may occur more frequently in association with high-dose (2 g/kg) IVIg treatment.
IVIg products can contain blood group antibodies which may act as haemolysins and induce in vivo coating of red blood cells with immunoglobulin, causing a positive direct antiglobulin reaction (Coombs' test) and, rarely, haemolysis. Haemolytic anaemia can develop subsequent to IVIg therapy due to enhanced red blood cells (RBC) sequestration. IVIg recipients should be monitored for clinical signs and symptoms of haemolysis.
Interference with serological testing
After injection of immunoglobulin the transitory rise of the various passively transferred antibodies in the patient's blood may result in misleading positive results in serological testing.
Passive transmission of antibodies to erythrocyte antigens, e.g. A, B, D may interfere with some serological tests for red cell antibodies for example the direct antiglobulin test (DAT, direct Coombs' test).
Standard measures to prevent infections resulting from the use of medicinal products prepared from human blood or plasma include selection of donors, screening of individual donations and plasma pools for specific markers of infection and the inclusion of effective manufacturing steps for the inactivation/removal of viruses. Despite this, when medicinal products prepared from human blood or plasma are administered, the possibility of transmitting infective agents cannot be totally excluded. This also applies to unknown or emerging viruses and other pathogens.
The measures taken are considered effective for enveloped viruses such as HIV, HBV and HCV, and for the non-enveloped viruses HAV and parvovirus B19.
There is reassuring clinical experience regarding the lack of hepatitis A or parvovirus B19 transmission with immunoglobulins and it is also assumed that the antibody content makes an important contribution to viral safety.
It is strongly recommended that every time that Kiovig is administered to a patient, the name and batch number of the product are recorded in order to maintain a link between the patient and the batch of the product.
It is recommended to monitor vital signs when administering Kiovig to paediatric patients.
The ability to drive and operate machines may be impaired by some adverse reactions, such as dizziness, associated with Kiovig. Patients who experience adverse reactions during treatment should wait for these to resolve before driving or operating machines.
Summary of the safety profile
Adverse reactions such as chills, headache, dizziness, fever, vomiting, allergic reactions, nausea, arthralgia, low blood pressure and moderate low back pain may occur occasionally.
Rarely human normal immunoglobulins may cause a sudden fall in blood pressure and, in isolated cases, anaphylactic shock, even when the patient has shown no hypersensitivity to previous administration.
Cases of reversible aseptic meningitis and rare cases of transient cutaneous reactions have been observed with human normal immunoglobulin.).
Increase in serum creatinine level and/or acute renal failure have been observed.
Very rarely: Thromboembolic reactions such as myocardial infarction, stroke, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thromboses.
Tabulated list of adverse reactions
The table presented below is according to the MedDRA system organ classification (SOC and Preferred Term Level).
Frequencies have been evaluated according to the following convention:
- very common (>1/10)
- common (>1/100 to <1/10)
- uncommon (>1/1,000 to <1/100)
- rare (>1/10,000 to <1/1,000)
- very rare (<1/10,000)
- not known (cannot be estimated from the available data)
Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing of seriousness.
Frequency of Adverse Reactions (ADRs) in clinical studies with Kiovig 50 mg/ml
MedDRA System Organ Class (SOC)
Nervous system disorders
Hypotension, hypertension, diastolic hypertension, blood pressure fluctuations
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders
Bronchitis, cough, wheezing
Diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, abdominal pain upper
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
Urticaria, rash pruritic, dermatitis contact
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
Back pain, arthralgia, myalgia, muscle cramp
General disorders and administration site conditions
Pyrexia, injection site reaction
Rigors, asthenia, pain, infusion site inflammation, injection site oedema, injection site pain, injection site pruritus, injection site swelling, migration of implant
Coombs test positive, blood pressure systolic decreased, blood pressure systolic increased, body temperature increased
Description of selected adverse reactions
The most reported post-marketing ADRs received since the product was authorised for both concentrations were chest pain, flushing, blood pressure increased and decreased, malaise, dyspnoea, nausea, vomiting pyrexia, back pain, headache and chills.
The safety results for 29 paediatric patients (those â‰¤ 17 years old) included in the PID studies were evaluated. It was observed that the proportion of headache, pyrexia, tachycardia and hypotension in children was higher than in adults. Assessment of vital signs in clinical trials of the paediatric population did not indicate any pattern of clinically relevant changes.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the UK Yellowcard Scheme: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or telephone 0808 100 3352.
Overdose may lead to fluid overload and hyper viscosity, particularly in patients at risk, including elderly patients or patients with renal impairment.
Information on overdose in children has not been established with Kiovig. However, as in adult population, overdose may lead to fluid overload and hyperviscosity as with any other intravenous immunoglobulins.
Pharmacotherapeutic group: immune sera and immunoglobulins: immunoglobulins, normal human, for intravascular administration, ATC code: J06BA02.
Human normal immunoglobulin contains mainly immunoglobulin G (IgG) with a broad spectrum of antibodies against infectious agents.
Human normal immunoglobulin contains the IgG antibodies present in the normal population. It is usually prepared from pooled plasma from not fewer than 1000 donors. It has a distribution of immunoglobulin G subclasses closely proportional to that in native human plasma.
Adequate doses of this medicinal product may restore abnormally low immunoglobulin G levels to the normal range.
The mechanism of action in indications other than replacement therapy is not fully elucidated, but includes immunomodulatory effects. A significant increase in median platelet levels was achieved in a clinical trial in chronic ITP patients (64,000/Âµl) although it did not reach normal levels.
Three clinical trials were performed with Kiovig, two for replacement therapy in patients with primary immunodeficiency (one in both adults and in children above 10 years and another in children between 2 to 16 years) and another for immunomodulation in adult patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura.
Human normal immunoglobulin is immediately and completely bioavailable in the recipient's circulation after intravenous administration. It is distributed relatively rapidly between plasma and extravascular fluid, after approximately 3-5 days equilibrium is reached between the intra- and extravascular compartments.
Kiovig 50 mg/ml has a half-life of about 30-32 days. This half-life may vary from patient to patient, in particular in primary immunodeficiency.
IgG and IgG-complexes are broken down in cells of the reticuloendothelial system.
No differences of the pharmacokinetic properties are expected in the paediatric population.
Single dose toxicity studies were carried out in rats and mice. The absence of mortality in the non-clinical studies performed with Kiovig with doses up to 2500 mg/kg, and the lack of any confirmed relevant adverse sign affecting respiratory, circulatory and central nervous system, of the treated animals supports the safety of Kiovig.
Repeated dose toxicity testing and embryo-foetal toxicity studies are impracticable due to induction of, and interference with antibodies. Effects of the product on the immune system of the newborn have not been studied.
In the absence of compatibility studies, this medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products.
The product should be brought to room or body temperature before use.
The solution should be clear or slightly opalescent and colourless or pale yellow. Solutions that are cloudy or have deposits should not be used.
Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.