×
Components:
Telmisartan
Method of action:
Agents Acting In The Renin-Angiotensin System, Antihypertensive, Hypotensive
Medically reviewed by Militian Inessa Mesropovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2019.12.06

Name of the medicinal product

Kinzalmono

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Telmisartan

Therapeutic indications

The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Kinzalmono is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kinzalmono of the medicine (Telmisartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Therapeutic indications in the instructions to the drug Kinzalmono directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Hypertension

Treatment of essential hypertension in adults.

Cardiovascular prevention

Reduction of cardiovascular morbidity in adults with:

- manifest atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease (history of coronary heart disease, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease) or

- type 2 diabetes mellitus with documented target organ damage

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administration of Kinzalmono is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kinzalmono of the medicine (Telmisartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Kinzalmono directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Posology

Treatment of essential hypertension

The usually effective dose is 40 mg once daily. Some patients may already benefit at a daily dose of 20 mg. In cases where the target blood pressure is not achieved, the dose of telmisartan can be increased to a maximum of 80 mg once daily. Alternatively, telmisartan may be used in combination with thiazide-type diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide, which has been shown to have an additive blood pressure lowering effect with telmisartan. When considering raising the dose, it must be borne in mind that the maximum antihypertensive effect is generally attained four to eight weeks after the start of treatment.

Cardiovascular prevention

The recommended dose is 80 mg once daily. It is not known whether doses lower than 80 mg of telmisartan are effective in reducing cardiovascular morbidity.

When initiating telmisartan therapy for the reduction of cardiovascular morbidity, close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended, and if appropriate adjustment of medications that lower blood pressure may be necessary.

Renal impairment

Limited experience is available in patients with severe renal impairment or haemodialysis. A lower starting dose of 20 mg is recommended in these patients. No posology adjustment is required for patients with mild to moderate renal impairment.

Hepatic impairment

Kinzalmono is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment.

In patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment, the posology should not exceed 40 mg once daily.

Elderly

No dose adjustment is necessary for elderly patients.

Paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of Kinzalmono in children and adolescents aged below 18 years have not been established.

<2 but no recommendation on a posology can be made.

Method of administration

Telmisartan tablets are for once-daily oral administration and should be taken with liquid, with or without food.

Precautions to be taken before handling or administering the medicinal product.

Telmisartan should be kept in the sealed blister due to the hygroscopic property of the tablets. Tablets should be taken out of the blister shortly before administration.

Contraindications

The information provided in Contraindications of Kinzalmono is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kinzalmono of the medicine (Telmisartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Kinzalmono directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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- Second and third trimesters of pregnancy

- Biliary obstructive disorders

- Severe hepatic impairment

The concomitant use of Kinzalmono with aliskiren-containing products is contraindicated in patients with diabetes mellitus or renal impairment (GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2).

Special warnings and precautions for use

The information provided in Special warnings and precautions for use of Kinzalmono is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kinzalmono of the medicine (Telmisartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special warnings and precautions for use in the instructions to the drug Kinzalmono directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Pregnancy

Angiotensin II receptor antagonists should not be initiated during pregnancy. Unless continued angiotensin II receptor antagonist therapy is considered essential, patients planning pregnancy should be changed to alternative antihypertensive treatments which have an established safety profile for use in pregnancy. When pregnancy is diagnosed, treatment with angiotensin II receptor antagonists should be stopped immediately, and, if appropriate, alternative therapy should be started.

Hepatic impairment

Kinzalmono is not to be given to patients with cholestasis, biliary obstructive disorders or severe hepatic impairment since telmisartan is mostly eliminated with the bile. These patients can be expected to have reduced hepatic clearance for telmisartan. Kinzalmono should be used only with caution in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment.

Renovascular hypertension

There is an increased risk of severe hypotension and renal insufficiency when patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis or stenosis of the artery to a single functioning kidney are treated with medicinal products that affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

Renal impairment and kidney transplantation

When Kinzalmono is used in patients with impaired renal function, periodic monitoring of potassium and creatinine serum levels is recommended. There is no experience regarding the administration of Kinzalmono in patients with recent kidney transplantation.

Intravascular hypovolaemia

Symptomatic hypotension, especially after the first dose of Kinzalmono, may occur in patients who are volume and/or sodium depleted by vigorous diuretic therapy, dietary salt restriction, diarrhoea, or vomiting. Such conditions should be corrected before the administration of Kinzalmono. Volume and/or sodium depletion should be corrected prior to administration of Kinzalmono.

Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)

There is evidence that the concomitant use of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren increases the risk of hypotension, hyperkalaemia and decreased renal function (including acute renal failure). Dual blockade of RAAS through the combined use of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren is therefore not recommended. If dual blockade therapy is considered absolutely necessary, this should only occur under specialist supervision and subject to frequent close monitoring of renal function, electrolytes and blood pressure.

ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers should not be used concomitantly in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

Other conditions with stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

In patients whose vascular tone and renal function depend predominantly on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (e.g. patients with severe congestive heart failure or underlying renal disease, including renal artery stenosis), treatment with medicinal products that affect this system such as telmisartan has been associated with acute hypotension, hyperazotaemia, oliguria, or rarely acute renal failure.

Primary aldosteronism

Patients with primary aldosteronism generally will not respond to antihypertensive medicinal products acting through inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore, the use of telmisartan is not recommended.

Aortic and mitral valve stenosis, obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

As with other vasodilators, special caution is indicated in patients suffering from aortic or mitral stenosis, or obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Diabetic patients treated with insulin or antidiabetics

In these patients hypoglycaemia may occur under telmisartan treatment. Therefore, in these patients an appropriate blood glucose monitoring should be considered; a dose adjustment of insulin or antidiabetics may be required, when indicated.

Hyperkalaemia

The use of medicinal products that affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system may cause hyperkalaemia.

In the elderly, in patients with renal insufficiency, in diabetic patients, in patients concomitantly treated with other medicinal products that may increase potassium levels, and/or in patients with intercurrent events, hyperkalaemia may be fatal.

Before considering the concomitant use of medicinal products that affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, the benefit risk ratio should be evaluated.

The main risk factors for hyperkalaemia to be considered are:

- Diabetes mellitus, renal impairment, age (>70 years)

- Combination with one or more other medicinal products that affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and/or potassium supplements. Medicinal products or therapeutic classes of medicinal products that may provoke hyperkalaemia are salt substitutes containing potassium, potassium-sparing diuretics, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, non steroidal anti-inflammatory medicinal products (NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors), heparin, immunosuppressives (cyclosporin or tacrolimus), and trimethoprim.

- Intercurrent events, in particular dehydratation, acute cardiac decompensation, metabolic acidosis, worsening of renal function, sudden worsening of the renal condition (e.g. infectious diseases), cellular lysis (e.g. acute limb ischemia, rhabdomyolysis, extend trauma).

Close monitoring of serum potassium in at risk patients is recommended.

Sorbitol

This medicinal product contains sorbitol (E420). Patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance should not take Kinzalmono.

Ethnic differences

As observed for angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, telmisartan and the other angiotensin II receptor antagonists are apparently less effective in lowering blood pressure in black people than in non-blacks, possibly because of higher prevalence of low-renin states in the black hypertensive population.

Other

As with any antihypertensive agent, excessive reduction of blood pressure in patients with ischaemic cardiopathy or ischaemic cardiovascular disease could result in a myocardial infarction or stroke.

Effects on ability to drive and use machines

The information provided in Effects on ability to drive and use machines of Kinzalmono is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kinzalmono of the medicine (Telmisartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Effects on ability to drive and use machines in the instructions to the drug Kinzalmono directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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When driving vehicles or operating machinery it should be taken into account that dizziness or drowsiness may occasionally occur when taking antihypertensive therapy such as Kinzalmono.

Undesirable effects

The information provided in Undesirable effects of Kinzalmono is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kinzalmono of the medicine (Telmisartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Undesirable effects in the instructions to the drug Kinzalmono directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Summary of the safety profile

Serious adverse drug reactions include anaphylactic reaction and angioedema which may occur rarely (>1/10,000 to <1/1,000), and acute renal failure.

The overall incidence of adverse reactions reported with telmisartan was usually comparable to placebo (41.4 % vs 43.9 %) in controlled trials in patients treated for hypertension. The incidence of adverse reactions was not dose related and showed no correlation with gender, age or race of the patients. The safety profile of telmisartan in patients treated for the reduction of cardiovascular morbidity was consistent with that obtained in hypertensive patients.

The adverse reactions listed below have been accumulated from controlled clinical trials in patients treated for hypertension and from post-marketing reports. The listing also takes into account serious adverse reactions and adverse reactions leading to discontinuation reported in three clinical long-term studies including 21,642 patients treated with telmisartan for the reduction of cardiovascular morbidity for up to six years.

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

Adverse reactions have been ranked under headings of frequency using the following convention: very common (>1/10); common (>1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (>1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (>1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000).

Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.

Infections and infestations

Uncommon:

Rare:

Urinary tract infection including cystitis, upper respiratory tract infection including pharyngitis and sinusitis

Sepsis including fatal outcome1

Blood and the lymphatic system disorders

Uncommon:

Anaemia

Rare:

Eosinophilia, thrombocytopenia

Immune system disorders

Rare:

Anaphylactic reaction, hypersensitivity

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Uncommon:

Rare:

Hyperkalaemia

Hypoglycaemia (in diabetic patients)

Psychiatric disorders

Uncommon:

Insomnia, depression

Rare:

Anxiety

Nervous system disorders

Uncommon:

Rare:

Syncope

Somnolence

Eye disorders

Rare:

Visual disturbance

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Uncommon:

Vertigo

Cardiac disorders

Uncommon:

Bradycardia

Rare:

Tachycardia

Vascular disorders

Uncommon:

Hypotension2, orthostatic hypotension

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Uncommon:

Very rare:

Dyspnoea, cough

Interstitial lung disease4

Gastrointestinal disorders

Uncommon:

Rare:

Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, flatulence, vomiting

Dry mouth, stomach discomfort, dysgeusia

Hepato-biliary disorders

Rare:

Hepatic function abnormal/liver disorder3

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Uncommon:

Rare:

Pruritus, hyperhidrosis, rash

Angioedema (also with fatal outcome), eczema, erythema, urticaria, drug eruption, toxic skin eruption

Muscoloskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Uncommon:

Rare:

Back pain (e.g. sciatica), muscle spasms, myalgia

Arthralgia, pain in extremity, tendon pain (tendinitis like symptoms)

Renal and urinary disorders

Uncommon:

Renal impairment including acute renal failure

General disorders and administration site conditions

Uncommon:

Rare:

Chest pain, asthenia (weakness)

Influenza-like illness

Investigations

Uncommon:

Blood creatinine increased

Rare:

Haemoglobin decreased, blood uric acid increased, hepatic enzyme increased, blood creatine phosphokinase increased

1,2,3,4: for further descriptions, please see sub-section “Description of selected adverse reactions”

Description of selected adverse reactions

Sepsis

In the PRoFESS trial, an increased incidence of sepsis was observed with telmisartan compared with placebo.).

Hypotension

This adverse reaction was reported as common in patients with controlled blood pressure who were treated with telmisartan for the reduction of cardiovascular morbidity on top of standard care.

Hepatic function abnormal / liver disorder

Most cases of hepatic function abnormal / liver disorder from post-marketing experience occurred in Japanese patients. Japanese patients are more likely to experience these adverse reactions.

Interstitial lung disease

Cases of interstitial lung disease have been reported from post-marketing experience in temporal association with the intake of telmisartan. However, a causal relationship has not been established.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via:

United Kingdom

Yellow Card Scheme

Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store

Ireland

HPRA Pharmacovigilance

Earlsfort Terrace

IRL - Dublin 2

Tel: +353 1 6764971

Fax: +353 1 6762517

Website: www.hpra.ie

e-mail: medsafety@hpra.ie

Malta

ADR Reporting

Website: www.medicinesauthority.gov.mt/adrportal

Overdose

The information provided in Overdose of Kinzalmono is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kinzalmono of the medicine (Telmisartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Overdose in the instructions to the drug Kinzalmono directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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There is limited information available with regard to overdose in humans.

Symptoms

The most prominent manifestations of telmisartan overdose were hypotension and tachycardia; bradycardia dizziness, increase in serum creatinine, and acute renal failure have also been reported.

Management

Telmisartan is not removed by haemodialysis. The patient should be closely monitored, and the treatment should be symptomatic and supportive. Management depends on the time since ingestion and the severity of the symptoms. Suggested measures include induction of emesis and / or gastric lavage. Activated charcoal may be useful in the treatment of overdosage. Serum electrolytes and creatinine should be monitored frequently. If hypotension occurs, the patient should be placed in a supine position, with salt and volume replacement given quickly.

Pharmacodynamic properties

The information provided in Pharmacodynamic properties of Kinzalmono is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kinzalmono of the medicine (Telmisartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacodynamic properties in the instructions to the drug Kinzalmono directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Pharmacotherapeutic group: Angiotensin II Antagonists, plain, ATC Code: C09CA07.

Mechanism of action

Telmisartan is an orally active and specific angiotensin II receptor (type AT1) antagonist. Telmisartan displaces angiotensin II with very high affinity from its binding site at the AT1 receptor subtype, which is responsible for the known actions of angiotensin II. Telmisartan does not exhibit any partial agonist activity at the AT1 receptor. Telmisartan selectively binds the AT1 receptor. The binding is long-lasting. Telmisartan does not show affinity for other receptors, including AT2 and other less characterised AT receptors. The functional role of these receptors is not known, nor is the effect of their possible overstimulation by angiotensin II, whose levels are increased by telmisartan. Plasma aldosterone levels are decreased by telmisartan. Telmisartan does not inhibit human plasma renin or block ion channels. Telmisartan does not inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (kininase II), the enzyme which also degrades bradykinin. Therefore it is not expected to potentiate bradykinin-mediated adverse effects.

In human, an 80 mg dose of telmisartan almost completely inhibits the angiotensin II evoked blood pressure increase. The inhibitory effect is maintained over 24 hours and still measurable up to 48 hours.

Clinical efficacy and safety

Treatment of essential hypertension

After the first dose of telmisartan, the antihypertensive activity gradually becomes evident within 3 hours. The maximum reduction in blood pressure is generally attained 4 to 8 weeks after the start of treatment and is sustained during long-term therapy.

The antihypertensive effect persists constantly over 24 hours after dosing and includes the last 4 hours before the next dose as shown by ambulatory blood pressure measurements. This is confirmed by trough to peak ratios consistently above 80 % seen after doses of 40 and 80 mg of telmisartan in placebo controlled clinical studies. There is an apparent trend to a dose relationship to a time to recovery of baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP). In this respect data concerning diastolic blood pressure (DBP) are inconsistent.

In patients with hypertension telmisartan reduces both systolic and diastolic blood pressure without affecting pulse rate. The contribution of the medicinal product's diuretic and natriuretic effect to its hypotensive activity has still to be defined. The antihypertensive efficacy of telmisartan is comparable to that of agents representative of other classes of antihypertensive medicinal products (demonstrated in clinical trials comparing telmisartan to amlodipine, atenolol, enalapril, hydrochlorothiazide, and lisinopril).

Upon abrupt cessation of treatment with telmisartan, blood pressure gradually returns to pre-treatment values over a period of several days without evidence of rebound hypertension.

The incidence of dry cough was significantly lower in patients treated with telmisartan than in those given angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in clinical trials directly comparing the two antihypertensive treatments.

Cardiovascular prevention

ONTARGET (ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial) compared the effects of telmisartan, ramipril and the combination of telmisartan and ramipril on cardiovascular outcomes in 25620 patients aged 55 years or older with a history of coronary artery disease, stroke, TIA, peripheral arterial disease, or type 2 diabetes mellitus accompanied by evidence of end-organ damage (e.g. retinopathy, left ventricular hypertrophy, macro- or microalbuminuria), which is a population at risk for cardiovascular events.

Patients were randomized to one of the three following treatment groups: telmisartan 80 mg (n = 8542), ramipril 10 mg (n = 8576), or the combination of telmisartan 80 mg plus ramipril 10 mg (n = 8502), and followed for a mean observation time of 4.5 years.

Telmisartan showed a similar effect to ramipril in reducing the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or hospitalization for congestive heart failure. The incidence of the primary endpoint was similar in the telmisartan (16.7 %) and ramipril (16.5 %) groups. The hazard ratio for telmisartan vs. ramipril was 1.01 (97.5 % CI 0.93 - 1.10, p (non-inferiority) = 0.0019 at a margin of 1.13). The all-cause mortality rate was 11.6 % and 11.8 % among telmisartan and ramipril treated patients, respectively.

Telmisartan was found to be similarly effective to ramipril in the pre-specified secondary endpoint of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke [0.99 (97.5 % CI 0.90 - 1.08), p (non-inferiority) = 0.0004], the primary endpoint in the reference study HOPE (The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study), which had investigated the effect of ramipril vs. placebo.

TRANSCEND randomized ACE-I intolerant patients with otherwise similar inclusion criteria as ONTARGET to telmisartan 80 mg (n=2954) or placebo (n=2972), both given on top of standard care. The mean duration of follow up was 4 years and 8 months. No statistically significant difference in the incidence of the primary composite endpoint (cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or hospitalization for congestive heart failure) was found [15.7 % in the telmisartan and 17.0 % in the placebo groups with a hazard ratio of 0.92 (95 % CI 0.81 - 1.05, p = 0.22)]. There was evidence for a benefit of telmisartan compared to placebo in the pre-specified secondary composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke [0.87 (95 % CI 0.76 - 1.00, p = 0.048)]. There was no evidence for benefit on cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio 1.03, 95 % CI 0.85 - 1.24).

Cough and angioedema were less frequently reported in patients treated with telmisartan than in patients treated with ramipril, whereas hypotension was more frequently reported with telmisartan.

Combining telmisartan with ramipril did not add further benefit over ramipril or telmisartan alone. CV mortality and all cause mortality were numerically higher with the combination. In addition, there was a significantly higher incidence of hyperkalaemia, renal failure, hypotension and syncope in the combination arm. Therefore the use of a combination of telmisartan and ramipril is not recommended in this population.

In the "Prevention Regimen For Effectively avoiding Second Strokes" (PRoFESS) trial in patients 50 years and older, who recently experienced stroke, an increased incidence of sepsis was noted for telmisartan compared with placebo, 0.70 % vs. 0.49 % [RR 1.43 (95 % confidence interval 1.00 - 2.06)]; the incidence of fatal sepsis cases was increased for patients taking telmisartan (0.33 %) vs. patients taking placebo (0.16 %) [RR 2.07 (95 % confidence interval 1.14 - 3.76)]. The observed increased occurrence rate of sepsis associated with the use of telmisartan may be either a chance finding or related to a mechanism not currently known.

Two large randomised, controlled trials (ONTARGET (ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial) and VA NEPHRON-D (The Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes)) have examined the use of the combination of an ACE-inhibitor with an angiotensin II receptor blocker.

ONTARGET was a study conducted in patients with a history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease, or type 2 diabetes mellitus accompanied by evidence of end-organ damage. For more detailed information see above under the heading “Cardiovascular prevention”. VA NEPHRON-D was a study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy. These studies have shown no significant beneficial effect on renal and/or cardiovascular outcomes and mortality, while an increased risk of hyperkalaemia, acute kidney injury and/or hypotension as compared to monotherapy was observed. Given their similar pharmacodynamic properties, these results are also relevant for other ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers. ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers should therefore not be used concomitantly in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

ALTITUDE (Aliskiren Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardiovascular and Renal Disease Endpoints) was a study designed to test the benefit of adding aliskiren to a standard therapy of an ACE-inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, or both. The study was terminated early because of an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Cardiovascular death and stroke were both numerically more frequent in the aliskiren group than in the placebo group and adverse events and serious adverse events of interest (hyperkalaemia, hypotension and renal dysfunction) were more frequently reported in the aliskiren group than in the placebo group.

Paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of Kinzalmono in children and adolescents aged below 18 years have not been established.

The blood pressure lowering effects of two doses of telmisartan were assessed in 76 hypertensive, largely overweight patients aged 6 to < 18 years (body weight > 20 kg and ≤ 120 kg, mean 74.6 kg), after taking telmisartan 1 mg/kg (n = 29 treated) or 2 mg/kg (n = 31 treated) over a four-week treatment period. By inclusion the presence of secondary hypertension was not investigated. In some of the investigated patients the doses used were higher than those recommended in the treatment of hypertension in the adult population, reaching a daily dose comparable to 160 mg, which was tested in adults. After adjustment for age group effects mean SBP changes from baseline (primary objective) were -14.5 (1.7) mm Hg in the telmisartan 2 mg/kg group, -9.7 (1.7) mm Hg in the telmisartan 1 mg/kg group, and -6.0 (2.4) in the placebo group. The adjusted DBP changes from baseline were -8.4 (1.5) mm Hg, -4.5 (1.6) mm Hg and -3.5 (2.1) mm Hg respectively. The change was dose dependent. The safety data from this study in patients aged 6 to < 18 years appeared generally similar to that observed in adults. The safety of long term treatment of telmisartan in children and adolescents was not evaluated.

An increase in eosinophils reported in this patient population has not been recorded in adults. Its clinical significance and relevance is unknown.

These clinical data do not allow to make conclusions on the efficacy and safety of telmisartan in hypertensive paediatric population.

Pharmacokinetic properties

The information provided in Pharmacokinetic properties of Kinzalmono is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kinzalmono of the medicine (Telmisartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacokinetic properties in the instructions to the drug Kinzalmono directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Absorption

Absorption of telmisartan is rapid although the amount absorbed varies. The mean absolute bioavailability for telmisartan is about 50 %. When telmisartan is taken with food, the reduction in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) of telmisartan varies from approximately 6 % (40 mg dose) to approximately 19 % (160 mg dose). By 3 hours after administration, plasma concentrations are similar whether telmisartan is taken fasting or with food.

Linearity/non-linearity

The small reduction in AUC is not expected to cause a reduction in the therapeutic efficacy. There is no linear relationship between doses and plasma levels. Cmax and to a lesser extent AUC increase disproportionately at doses above 40 mg.

Distribution

Telmisartan is largely bound to plasma protein (>99.5 %), mainly albumin and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein. The mean steady state apparent volume of distribution (Vdss) is approximately 500 l.

Biotransformation

Telmisartan is metabolised by conjugation to the glucuronide of the parent compound. No pharmacological activity has been shown for the conjugate.

Elimination

Telmisartan is characterised by biexponential decay pharmacokinetics with a terminal elimination half-life of >20 hours. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and, to a smaller extent, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), increase disproportionately with dose. There is no evidence of clinically relevant accumulation of telmisartan taken at the recommended dose. Plasma concentrations were higher in females than in males, without relevant influence on efficacy.

After oral (and intravenous) administration, telmisartan is nearly exclusively excreted with the faeces, mainly as unchanged compound. Cumulative urinary excretion is <1 % of dose. Total plasma clearance (Cltot) is high (approximately 1,000 ml/min) compared with hepatic blood flow (about 1,500 ml/min).

Paediatric population

The pharmacokinetics of two doses of telmisartan were assessed as a secondary objective in hypertensive patients (n = 57) aged 6 to < 18 years after taking telmisartan 1 mg/kg or 2 mg/kg over a four-week treatment period. Pharmacokinetic objectives included the determination of the steady-state of telmisartan in children and adolescents, and investigation of age related differences. Although the study was too small for a meaningful assessment of the pharmacokinetics of children under 12 years of age, the results are generally consistent with the findings in adults and confirm the non-linearity of telmisartan, particularly for Cmax.

Gender

Differences in plasma concentrations were observed, with Cmax and AUC being approximately 3- and 2-fold higher, respectively, in females compared to males.

Elderly

The pharmacokinetics of telmisartan do not differ between the elderly and those younger than 65 years.

Renal impairment

In patients with mild to moderate and severe renal impairment, doubling of plasma concentrations was observed. However, lower plasma concentrations were observed in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing dialysis. Telmisartan is highly bound to plasma protein in renal-insufficient patients and cannot be removed by dialysis. The elimination half-life is not changed in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic impairment

Pharmacokinetic studies in patients with hepatic impairment showed an increase in absolute bioavailability up to nearly 100 %. The elimination half-life is not changed in patients with hepatic impairment.

Pharmacotherapeutic group

The information provided in Pharmacotherapeutic group of Kinzalmono is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kinzalmono of the medicine (Telmisartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacotherapeutic group in the instructions to the drug Kinzalmono directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Angiotensin II Antagonists, plain, ATC Code: C09CA07.

Preclinical safety data

The information provided in Preclinical safety data of Kinzalmono is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kinzalmono of the medicine (Telmisartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Preclinical safety data in the instructions to the drug Kinzalmono directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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In preclinical safety studies, doses producing exposure comparable to that in the clinical therapeutic range caused reduced red cell parameters (erythrocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit), changes in renal haemodynamics (increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine), as well as increased serum potassium in normotensive animals. In dogs, renal tubular dilation and atrophy were observed. Gastric mucosal injury (erosion, ulcers or inflammation) also was noted in rats and dogs. These pharmacologically-mediated undesirable effects, known from preclinical studies with both angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists, were prevented by oral saline supplementation.

In both species, increased plasma renin activity and hypertrophy/hyperplasia of the renal juxtaglomerular cells were observed. These changes, also a class effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and other angiotensin II receptor antagonists, do not appear to have clinical significance.

No clear evidence of a teratogenic effect was observed, however at toxic dose levels of telmisartan an effect on the postnatal development of the offsprings such as lower body weight and delayed eye opening was observed.

There was no evidence of mutagenicity and relevant clastogenic activity in in vitro studies and no evidence of carcinogenicity in rats and mice.

Incompatibilities

The information provided in Incompatibilities of Kinzalmono is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kinzalmono of the medicine (Telmisartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Incompatibilities in the instructions to the drug Kinzalmono directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Not applicable.

Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The information provided in Special precautions for disposal and other handling of Kinzalmono is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kinzalmono of the medicine (Telmisartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special precautions for disposal and other handling in the instructions to the drug Kinzalmono directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Telmisartan should be kept in the sealed blister due to the hygroscopic property of the tablets. Tablets should be taken out of the blister shortly before administration.

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

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