Method of action:
Medically reviewed by Fedorchenko Olga Valeryevna, PharmD. Last updated on 2020-03-14
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Prevention and treatment of infections in which the yeast Malassezia (previously called Pityrosporum) is likely to be involved, such as dandruff, seborrhoeic dermatitis and tinea (pityriasis) versicolor.
Ketoral(ANTIFUNGAL) Cream 2% is indicated for the topical treatment of tinea corporis, tinea cruris and tinea pedis caused by Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and Epidermophyton floccosum; in the treatment of tinea (pityriasis) versicolor caused by Malassezia furfur (Pityrosporum orbiculare); in the treatment of cutaneous candidiasis caused by Candida spp. and in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.
For topical administration.
Ketoconazole shampoo 2% is for use in adolescents and adults:
Wash affected areas and leave for 3-5 minutes before rinsing.
Dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis:
Wash hair twice weekly for 2-4 weeks.
Once daily for a maximum of 5 days.
Dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis:
Use once every 1-2 weeks.
Once daily for a maximum of 3 days before exposure to sunshine.
Cutaneous candidiasis, tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis and tinea (pityriasis) versicolor: It is recommended that Ketoral(ANTIFUNGAL) Cream 2% be applied once daily to cover the affected and immediate surrounding area. Clinical improvement may be seen fairly soon after treatment is begun; however, candidal infections and tinea cruris and corporis should be treated for two weeks in order to reduce the possibility of recurrence. Patients with tinea versicolor usually require two weeks of treatment. Patients with tinea pedis require six weeks of treatment. Seborrheic dermatitis: Ketoral(ANTIFUNGAL) Cream 2% should be applied to the affected area twice daily for four weeks or until clinical clearing.
If a patient shows no clinical improvement after the treatment period, the diagnosis should be redetermined.
Known hypersensitivity to ketoconazole or any of the excipients.
Ketoral(ANTIFUNGAL) Cream 2% is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to the active or excipient ingredients of this formulation.
In patients who have been on prolonged treatment with topical corticosteroids, it is recommended that the steroid therapy be gradually withdrawn over a period of 2 to 3 weeks, while using Ketoral(ANTIFUNGAL) 2% shampoo, to prevent any potential rebound effect.
Keep out of the eyes. If the shampoo should get into the eyes, they should be bathed with water.
Ketoral(ANTIFUNGAL) Cream 2% is not for ophthalmic use.
Ketoral(ANTIFUNGAL) Cream 2% contains sodium sulfite anhydrous, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in nonasthmatic people.
If a reaction suggesting sensitivity or chemical irritation should occur, use of the medication should be discontinued. Hepatitis (1:10,000 reported incidence) and, at high doses, lowered testosterone and ACTH induced corticosteroid serum levels have been seen with orally administered Ketoral(ANTIFUNGAL); these effects have not been seen with topical Ketoral(ANTIFUNGAL).
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
A long-term feeding study in Swiss Albino mice and in Wistar rats showed no evidence of oncogenic activity. The dominant lethal mutation test in male and female mice revealed that single oral doses of Ketoral(ANTIFUNGAL) as high as 80 mg/kg produced no mutation in any stage of germ cell development. The Ames'Salmonella microsomal activator assay was also negative.
Teratogenic effects : Pregnancy Category C
Ketoral(ANTIFUNGAL) has been shown to be teratogenic (syndactylia and oligodactylia) in the rat when given orally in the diet at 80 mg/kg/day, (10 times the maximum recommended human oral dose). However, these effects may be related to maternal toxicity, which was seen at this and higher dose levels.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Ketoral(ANTIFUNGAL) should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
It is not known whether Ketoral(ANTIFUNGAL) Cream 2% administered topically could result in sufficient systemic absorption to produce detectable quantities in breast milk. Nevertheless, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness in children have not been established.
The safety of ketoconazole 2% shampoo was evaluated in 2890 subjects who participated in 22 clinical trials. Ketoconazole 2% shampoo was administered topically to the scalp and/or skin. Based on pooled safety data from these clinical trials, there were no ADRs reported with an incidence >1%.
The following table displays ADRs that have been reported with the use of Ketoconazole 2% Shampoo from either clinical trial or postmarketing experiences.
The displayed frequency categories use the following convention:
Very common (>1/10)
Common (>1/100 to <1/10)
Uncommon (>1/1,000 to <1/100)
Rare (>1/10,000 to <1/1,000)
Very rare (<1/10,000)
Not known (cannot be estimated form the available clinical trial data).
System Organ Class
Adverse Drug Reactions
(>1/1,000 to <1/100)
(>1/10,000 and <1/1,000)
Immune System disorders
Nervous System Disorders
Infections and Infestations
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders
Hair texture abnormal
Skin burning sensation
Hair colour changes
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions
Application site erythema
Application site irritation
Application site pruritus
Application site reaction
Application site hypersensitivity
Application site pustules
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via:
Yellow Card Scheme
During clinical trials 45 (5.0%) of 905 patients treated with Ketoral(ANTIFUNGAL) Cream 2% and 5 (2.4%) of 208 patients treated with placebo reported side effects consisting mainly of severe irritation, pruritus and stinging. One of the patients treated with Ketoral(ANTIFUNGAL) Cream developed a painful allergic reaction.
In worldwide postmarketing experience, rare reports of contact dermatitis have been associated with Ketoral(ANTIFUNGAL) Cream or one of its excipients, namely sodium sulfite or propylene glycol.
In the event of accidental ingestion, supportive and symptomatic measures should be carried out. In order to avoid aspiration, neither emesis nor gastric lavage should be instigated.
No information provided.
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Imidazole and triazole derivatives
ATC Code: D01AC08
Ketoconazole is an imidazole-dioxolane antimycotic, active against yeasts, including Malassezia and dermatophytes. Its broad spectrum of activity is already well known.
Plasma concentrations of ketoconazole were not detectable after topical administration of Ketoral(ANTIFUNGAL) 2% shampoo on the scalp. Plasma levels were detected after topical administration of Ketoral(ANTIFUNGAL) 2% shampoo on the whole body.
Effects in non-clinical studies were observed only at exposures considered sufficiently in excess of the maximum human exposure indicating little relevance to clinical use.
No special requirements
However, we will provide data for each active ingredient