×
Components:
Azelastine
Method of action:
Antiallergic, Nasal Preparations, Ophthalmologicals
Available in countries
Medically reviewed by Kovalenko Svetlana Olegovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2020.04.10

Name of the medicinal product

Astelin

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Dosage Forms And Strengths

Astelin Nasal Spray is a nasal spray solution. Each spray of Astelin Nasal Spray delivers a volume of 0.137 mL solution containing 137 mcg of azelastine hydrochloride.

Storage And Handling

Astelin (azelastine hydrochloride) Nasal Spray, 137 mcg is supplied as a 30-mL package (NDC 0037-0241-30) delivering 200 metered sprays in a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottle fitted with a metered-dose spray pump unit. The spray pump unit consists of a nasal spray pump fitted with a blue safety clip and a blue plastic dust cover. The net content of the bottle is 30 mL (net weight 30 gm of solution). Each bottle contains 30 mg (1 mg/mL) of azelastine hydrochloride. After priming , each spray delivers a fine mist containing a mean volume of 0.137 mL solution containing 137 mcg of azelastine hydrochloride. The correct amount of medication in each spray cannot be assured before the initial priming and after 200 sprays have been used, even though the bottle is not completely empty. The bottle should be discarded after 200 sprays have been used. Astelin Nasal Spray should not be used after the expiration date “EXP” printed on the medicine label and carton.

Storage

Store at controlled room temperature 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). Protect from freezing.

Manufactured by: MEDA Pharmaceuticals Somerset, NJ 08873-4120. Revised: 10/2014

Therapeutic indications

Astelin Nasal Spray is indicated for the treatment of the symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis in adults and pediatric patients 5 years and older, and for the treatment of the symptoms of vasomotor rhinitis in adults and adolescent patients 12 years and older.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis

The recommended dosage of Astelin Nasal Spray in adults and adolescent patients 12 years and older with seasonal allergic rhinitis is one or two sprays per nostril twice daily. The recommended dosage of Astelin Nasal Spray in pediatric patients 5 years to 11 years of age is one spray per nostril twice daily.

Vasomotor Rhinitis

The recommended dosage of Astelin Nasal Spray in adults and adolescent patients 12 years and older with vasomotor rhinitis is two sprays per nostril twice daily.

Important Administration Instructions

Administer Astelin Nasal Spray by the intranasal route only.

Priming: Prime Astelin Nasal Spray before initial use by releasing 4 sprays or until a fine mist appears. When Astelin Nasal Spray has not been used for 3 or more days, reprime with 2 sprays or until a fine mist appears. Avoid spraying Astelin Nasal Spray into the eyes.

Contraindications

None.

Special warnings and precautions for use

WARNINGS

Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.

PRECAUTIONS

Somnolence In Activities Requiring Mental Alertness

In clinical trials, the occurrence of somnolence has been reported in some patients taking Astelin Nasal Spray. Patients should be cautioned against engaging in hazardous occupations requiring complete mental alertness and motor coordination such as operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle after administration of Astelin Nasal Spray. Concurrent use of Astelin Nasal Spray with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants should be avoided because additional reductions in alertness and additional impairment of central nervous system performance may occur.

Patient Counseling Information

See FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION and Instructions for Use).

Activities Requiring Mental Alertness

Somnolence has been reported in some patients taking Astelin Nasal Spray. Caution patients against engaging in hazardous occupations requiring complete mental alertness and motor coordination such as driving or operating machinery after administration of Astelin Nasal Spray.

Concurrent Use of Alcohol and other Central Nervous System Depressants

Instruct patients to avoid concurrent use of Astelin Nasal Spray with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants because additional reductions in alertness and additional impairment of central nervous system performance may occur.

Common Adverse Reactions

Inform patients that the treatment with Astelin Nasal Spray may lead to adverse reactions, which include bitter taste, headache, somnolence, dysesthesia, rhinitis, nasal burning, pharyngitis, epistaxis, sinusitis, paroxysmal sneezing, nausea, dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and weight increase.

Priming

Instruct patients to prime the pump before initial use and when Astelin Nasal Spray has not been used for 3 or more days.

Keep Spray Out of Eyes

Instruct patients to avoid spraying Astelin Nasal Spray into their eyes.

Keep Out of Children's Reach

Instruct patients to keep Astelin Nasal Spray out of the reach of children. If a child accidentally ingests Astelin Nasal Spray, seek medical help or call a poison control center immediately.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

In 2-year carcinogenicity studies in rats and mice, azelastine hydrochloride did not show evidence of carcinogenicity at oral doses up to 30 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg, respectively. These doses were approximately 150 and 60 times the maximum recommended human daily intranasal dose [MRHDID] on a mg/m² basis.

Azelastine hydrochloride showed no genotoxic effects in the Ames test, DNA repair test, mouse lymphoma forward mutation assay, mouse micronucleus test, or chromosomal aberration test in rat bone marrow.

Reproduction and fertility studies in rats showed no effects on male or female fertility at oral doses up to 30 mg/kg (approximately 150 times the MRHDID in adults on a mg/m² basis). At 68.6 mg/kg (approximately 340 times the MRHDID on a mg/m² basis), the duration of estrous cycles was prolonged and copulatory activity and the number of pregnancies were decreased. The numbers of corpora lutea and implantations were decreased; however, pre-implantation loss was not increased.

Use In Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C

There are no adequate and well-controlled clinical studies in pregnant women. Azelastine hydrochloride has been shown to cause developmental toxicity in mice, rats, and rabbits. Astelin Nasal Spray should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Teratogenic Effects

In mice, azelastine hydrochloride caused embryo-fetal death, malformations (cleft palate; short or absent tail; fused, absent or branched ribs), delayed ossification, and decreased fetal weight at approximately 170 times the maximum recommended human daily intranasal dose (MRHDID) in adults (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal oral dose of 68.6 mg/kg/day which also caused maternal toxicity as evidenced by decreased body weight). Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred in mice at approximately 7 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal oral dose of 3 mg/kg/day).

In rats, azelastine hydrochloride caused malformations (oligo-and brachydactylia), delayed ossification and skeletal variations, in the absence of maternal toxicity, at approximately 150 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal oral dose of 30 mg/kg/day). Azelastine hydrochloride caused embryo-fetal death and decreased fetal weight and severe maternal toxicity at approximately 340 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal oral dose of 68.6 mg/kg/day). Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred at approximately 15 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal oral dose of 2 mg/kg/day).

In rabbits, azelastine hydrochloride caused abortion, delayed ossification and decreased fetal weight and severe maternal toxicity at approximately 300 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal oral dose of 30 mg/kg/day). Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred at approximately 3 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal oral dose of 0.3 mg/kg/day).

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether azelastine hydrochloride is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Astelin Nasal Spray is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of Astelin Nasal Spray for the treatment of symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis have been established for patients 5 years and older. The safety and effectiveness of Astelin Nasal Spray for the treatment of vasomotor rhinitis have been established for patients 12 years and older. The safety and effectiveness of Astelin Nasal Spray in pediatric patients below the age of 5 years with seasonal allergic rhinitis and in pediatric patients below the age of 12 years with vasomotor rhinitis have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Clinical trials of Astelin Nasal Spray did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

SIDE EFFECTS

Use of Astelin Nasal Spray has been associated with somnolence.

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect rates observed in practice.

Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis

Astelin Nasal Spray Two Sprays Per Nostril Twice Daily

Adverse experience information for Astelin Nasal Spray is derived from six placebo-and active-controlled, 2-day to 8-week clinical trials which included 391 patients, 12 years of age and older, with seasonal allergic rhinitis who received Astelin Nasal Spray at a dose of 2 sprays per nostril twice daily. In placebo-controlled efficacy trials, the incidence of discontinuation due to adverse reactions in patients receiving Astelin Nasal Spray and vehicle placebo was 2.2% and 2.8%, respectively.

Table 1 contains adverse reactions that were reported with frequencies ≥ 2% in the Astelin Nasal Spray 2 sprays per nostril twice daily treatment group and more frequently than placebo.

Table 1: Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥ 2% Incidence in Placebo-Controlled Trials in Patients with Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis [n (%)]

  Astelin Nasal Spray
N = 391
Vehicle Placebo
N = 353
Bitter Taste 77 (19.7%) 2 (0.6%)
Headache 58 (14.8%) 45 (12.7%)
Somnolence 45 (11.5%) 19 (5.4%)
Nasal Burning 16 (4.1%) 6 (1.7%)
Pharyngitis 15 (3.8%) 10 (2.8%)
Paroxysmal Sneezing 12 (3.1%) 4 (1.1%)
Dry Mouth 11 (2.8%) 6 (1.7%)
Nausea 11 (2.8%) 4 (1.1%)
Rhinitis 9 (2.3%) 5 (1.4%)
Fatigue 9 (2.3%) 5 (1.4%)
Dizziness 8 (2.0%) 5 (1.4%)
Epistaxis 8 (2.0%) 5 (1.4%)
Weight Increase 8 (2.0%) 0 (0.0%)

Astelin Nasal Spray One Spray Per Nostril Twice Daily

Adverse experience information for Astelin Nasal Spray at a dose of one spray per nostril twice daily is derived from two placebo-controlled 2-week clinical studies which included 276 patients 12 years of age and older with seasonal allergic rhinitis. The incidence of discontinuation due to adverse reactions in patients receiving Astelin Nasal Spray and vehicle placebo was 0.0% and 0.8%, respectively. Bitter taste was reported in 8.3% of patients compared to none in the placebo group. Somnolence was reported in 0.4% of patients compared to none in the placebo group.

A total of 176 patients 5 to 11 years of age were exposed to Astelin Nasal Spray at a dose of 1 spray each nostril twice daily in 3 placebo-controlled studies. In these studies, adverse reactions that occurred more frequently in patients treated with Astelin Nasal Spray than with placebo, and that were not represented in the adult adverse reactions table above include rhinitis/cold symptoms (17.0% vs. 9.5%), cough (11.4% vs. 8.3%), conjunctivitis (5.1% vs. 1.8%), and asthma (4.5% vs. 4.1%).

Adverse Reactions < 2% in Astelin Nasal Spray One or Two Sprays Per Nostril Twice Daily

The following reactions were observed infrequently ( < 2% and exceeding placebo incidence) in patients who received Astelin Nasal Spray dosed at 1 or 2 sprays per nostril twice daily in U.S. clinical trials.

Cardiovascular: flushing, hypertension, tachycardia.

Dermatological: contact dermatitis, eczema, hair and follicle infection, furunculosis, skin laceration.

Digestive: constipation, gastroenteritis, glossitis, ulcerative stomatitis, vomiting, increased SGPT, aphthous stomatitis, diarrhea, toothache.

Metabolic and Nutritional: increased appetite.

Musculoskeletal: myalgia, temporomandibular dislocation, rheumatoid arthritis.

Neurological: hyperkinesia, hypoesthesia, vertigo.

Psychological: anxiety, depersonalization, depression, nervousness, sleep disorder, thinking abnormal. Respiratory: bronchospasm, coughing, throat burning, laryngitis, bronchitis, dry throat, nocturnal dyspnea, nasopharyngitis, nasal congestion, pharyngolaryngeal pain, sinusitis, nasal dryness, paranasal sinus hypersecretion, post nasal drip.

Special Senses: conjunctivitis, eye abnormality, eye pain, watery eyes, taste loss.

Urogenital: albuminuria, amenorrhea, breast pain, hematuria, increased urinary frequency.

Whole Body: allergic reaction, back pain, herpes simplex, viral infection, malaise, pain in extremities, abdominal pain, pyrexia.

Vasomotor Rhinitis

Adverse experience information for Astelin Nasal Spray is derived from two placebo-controlled clinical studies which included 216 patients 12 years and older with vasomotor rhinitis who received Astelin Nasal Spray at a dose of 2 sprays per nostril twice daily for up to 28 days. The incidence of discontinuation due to adverse reactions in patients receiving Astelin Nasal Spray and vehicle placebo was 2.8% and 2.9%, respectively.

The following adverse reactions were reported with frequencies ≥ 2% in the Astelin Nasal Spray treatment group and more frequently than placebo.

Table 2: Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥ 2% Incidence in Placebo-Controlled Trials in Patients with Vasomotor Rhinitis [n (%)]

  Astelin Nasal Spray
N = 216
Vehicle Placebo
N = 210
Bitter Taste 42 (19.4%) 5 (2.4%)
Headache 17 (7.9%) 16 (7.6%)
Dysesthesia 17 (7.9%) 7 (3.3%)
Rhinitis 12 (5.6%) 5 (2.4%)
Epistaxis 7 (3.2%) 5 (2.4%)
Sinusitis 7 (3.2%) 4 (1.9%)
Somnolence 7 (3.2%) 2 (1.0%)

Reactions observed infrequently ( < 2% and exceeding placebo incidence) in patients who received Astelin Nasal Spray (2 sprays/nostril twice daily) in U.S. clinical trials in vasomotor rhinitis were similar to those observed in U.S. clinical trials in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

In controlled trials involving nasal and oral azelastine hydrochloride formulations, there were infrequent occurrences of hepatic transaminase elevations.

Postmarketing Experience

During the post approval use of Astelin Nasal Spray, the following adverse reactions have been identified. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Adverse reactions reported include: anaphylaxis, application site irritation, atrial fibrillation, chest pain, confusion, dyspnea, facial edema, involuntary muscle contractions, nasal sores, palpitations, paresthesia, parosmia, pruritus, rash, disturbance or loss of sense of smell and/or taste, tolerance, urinary retention, vision abnormal and xerophthalmia.

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Central Nervous System Depressants

Concurrent use of Astelin Nasal Spray with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants should be avoided because reductions in alertness and impairment of central nervous system performance may occur.

Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy Category C

There are no adequate and well-controlled clinical studies in pregnant women. Azelastine hydrochloride has been shown to cause developmental toxicity in mice, rats, and rabbits. Astelin Nasal Spray should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Teratogenic Effects

In mice, azelastine hydrochloride caused embryo-fetal death, malformations (cleft palate; short or absent tail; fused, absent or branched ribs), delayed ossification, and decreased fetal weight at approximately 170 times the maximum recommended human daily intranasal dose (MRHDID) in adults (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal oral dose of 68.6 mg/kg/day which also caused maternal toxicity as evidenced by decreased body weight). Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred in mice at approximately 7 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal oral dose of 3 mg/kg/day).

In rats, azelastine hydrochloride caused malformations (oligo-and brachydactylia), delayed ossification and skeletal variations, in the absence of maternal toxicity, at approximately 150 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal oral dose of 30 mg/kg/day). Azelastine hydrochloride caused embryo-fetal death and decreased fetal weight and severe maternal toxicity at approximately 340 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal oral dose of 68.6 mg/kg/day). Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred at approximately 15 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal oral dose of 2 mg/kg/day).

In rabbits, azelastine hydrochloride caused abortion, delayed ossification and decreased fetal weight and severe maternal toxicity at approximately 300 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal oral dose of 30 mg/kg/day). Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred at approximately 3 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal oral dose of 0.3 mg/kg/day).

Undesirable effects

Use of Astelin Nasal Spray has been associated with somnolence.

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect rates observed in practice.

Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis

Astelin Nasal Spray Two Sprays Per Nostril Twice Daily

Adverse experience information for Astelin Nasal Spray is derived from six placebo-and active-controlled, 2-day to 8-week clinical trials which included 391 patients, 12 years of age and older, with seasonal allergic rhinitis who received Astelin Nasal Spray at a dose of 2 sprays per nostril twice daily. In placebo-controlled efficacy trials, the incidence of discontinuation due to adverse reactions in patients receiving Astelin Nasal Spray and vehicle placebo was 2.2% and 2.8%, respectively.

Table 1 contains adverse reactions that were reported with frequencies ≥ 2% in the Astelin Nasal Spray 2 sprays per nostril twice daily treatment group and more frequently than placebo.

Table 1: Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥ 2% Incidence in Placebo-Controlled Trials in Patients with Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis [n (%)]

  Astelin Nasal Spray
N = 391
Vehicle Placebo
N = 353
Bitter Taste 77 (19.7%) 2 (0.6%)
Headache 58 (14.8%) 45 (12.7%)
Somnolence 45 (11.5%) 19 (5.4%)
Nasal Burning 16 (4.1%) 6 (1.7%)
Pharyngitis 15 (3.8%) 10 (2.8%)
Paroxysmal Sneezing 12 (3.1%) 4 (1.1%)
Dry Mouth 11 (2.8%) 6 (1.7%)
Nausea 11 (2.8%) 4 (1.1%)
Rhinitis 9 (2.3%) 5 (1.4%)
Fatigue 9 (2.3%) 5 (1.4%)
Dizziness 8 (2.0%) 5 (1.4%)
Epistaxis 8 (2.0%) 5 (1.4%)
Weight Increase 8 (2.0%) 0 (0.0%)

Astelin Nasal Spray One Spray Per Nostril Twice Daily

Adverse experience information for Astelin Nasal Spray at a dose of one spray per nostril twice daily is derived from two placebo-controlled 2-week clinical studies which included 276 patients 12 years of age and older with seasonal allergic rhinitis. The incidence of discontinuation due to adverse reactions in patients receiving Astelin Nasal Spray and vehicle placebo was 0.0% and 0.8%, respectively. Bitter taste was reported in 8.3% of patients compared to none in the placebo group. Somnolence was reported in 0.4% of patients compared to none in the placebo group.

A total of 176 patients 5 to 11 years of age were exposed to Astelin Nasal Spray at a dose of 1 spray each nostril twice daily in 3 placebo-controlled studies. In these studies, adverse reactions that occurred more frequently in patients treated with Astelin Nasal Spray than with placebo, and that were not represented in the adult adverse reactions table above include rhinitis/cold symptoms (17.0% vs. 9.5%), cough (11.4% vs. 8.3%), conjunctivitis (5.1% vs. 1.8%), and asthma (4.5% vs. 4.1%).

Adverse Reactions < 2% in Astelin Nasal Spray One or Two Sprays Per Nostril Twice Daily

The following reactions were observed infrequently ( < 2% and exceeding placebo incidence) in patients who received Astelin Nasal Spray dosed at 1 or 2 sprays per nostril twice daily in U.S. clinical trials.

Cardiovascular: flushing, hypertension, tachycardia.

Dermatological: contact dermatitis, eczema, hair and follicle infection, furunculosis, skin laceration.

Digestive: constipation, gastroenteritis, glossitis, ulcerative stomatitis, vomiting, increased SGPT, aphthous stomatitis, diarrhea, toothache.

Metabolic and Nutritional: increased appetite.

Musculoskeletal: myalgia, temporomandibular dislocation, rheumatoid arthritis.

Neurological: hyperkinesia, hypoesthesia, vertigo.

Psychological: anxiety, depersonalization, depression, nervousness, sleep disorder, thinking abnormal. Respiratory: bronchospasm, coughing, throat burning, laryngitis, bronchitis, dry throat, nocturnal dyspnea, nasopharyngitis, nasal congestion, pharyngolaryngeal pain, sinusitis, nasal dryness, paranasal sinus hypersecretion, post nasal drip.

Special Senses: conjunctivitis, eye abnormality, eye pain, watery eyes, taste loss.

Urogenital: albuminuria, amenorrhea, breast pain, hematuria, increased urinary frequency.

Whole Body: allergic reaction, back pain, herpes simplex, viral infection, malaise, pain in extremities, abdominal pain, pyrexia.

Vasomotor Rhinitis

Adverse experience information for Astelin Nasal Spray is derived from two placebo-controlled clinical studies which included 216 patients 12 years and older with vasomotor rhinitis who received Astelin Nasal Spray at a dose of 2 sprays per nostril twice daily for up to 28 days. The incidence of discontinuation due to adverse reactions in patients receiving Astelin Nasal Spray and vehicle placebo was 2.8% and 2.9%, respectively.

The following adverse reactions were reported with frequencies ≥ 2% in the Astelin Nasal Spray treatment group and more frequently than placebo.

Table 2: Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥ 2% Incidence in Placebo-Controlled Trials in Patients with Vasomotor Rhinitis [n (%)]

  Astelin Nasal Spray
N = 216
Vehicle Placebo
N = 210
Bitter Taste 42 (19.4%) 5 (2.4%)
Headache 17 (7.9%) 16 (7.6%)
Dysesthesia 17 (7.9%) 7 (3.3%)
Rhinitis 12 (5.6%) 5 (2.4%)
Epistaxis 7 (3.2%) 5 (2.4%)
Sinusitis 7 (3.2%) 4 (1.9%)
Somnolence 7 (3.2%) 2 (1.0%)

Reactions observed infrequently ( < 2% and exceeding placebo incidence) in patients who received Astelin Nasal Spray (2 sprays/nostril twice daily) in U.S. clinical trials in vasomotor rhinitis were similar to those observed in U.S. clinical trials in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

In controlled trials involving nasal and oral azelastine hydrochloride formulations, there were infrequent occurrences of hepatic transaminase elevations.

Postmarketing Experience

During the post approval use of Astelin Nasal Spray, the following adverse reactions have been identified. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Adverse reactions reported include: anaphylaxis, application site irritation, atrial fibrillation, chest pain, confusion, dyspnea, facial edema, involuntary muscle contractions, nasal sores, palpitations, paresthesia, parosmia, pruritus, rash, disturbance or loss of sense of smell and/or taste, tolerance, urinary retention, vision abnormal and xerophthalmia.

Overdose

There have been no reported overdosages with Astelin Nasal Spray. Acute overdosage by adults with this dosage form is unlikely to result in clinically significant adverse reactions, other than increased somnolence, since one bottle of Astelin Nasal Spray contains 30 mg of azelastine hydrochloride. Clinical trials in adults with single doses of the oral formulation of azelastine hydrochloride (up to 16 mg) have not resulted in increased incidence of serious adverse reactions. General supportive measures should be employed if overdosage occurs. There is no known antidote to Astelin Nasal Spray. Oral ingestion of antihistamines has the potential to cause serious adverse effects in young children. Accordingly, Astelin Nasal Spray should be kept out of the reach of children.

Pharmacodynamic properties

Cardiac Electrophysiology

In a placebo-controlled study (95 subjects with allergic rhinitis), there was no evidence of an effect of Astelin Nasal Spray (2 sprays per nostril twice daily for 56 days) on cardiac repolarization as represented by the corrected QT interval (QTc) of the electrocardiogram. Following multiple dose oral administration of azelastine 4 mg or 8 mg twice daily, the mean change in QTc was 7.2 msec and 3.6 msec, respectively.

Interaction studies investigating the cardiac repolarization effects of concomitantly administered oral azelastine hydrochloride and erythromycin or ketoconazole were conducted. These drugs had no effect on QTc based on analysis of serial electrocardiograms. At a dose approximately 8 times the maximum recommended dose, azelastine hydrochloride does not prolong the QTc interval to any clinically relevant extent.

Pharmacokinetic properties

Absorption

After intranasal administration, the systemic bioavailability of azelastine hydrochloride is approximately 40%. Maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) are achieved in 23 hours.

Azelastine hydrochloride administered intranasally at doses above two sprays per nostril twice daily for 29 days resulted in greater than proportional increases in Cmax and area under the curve (AUC) for azelastine.

Distribution

Based on intravenous and oral administration, the steady-state volume of distribution is 14.5 L/kg. In vitro studies with human plasma indicate that the plasma protein binding of azelastine and its metabolite, desmethylazelastine, are approximately 88% and 97%, respectively.

Metabolism

Azelastine is oxidatively metabolized to the principal active metabolite, desmethylazelastine, by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. The specific P450 isoforms responsible for the biotransformation of azelastine have not been identified. After intranasal dosing of azelastine hydrochloride to steady-state, plasma concentrations of desmethylazelastine range from 20-50% of azelastine concentrations. Limited data indicate that the metabolite profile is similar when azelastine hydrochloride is administered via the intranasal or oral route.

Elimination

Based on intravenous and oral administration, the elimination half-life and plasma clearance are 22 hours and 0.5 L/h/kg, respectively. Approximately 75% of an oral dose of radiolabeled azelastine hydrochloride was excreted in the feces with less than 10% as unchanged azelastine.

Date of revision of the text

10/2014
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