Each prolonged-release tablet contains 20 mg nifedipine.
Each tablet contains a 10% overage of nifedipine to deliver the label claim.
Pink, round, convex prolonged-release tablet with a laser hole on one side and marked with Adalat 20.
For the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension.
For the prophylaxis of chronic stable angina pectoris either as monotherapy or in combination with a beta-blocker.
In mild to moderate hypertension, the recommended initial dose is one 20 mg tablet once-daily. If necessary, the dosage can be increased according to individual requirements up to a maximum of 90 mg once-daily.
For the prophylaxis of angina pectoris, the recommended initial dose is one 30 mg tablet once-daily. The dosage can be increased according to individual requirements up to a maximum of 90 mg once-daily.
Patients in whom hypertension or anginal symptoms are controlled on Adalat capsules or Adalat retard may be safely switched to Adalat LA. Prophylactic anti-anginal efficacy is maintained when patients are switched from other calcium antagonists such as diltiazem or verapamil to Adalat LA. Patients switched from other calcium antagonists should initiate therapy at the recommended initial dose of 30 mg Adalat LA once-daily. Subsequent titration to a higher dose may be initiated as warranted clinically.
Co-administration with CYP 3A4 inhibitors or CYP 3A4 inducers may result in the recommendation to adapt the nifedipine dose or not to use nifedipine at all.
Duration of treatment
Treatment may be continued indefinitely.
Additional information on special populations
The safety and efficacy of Adalat LA in children below 18 years has not been established.
Based on pharmacokinetic data for Adalat LA no dose adaptation in elderly people above 65 years is necessary.
Based on pharmacokinetic data, no dosage adjustment is required in patients with renal impairment.
Method of administration
The tablets should be swallowed whole with a glass of water, either with or without food. The tablets should be taken at approximately 24-hour intervals, i.e. at the same time each day, preferably during the morning. Adalat LA tablets must be swallowed whole; under no circumstances should they be bitten, chewed or broken up.
Adalat LA should not be taken with grapefruit juice.
Adalat LA should not be administered to patients with known hypersensitivity to the active substance, or to other dihydropyridines because of the theoretical risk of cross-reactivity, or to any of the excipients listed in section 4.4 and 6.1.
Adalat LA should not be used in cases of cardiogenic shock, clinically significant aortic stenosis, unstable angina, or during or within one month of a myocardial infarction.
Adalat LA should not be used for the treatment of acute attacks of angina.
The safety of Adalat LA in malignant hypertension has not been established.
Adalat LA should not be used for secondary prevention of myocardial infarction.
Owing to the duration of action of the formulation, Adalat LA should not be administered to patients with hepatic impairment.
Adalat LA should not be administered to patients with a history of gastro-intestinal obstruction, oesophageal obstruction, or any degree of decreased lumen diameter of the gastro-intestinal tract.
Adalat LA must not be used in patients with a Kock pouch (ileostomy after proctocolectomy).
Adalat LA is contra-indicated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease or Crohn's disease.
Adalat LA should not be administered concomitantly with rifampicin since effective plasma levels of nifedipine may not be achieved owing to enzyme induction.
Adalat LA tablets must be swallowed whole; under no circumstances should they be bitten, chewed or broken up.
Caution should be exercised in patients with hypotension as there is a risk of further reduction in blood pressure and care must be exercised in patients with very low blood pressure (severe hypotension with systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg).
Adalat LA should not be used during pregnancy unless the clinical condition of the woman requires treatment with nifedipine.
Adalat LA is not recommended for use during breast-feeding because nifedipine has been reported to be excreted in human milk and the effects of nifedipine exposure to the infant are not known.
In patients with impaired liver function careful monitoring and, in severe cases, a dose reduction may be necessary.
Adalat LA may be used in combination with beta-blocking drugs and other antihypertensive agents but the possibility of an additive effect resulting in postural hypotension should be borne in mind. Adalat LA will not prevent possible rebound effects after cessation of other antihypertensive therapy.
Adalat LA should be used with caution in patients whose cardiac reserve is poor.
Drugs that affect nifedipine
Nifedipine is metabolised via the cytochrome P450 3A4 system, located both in the intestinal mucosa and in the liver. Drugs that are known to either inhibit or to induce this enzyme system may therefore alter the first pass (after oral administration) or the clearance of nifedipine.
The extent as well as the duration of interactions should be taken into account when administering nifedipine together with the following drugs:
Rifampicin: Rifampicin strongly induces the cytochrome P450 3A4 system. Upon co-administration with rifampicin, the bioavailability of nifedipine is distinctly reduced and thus its efficacy weakened. The use of nifedipine in combination with rifampicin is therefore contraindicated.
Upon co-administration of known inhibitors of the cytochrome P450 3A4 system, the blood pressure should be monitored and, if necessary, a reduction in the nifedipine dose considered. In the majority of these cases, no formal studies to assess the potential for a drug interaction between nifedipine and the drug(s) listed have been undertaken, thus far.
Drugs increasing nifedipine exposure:
- macrolide antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin)
- anti-HIV protease inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir)
- azole anti-mycotics (e.g., ketoconazole)
- valproic acid
Upon co-administration of inducers of the cytochrome P450 3A4 system, the clinical response to nifedipine should be monitored and, if necessary, an increase in the nifedipine dose considered. If the dose of nifedipine is increased during co-administration of both drugs, a reduction of the nifedipine dose should be considered when the treatment is discontinued.
Drugs decreasing nifedipine exposure:
- rifampicin (see above)
Effects of nifedipine on other drugs
Nifedipine may increase the blood pressure lowering effect of concomitant applied antihypertensives.
When nifedipine is administered simultaneously with ÃŸ-receptor blockers the patient should be carefully monitored, since deterioration of heart failure is also known to develop in isolated cases.
Digoxin: The simultaneous administration of nifedipine and digoxin may lead to reduced digoxin clearance and, hence, an increase in the plasma digoxin level. The patient should therefore be subjected to precautionary checks for symptoms of digoxin overdosage and, if necessary, the glycoside dose should be reduced.
Quinidine: Co-administration of nifedipine with quinidine may lower plasma quinidine levels, and after discontinuation of nifedipine, a distinct increase in plasma quinidine levels may be observed in individual cases. Consequently, when nifedipine is either additionally administered or discontinued, monitoring of the quinidine plasma concentration, and if necessary, adjustment of the quinidine dose are recommended. Blood pressure should be carefully monitored and, if necessary, the dose of nifedipine should be decreased.
Tacrolimus: Tacrolimus is metabolised via the cytochrome P450 3A4 system. Published data indicate that the dose of tacrolimus administered simultaneously with nifedipine may be reduced in individual cases. Upon co-administration of both drugs, the tacrolimus plasma concentrations should be monitored and, if necessary, a reduction in the tacrolimus dose considered.
Drug food interactions
Grapefruit juice inhibits the cytochrome P450 3A4 system. Administration of nifedipine together with grapefruit juice thus results in elevated plasma concentrations and prolonged action of nifedipine due to a decreased first pass metabolism or reduced clearance. As a consequence, the blood pressure lowering effect of nifedipine may be increased. After regular intake of grapefruit juice, this effect may last for at least three days after the last ingestion of grapefruit juice. Ingestion of grapefruit/grapefruit juice is therefore to be avoided while taking nifedipine.
Other forms of interaction
Nifedipine may increase the spectrophotometric values of urinary vanillylmandelic acid, falsely. However, HPLC measurements are unaffected.
Nifedipine should not be used during pregnancy unless the clinical condition of the woman requires treatment with nifedipine.
In animal studies, nifedipine has been shown to produce embryotoxicity, foetotoxicity and teratogenicity.
There are no adequate well controlled studies in pregnant women.
From the clinical evidence available a specific prenatal risk has not been identified, although an increase in perinatal asphyxia, caesarean delivery, as well as prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation have been reported. It is unclear whether these reports are due to the underlying hypertension, its treatment, or to a specific drug effect.
The available information is inadequate to rule out adverse drug effects on the unborn and newborn child. Therefore any use in pregnancy requires a very careful individual risk benefit assessment and should only be considered if all other treatment options are either not indicated or have failed to be efficacious.
Acute pulmonary oedema has been observed when calcium channel blockers, among others nifedipine, have been used as a tocolytic agent during pregnancy , especially in cases of multiple pregnancy (twins or more), with the intravenous route and/or concomitant use of beta-2 agonists.
Nifedipine is excreted in the breast milk. The nifedipine concentration in the milk is almost comparable with mother serum concentration. For immediate release formulations, it is proposed to delay breast-feeding or milk expression for 3 to 4 hours after drug administration to decrease the nifedipine exposure to the infant.
In single cases of in vitro fertilisation calcium antagonists like nifedipine have been associated with reversible biochemical changes in the spermatozoa's head section that may result in impaired sperm function. In those men who are repeatedly unsuccessful in fathering a child by in vitro fertilisation, and where no other explanation can be found, calcium antagonists like nifedipine should be considered as possible causes.
Reactions to the drug, which vary in intensity from individual to individual, may impair the ability to drive or to operate machinery. This applies particularly at the start of treatment, on changing the medication and in combination with alcohol.
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) based on placebo-controlled studies with nifedipine sorted by CIOMS III categories of frequency (clinical trial data base: nifedipine n = 2,661; placebo n = 1,486; status: 22 Feb 2006 and the ACTION study: nifedipine n = 3,825; placebo n = 3,840) are listed below:
ADRs listed under "common" were observed with a frequency below 3% with the exception of oedema (9.9%) and headache (3.9%).
The frequencies of ADRs reported with nifedipine-containing products are summarised in the table below. Within each frequency grouping, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness. Frequencies are defined as common (>1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon (> 1/1,000 to < 1/100) and rare (> 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000). The ADRs identified only during the ongoing postmarketing surveillance, and for which a frequency could not be estimated, are listed under â€œNot knownâ€.
System Organ Class (MedDRA)
Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders
Immune System Disorders
Allergic oedema/angioedema (incl. larynx oedema*)
Anaphylactic/ anaphylactoid reaction
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders
Nervous System Disorders
Oedema (incl. peripheral oedema)
Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders
Gastrointestinal and abdominal pain
Gastroesophageal sphincter insufficiency
Transient increase in liver enzymes
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders
Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis
Photosensitivity allergic reaction
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders
Renal and Urinary Disorders
Reproductive System and Breast Disorders
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions
* = may result in life-threatening outcome
**cases have been reported when used as tocolytic during pregnancy
In dialysis patients with malignant hypertension and hypovolaemia a distinct fall in blood pressure can occur as a result of vasodilation.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.
The following symptoms are observed in cases of severe nifedipine intoxication:
Disturbances of consciousness to the point of coma, a drop in blood pressure, tachycardia, bradycardia, hyperglycaemia, metabolic acidosis, hypoxia, cardiogenic shock with pulmonary oedema.
As far as treatment is concerned, elimination of nifedipine and the restoration of stable cardiovascular conditions have priority. Elimination must be as complete as possible, including the small intestine, to prevent the otherwise inevitable subsequent absorption of the active substance.
The benefit of gastric decontamination is uncertain.
1. Consider activated charcoal (50 g for adults, 1 g/kg for children) if the patient presents within 1 hour of ingestion of a potentially toxic amount.
Although it may seem reasonable to assume that late administration of activated charcoal may be beneficial for sustained release (SR, MR) preparations there is no evidence to support this.
2. Alternatively consider gastric lavage in adults within 1 hour of a potentially life-threatening overdose.
3. Consider further doses of activated charcoal every 4 hours if a clinically significant amount of a sustained release preparation has been ingested with a single dose of an osmotic laxative (e.g. sorbitol, lactulose or magnesium sulphate).
4. Asymptomatic patients should be observed for at least 4 hours after ingestion and for 12 hours if a sustained release preparation has been taken.
Haemodialysis serves no purpose as nifedipine is not dialysable, but plasmapheresis is advisable (high plasma protein binding, relatively low volume of distribution).
Hypotension as a result of cardiogenic shock and arterial vasodilatation can be treated with calcium (10-20 ml of a 10 % calcium gluconate solution administered intravenously over 5-10 minutes). If the effects are inadequate, the treatment can be continued, with ECG monitoring. If an insufficient increase in blood pressure is achieved with calcium, vasoconstricting sympathomimetics such as dopamine or noradrenaline should be administered. The dosage of these drugs should be determined by the patient's response.
Symptomatic bradycardia may be treated with atropine, beta-sympathomimetics or a temporary cardiac pacemaker, as required.
Additional fluids should be administered with caution to avoid cardiac overload.
Pharmacotherapeutic group: selective calcium channel blockers with mainly vascular effect, dihydropyridine derivatives, ATC code: C08CA05
Nifedipine is a calcium antagonist of the 1,4-dihydropyridine type. Calcium antagonists reduce the transmembranal influx of calcium ions through the slow calcium channel into the cell. As a specific and potent calcium antagonist, nifedipine acts particularly on the cells of the myocardium and the smooth muscle cells of the coronary arteries and the peripheral resistance vessels. The main action of nifedipine is to relax arterial smooth muscle, both in the coronary and peripheral circulation. The Adalat LA tablet is formulated to achieve controlled delivery of nifedipine in a release profile sufficient to enable once-daily administration to be effective in clinical use.
In hypertension, the main action of nifedipine is to cause peripheral vasodilatation and thus reduce peripheral resistance. Nifedipine administered once-daily provides 24-hour control of raised blood pressure. Nifedipine causes reduction in blood pressure such that the percentage lowering is proportional to its initial level. In normotensive individuals, nifedipine has little or no effect on blood pressure.
In angina, Adalat LA reduces peripheral and coronary vascular resistance, leading to an increase in coronary blood flow, cardiac output and stroke volume, whilst decreasing after-load. Additionally, nifedipine dilates submaximally both clear and atherosclerotic coronary arteries, thus protecting the heart against coronary artery spasm and improving perfusion to the ischaemic myocardium. Nifedipine reduces the frequency of painful attacks and the ischaemic ECG changes irrespective of the relative contribution from coronary artery spasm or atherosclerosis.
In a multi-national, randomised, double-blind, prospective study involving 6321 hypertensive patients with at least one additional risk factor followed over 3 to 4.8 years, Adalat LA 30 and 60 (nifedipine GITS) were shown to reduce blood pressure to a comparable degree as a standard diuretic combination.
Limited information on comparison of nifedipine with other antihypertensives is available for both acute hypertension and long-term hypertension with different formulations in different dosages. Antihypertensive effects of nifedipine have been demonstrated but dose recommendations, long term safety and effect on cardiovascular outcome remain unestablished. Pediatric dosing forms are lacking.
Adalat LA tablets are formulated to provide nifedipine at an approximately constant rate over 24 hours. Nifedipine is released from the tablet at a zero-order rate by a membrane-controlled, osmotic push-pull process. The pharmacokinetic profile of this formulation is characterized by low peak-trough fluctuation. 0-24 hour plasma concentration versus time profiles at steady state are plateau-like, rendering the Adalat LA tablet appropriate for once-a-day administration.
The delivery rate is independent of gastrointestinal pH or motility. Upon swallowing, the biologically inert components of the tablet remain intact during gastrointestinal transit and are eliminated in the faeces as an insoluble shell.
Orally administered nifedipine is almost completely absorbed in the gastro-intestinal tract. The systemic availability of orally administered nifedipine immediate release formulations (nifedipine capsules) is 45-56% owing to a first pass effect. At steady-state, the bioavailability of Adalat LA tablets ranges from 68-86% relative to Adalat capsules. Administration in the presence of food slightly alters the early rate of absorption but does not influence the extent of drug availability.
Nifedipine is about 95% bound to plasma protein (albumin). The distribution half-life after intravenous administration has been determined to be 5 to 6 minutes.
After oral administration, nifedipine is metabolised in the gut wall and in the liver, primarily by oxidative processes. These metabolites show no pharmacodynamic activity. Nifedipine is eliminated in the form of its metabolites, predominantly via the kidneys, with approximately 5-15% being excreted via the bile in the faeces. Non-metabolised nifedipine can be detected only in traces (below 0.1%) in the urine.
The terminal elimination half-life is 1.7 to 3.4 h in conventional formulations (nifedipine capsules). The terminal half-life following Adalat LA administration does not represent a meaningful parameter as a plateau-like plasma concentration is maintained during release from the tablets and absorption. After release and absorption of the last dose the plasma concentration finally declines with an elimination half-life as seen in conventional formulations.
Characteristics in patients:
There are no significant differences in the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine between healthy subjects and subjects with renal impairment. Therefore, dosage adjustment is not needed in these patients.
In patients with hepatic impairment, the elimination half-life is distinctly prolonged and the total clearance is reduced. Owing to the duration of action of the formulation, Adalat LA should not be administered in these patients.
Preclinical data reveal no special hazards for humans based on conventional studies of single and repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenic potential.
Following acute oral and intravenous administration of nifedipine in various animal species, the following LD50 (mg/kg) values were obtained:
Oral: 494 (421-572)*;
i.v.: 4.2 (3.8-4.6)*.
Oral: 1022 (950-1087)*;
i.v.: 15.5 (13.7-17.5)*.
Oral: ~ 100;
Oral: > 250;
* 95% confidence interval.
In subacute and subchronic toxicity studies in rats and dogs, nifedipine was tolerated without damage at doses of up to 50 mg/kg (rats) and 100 mg/kg (dogs) p.o. over periods of thirteen and four weeks, respectively. Following intravenous administration, dogs tolerated up to 0.1 mg/kg nifedipine for six days without damage. Rats tolerated daily intravenous administration of 2.5 mg/kg nifedipine over a period of three weeks without damage.
In chronic toxicity studies in dogs with treatment lasting up to one year, nifedipine was tolerated without damage at doses up to and including 100 mg/kg p.o. In rats, toxic effects occurred at concentrations above 100 ppm in the feed (approximately 5-7 mg/kg bodyweight).
In a carcinogenicity study in rats (two years), there was no evidence of a carcinogenic effect of nifedipine.
Nifedipine has been shown to produce teratogenic findings in rats, mice and rabbits, including digital anomalies, malformation of the extremities, cleft palates, cleft sternum and malformation of the ribs.
Digital anomalies and malformation of the extremities are possibly a result of compromised uterine blood flow, but have also been observed in animals treated with nifedipine solely after the end of the organogenesis period.
Nifedipine administration was associated with a variety of embryotoxic, placentotoxic and foetotoxic effects, including stunted foetuses (rats, mice, rabbits), small placentas and underdeveloped chorionic villi (monkeys), embryonic and foetal deaths (rats, mice, rabbits) and prolonged pregnancy/decreased neonatal survival (rats; not evaluated in other species). The risk to humans cannot be ruled out if a sufficiently high systemic exposure is achieved, however, all of the doses associated with the teratogenic, embryotoxic or foetotoxic effects in animals were maternally toxic and were several times the recommended maximum dose for humans.
In in vitro and in vivo tests, nifedipine has not been associated with mutagenic properties.
Hypromellose (5 cp)
Ferric oxide, red (E172)
Hypromellose (3 cp)
Hypromellose (5 cp)
Titanium dioxide (E171)
Ferric oxide, red (E172)
Polish and Print
Black ink for printing Opacode S-1-8106
(Contains: iron oxide black (E172) and Shellac)
PP blister packs: 4 years
Store in the original container. The tablets should be protected from strong light.
Blister packs composed of PP backed with aluminium foil, containing 28 tablets.
No additional information