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Components:
Ketorolac
Method of action:
Analgesic, Analgetic, Anti-Inflammatory, Antipyretic, Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory, Ophthalmologic Agent, Ophthalmologicals
Medically reviewed by Militian Inessa Mesropovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2020.04.01

Therapeutic indications

Acuvail® ophthalmic solution is indicated for the treatment of pain and inflammation following cataract surgery.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

Recommended Dosing

Patient Dosing

One drop of Acuvail® should be applied to the affected eye twice daily beginning 1 day prior to cataract surgery, continued on the day of surgery, and through the first 2 weeks of the postoperative period.

Use With Other Topical Ophthalmic Medications

Acuvail® ophthalmic solution may be administered in conjunction with other topical ophthalmic medications such as alpha-agonists, beta-blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, cycloplegics, and mydriatics. Drops should be administered at least 5 minutes apart.

Contraindications

Acuvail® solution is contraindicated in patients with previously demonstrated hypersensitivity to any of the ingredients in the formulation.

Special warnings and precautions for use

WARNINGS

Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.

PRECAUTIONS

Delayed Healing

Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may slow or delay healing. Topical corticosteroids are also known to slow or delay healing. Concomitant use of topical NSAIDs and topical steroids may increase the potential for healing problems.

Cross-Sensitivity Or Hypersensitivity

There is the potential for cross-sensitivity to acetylsalicylic acid, phenylacetic acid derivatives, and other NSAIDs. There have been reports of bronchospasm or exacerbation of asthma associated with the use of ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution in patients who either have a known hypersensitivity to aspirin/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or a past medical history of asthma. Therefore, caution should be used when treating individuals who have previously exhibited sensitivities to these drugs.

Increased Bleeding Time

With some NSAIDs, there exists the potential for increased bleeding time due to interference with thrombocyte aggregation. There have been reports that ocularly applied nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may cause increased bleeding of ocular tissues (including hyphemas) in conjunction with ocular surgery.

It is recommended that Acuvail® ophthalmic solution be used with caution in patients with known bleeding tendencies or who are receiving other medications, which may prolong bleeding time.

Corneal Effects

Use of topical NSAIDs may result in keratitis. In some susceptible patients, continued use of topical NSAIDs may result in epithelial breakdown, corneal thinning, corneal erosion, corneal ulceration, or corneal perforation. These events may be sight threatening. Patients with evidence of corneal epithelial breakdown should immediately discontinue use of topical NSAIDs and should be closely monitored for corneal health.

Postmarketing experience with topical NSAIDs suggests that patients with complicated ocular surgeries, corneal denervation, corneal epithelial defects, diabetes mellitus, ocular surface diseases (e.g., dry eye syndrome), rheumatoid arthritis, or repeat ocular surgeries within a short period of time may be at increased risk for corneal adverse events which may become sight threatening. Topical NSAIDs should be used with caution in these patients.

Postmarketing experience with topical NSAIDs also suggests that use more than 1 day prior to surgery or use beyond 14 days post-surgery may increase patient risk for the occurrence and severity of corneal adverse events.

Contact Lens

Wear Acuvail® should not be administered while wearing contact lenses.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Ketorolac tromethamine was not carcinogenic in either rats given up to 5 mg/kg/day orally for 24 months or in mice given 2 mg/kg/day orally for 18 months. These doses are approximately 900 times and 300 times higher respectively than the typical human topical ophthalmic daily dose given as twice daily to an affected eye on a mg/kg basis.

Ketorolac tromethamine was not mutagenic in vitro in the Ames assay or in forward mutation assays. Similarly, it did not result in an in vitro increase in unscheduled DNA synthesis or an in vivo increase in chromosome breakage in mice. However, ketorolac tromethamine did result in an increased incidence in chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

Ketorolac tromethamine did not impair fertility when administered orally to male and female rats at doses up to 9 mg/kg/day and 16 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are respectively 1500 and 2700 times higher than the typical human topical ophthalmic daily dose.

Use In Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category C: Ketorolac tromethamine, administered during organogenesis, was not teratogenic in rabbits and rats at oral doses of 3.6 mg/kg/day and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are approximately 600 times and 1700 times higher respectively than the typical human topical ophthalmic daily dose of 0.35 mg (4.5 mg/mL x 0.04 mL/drop, twice daily) to an affected eye on a mg/kg basis. Additionally, when administered to rats after Day 17 of gestation at oral doses up to 1.5 mg/kg/day (approximately 300 times the typical human topical ophthalmic daily dose), ketorolac tromethamine resulted in dystocia and increased pup mortality. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Acuvail® solution should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nonteratogenic Effects

Because of the known effects of prostaglandin-inhibiting drugs on the fetal cardiovascular system (closure of the ductus arteriosus), the use of Acuvail® solution during late pregnancy should be avoided.

Nursing Mothers

Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Acuvail® is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

No overall clinical differences in safety or effectiveness have been observed between elderly and other adult patients.

Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

SIDE EFFECTS

Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to the rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Clinical Studies Experience

The most common adverse reactions were reported in 1-6% of patients and included increased intraocular pressure, conjunctival hyperemia and/or hemorrhage, corneal edema, ocular pain, headache, tearing and vision blurred. Some of these reactions may be the consequence of the cataract surgical procedure.

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during postmarketing use of ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solutions in clinical practice. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. The reactions, which have been chosen for inclusion due to either their seriousness, frequency of reporting, possible causal connection to topical ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solutions or a combination of these factors, include bronchospasm, exacerbation of asthma, corneal erosion, corneal perforation, corneal thinning and corneal melt, epithelial breakdown and ulcerative keratitis.

DRUG INTERACTIONS

No information provided.

Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category C: Ketorolac tromethamine, administered during organogenesis, was not teratogenic in rabbits and rats at oral doses of 3.6 mg/kg/day and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are approximately 600 times and 1700 times higher respectively than the typical human topical ophthalmic daily dose of 0.35 mg (4.5 mg/mL x 0.04 mL/drop, twice daily) to an affected eye on a mg/kg basis. Additionally, when administered to rats after Day 17 of gestation at oral doses up to 1.5 mg/kg/day (approximately 300 times the typical human topical ophthalmic daily dose), ketorolac tromethamine resulted in dystocia and increased pup mortality. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Acuvail® solution should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nonteratogenic Effects

Because of the known effects of prostaglandin-inhibiting drugs on the fetal cardiovascular system (closure of the ductus arteriosus), the use of Acuvail® solution during late pregnancy should be avoided.

Undesirable effects

Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to the rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Clinical Studies Experience

The most common adverse reactions were reported in 1-6% of patients and included increased intraocular pressure, conjunctival hyperemia and/or hemorrhage, corneal edema, ocular pain, headache, tearing and vision blurred. Some of these reactions may be the consequence of the cataract surgical procedure.

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during postmarketing use of ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solutions in clinical practice. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. The reactions, which have been chosen for inclusion due to either their seriousness, frequency of reporting, possible causal connection to topical ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solutions or a combination of these factors, include bronchospasm, exacerbation of asthma, corneal erosion, corneal perforation, corneal thinning and corneal melt, epithelial breakdown and ulcerative keratitis.

Overdose

No information provided.

Pharmacokinetic properties

Two drops of 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution instilled into the eyes of patients 12 hours and 1 hour prior to cataract extraction achieved a mean ketorolac concentration of 95 ng/mL in the aqueous humor of 8 of 9 eyes tested (range 40 to 170 ng/mL).

One drop of 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution was instilled into 1 eye and 1 drop of vehicle into the other eye three times daily in 26 healthy subjects. Five (5) of 26 subjects had detectable concentrations of ketorolac in their plasma (range 11 to 23 ng/mL) at Day 10 during topical ocular treatment. The range of concentrations following three times daily dosing of 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution are approximately 4 to 8% of the steady state mean minimum plasma concentration observed following four times daily oral administration of 10 mg ketorolac in humans (290 ± 70 ng/mL).

Date of revision of the text

Dec 2014.
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