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Components:
Ibuprofen
Method of action:
Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, Antipyretic, Cardiac Therapy, Decongestant, Local Anesthetic, Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory, Pain Reliever, Topical Products For Joint And Muscular Pain
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Medically reviewed by Oliinyk Elizabeth Ivanovna, Pharmacy. Last updated on 2019.11.17

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Ibuprofen

Therapeutic indications

The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Acuilfem is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acuilfem of the medicine (Ibuprofen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Therapeutic indications in the instructions to the drug Acuilfem directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Capsules; Coated tablet; Film-coated tablet; Gel for external use; Ointment for external use; Rectal suppositories for children; Substance; Substance-powder; Substance-powder for the preparation of non-sterile dosage forms; Sugar coated tablets; Suspension for ingestion for children
Capsule, soft; Suppository; Tablets, effervescent
Suspension; Suspension/Drops; Tablet, Chewable
Syrup; Tablets of prolonged action, coated
Intravenous injection; Solution
Solution for intravenous administration
Injectable

GSL

For the relief of mild to moderate pain including rheumatic and muscular pain, backache, neuralgia, migraine, headache, dental pain, dysmenorrhoea, feverishness and for the relief of the symptoms of cold and influenza.

For the relief of migraine-headaches, backache, dental pain, neuralgia and period pains as well as rheumatic and muscular pains.

Acuilfem relieves pain and reduces inflammation and temperature as well as relieving headaches and other types of pain. It also relieves cold and flu symptoms.

Purpose

Pain reliever/fever reducer

Uses

  • temporarily relieves minor aches and pains due to:
    • headache
    • the common cold
    • toothache
    • muscular aches
    • backache
    • menstrual cramps
    • minor pain of arthritis
  • temporarily reduces fever

Acuilfem is indicated for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (including juvenile rheumatoid arthritis or Still's disease), ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis and other non-rheumatoid (seronegative) arthropathies.

In the treatment of non-articular rheumatic conditions, Acuilfem is indicated in periarticular conditions such as frozen shoulder (capsulitis), bursitis, tendinitis, tenosynovitis and low back pain; Acuilfem can also be used in soft-tissue injuries such as sprains and strains.

Acuilfem is also indicated for its analgesic effect in the relief of mild to moderate pain such as dysmenorrhoea, dental and post-operative pain and for symptomatic relief of headache including migraine headache.

Acuilfem is indicated in adults and pediatric patients six months and older for the:

  • management of mild to moderate pain and the management of moderate to severe pain as an adjunct to opioid analgesics
  • reduction of fever

Treatment of a haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus in preterm newborn infants less than 34 weeks of gestational age.

Acuilfem is indicated to close a clinically significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature infants weighing between 500 and 1500 g, who are no more than 32 weeks gestational age when usual medical management (e.g., fluid restriction, diuretics, respiratory support, etc.) is ineffective. The clinical trial was conducted among infants with an asymptomatic PDA. However, the consequences beyond 8 weeks after treatment have not been evaluated; therefore, treatment should be reserved for infants with clear evidence of a clinically significant PDA.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administration of Acuilfem is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acuilfem of the medicine (Ibuprofen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Acuilfem directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Capsules; Coated tablet; Film-coated tablet; Gel for external use; Ointment for external use; Rectal suppositories for children; Substance; Substance-powder; Substance-powder for the preparation of non-sterile dosage forms; Sugar coated tablets; Suspension for ingestion for children
Capsule, soft; Suppository; Tablets, effervescent
Suspension; Suspension/Drops; Tablet, Chewable
Syrup; Tablets of prolonged action, coated
Intravenous injection; Solution
Solution for intravenous administration
Injectable

For oral administration and short-term use only. Undesirable effects may be minimised by using the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration necessary to control symptoms.

Adults, the elderly, and children and adolescents over 12 years of age:

If in children and adolescents, between the age of 12 and 18 years, this medicinal product is required for more than 3 days, or if symptoms worsen, a doctor should be consulted.

For adults aged 18 years or older the minimum effective dose should be used for the shortest time necessary to relieve symptoms. If the product is required for more than 10 days or if the symptoms worsen, or persist, the patient should consult a pharmacist or a doctor.

1 or 2 tablets to be taken up to three times a day, as required. The tablets should be taken with water.

Leave at least 4 hours between doses and do not take more than 1200mg (6 tablets) in any 24 hour period.

Not to be given to children under 12 years of age.

For oral administration and short-term use only.

During short-term use, if symptoms persist or worsen the patient should be advised to consult a doctor.

Adults and children and adolescents between 12 and 18 years:

Undesirable effects may be minimised by using the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration necessary to control symptoms.

If in children and adolescents between 12 and 18 years this medicinal product is required for more than 3 days, or if symptoms worsen a doctor should be consulted.

If in adults the product is required for more than 10 days, or if the symptoms worsen the patient should consult a doctor.

Children and Adolescents between 12 and 18 years: Take 1 or 2 caplets with water, up to three times a day as required.

Adults: Take 1 or 2 caplets with water, up to three times a day as required.

Leave at least four hours between doses.

Do not take more than 6 caplets in any 24 hour period.

Not for use by children under 12 years of age.

Directions

  • do not take more than directed
  • the smallest effective dose should be used
  • adults and children 12 years and over: take 1 tablet every 4 to 6 hours while symptoms persist
    • if pain or fever does not respond to 1 tablet, 2 tablets may be used
    • do not exceed 6 tablets in 24 hours, unless directed by a doctor
  • children 12 years: ask a doctor

Undesirable effects may be minimised by using the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration necessary to control symptoms.

Adults and children over 12 years of age: Two tablets taken as a single daily dose, preferably in the early evening well before retiring to bed. The tablets should be swallowed whole with plenty of fluid and not chewed, broken, crushed or sucked on to avoid oral discomfort and throat irritation. In severe or acute conditions, total daily dosage may be increased to three tablets in two divided doses.

Children: Not recommended for children under 12 years.

Elderly: The elderly are at increased risk of serious consequences of adverse reactions. If an NSAID is considered necessary, the lowest effective dose should be used and for the shortest possible duration. The patient should be monitored regularly for GI bleeding during NSAID therapy. If renal or hepatic function is impaired, dosage should be assessed individually.

For oral administration. It is recommended that patients with sensitive stomachs take Brufen with food. If taken shortly after eating, the onset of action of Brufen may be delayed. To be taken preferably with or after food.

Important Dosage And Administration Instructions

Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals.

After observing the response to initial therapy with Acuilfem, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient's needs. Do not exceed 3200 mg total daily dose in adults. Do not exceed 40 mg/kg or 2,400 mg, whichever is less, total daily dose in pediatric patients less than 17 years of age.

To reduce the risk of renal adverse reactions, patients must be well hydrated prior to administration of Acuilfem. Acuilfem must be diluted prior to administration.

Dilute to a final concentration of 4 mg/mL or less. Appropriate diluents include 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection USP (normal saline), 5% Dextrose Injection USP (D5W), or Lactated Ringers Solution.

  • 100 mg dose: Dilute 1 mL of Acuilfem in at least 100 mL of diluent
  • 200 mg dose: Dilute 2 mL of Acuilfem in at least 100 mL of diluent
  • 400 mg dose: Dilute 4 mL of Acuilfem in at least 100 mL of diluent
  • 800 mg dose: Dilute 8 mL of Acuilfem in at least 200 mL of diluent

For weight-based dosing at 10 mg/kg ensure that the concentration of Acuilfem is 4 mg/mL or less.

Visually inspect parenteral drug products for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. If visibly opaque particles, discoloration or other foreign particulates are observed, the solution should not be used.

Diluted solutions are stable for up to 24 hours at ambient temperature (approximately 20° C to 25° C) and room lighting.

Adults

For Analgesia (pain)

The dose is 400 mg to 800 mg intravenously every 6 hours as necessary. Infusion time must be at least 30 minutes. Maximum daily dose is 3,200 mg.

For Fever

The dose is 400 mg intravenously, followed by 400 mg every 4 to 6 hours or 100 mg to 200 mg every 4 hours as necessary. Infusion time must be at least 30 minutes. Maximum daily dose is 3,200 mg.

Pediatric Patients

For Analgesia (pain) And Fever

Ages 12 to 17 Years Of Age

The dose is 400 mg intravenously every 4 to 6 hours as necessary. Infusion time must be at least 10 minutes. Maximum daily dose is 2,400 mg.

Ages 6 Months To 12 Years Of Age

The dose is 10 mg/kg intravenously up to a maximum single dose of 400 mg every 4 to 6 hours as necessary. Infusion time must be at least 10 minutes. Maximum daily dose is 40 mg/kg or 2,400 mg, whichever is less.

Pediatric Dosing as Necessary for Fever and Pain

Age Group Dose Dosing Interval Min infusion time Max daily dose
6 months to less than 12 years 10 mg/kg up to 400 mg max Every 4 to 6 hours as necessary 10 minutes *40 mg/Kg or 2,400 mg
12 to 17 years 400 mg Every 4 to 6 hours as necessary 10 minutes 2,400 mg
* Maximum daily dose is 40 mg/kg or 2,400 mg, whichever is less

Treatment with Acuilfem should only be carried out in a neonatal intensive care unit under the supervision of an experienced neonatologist.

Posology

A course of therapy is defined as three intravenous injections of Acuilfem given at 24-hour intervals. The first injection should be given after the first 6 hours of life.

The ibuprofen dose is adjusted to the body weight as follows:

- 1st injection: 10 mg/kg,

- 2nd and 3rd injections: 5 mg/kg.

If anuria or manifest oliguria occurs after the first or second dose, the next dose should be withheld until urine output returns to normal levels.

If the ductus arteriosus does not close 48 hours after the last injection or if it re-opens, a second course of 3 doses, as above, may be given.

If the condition is unchanged after the second course of therapy, surgery of the patent ductus arteriosus may then be necessary.

Method of administration

For intravenous use only.

Acuilfem should be administered as a short infusion over 15 minutes, preferably undiluted. If necessary, the injection volume may be adjusted with either sodium chloride 9 mg/ml (0.9%) solution for injection or glucose 50 mg/ml (5%) solution for injection. Any unused portion of the solution should be discarded.

The total volume of solution injected should take into account the total daily fluid volume administered.

Recommended Dose

A course of therapy is three doses of Acuilfem administered intravenously (administration via an umbilical arterial line has not been evaluated). An initial dose of 10 mg per kilogram is followed by two doses of 5 mg per kilogram each, after 24 and 48 hours. All doses should be based on birth weight. If anuria or marked oliguria (urinary output <0.6 mL/kg/hr) is evident at the scheduled time of the second or third dose of Acuilfem, no additional dosage should be given until laboratory studies indicate that renal function has returned to normal. If the ductus arteriosus closes or is significantly reduced in size after completion of the first course of Acuilfem, no further doses are necessary. If during continued medical management the ductus arteriosus fails to close or reopens, then a second course of Acuilfem, alternative pharmacological therapy, or surgery may be necessary.

Directions For Use

For intravenous administration only. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit. Do not use Acuilfem if particulate matter is observed.

After the first withdrawal from the vial, any solution remaining must be discarded because Acuilfem contains no preservative.

For administration, Acuilfem should be diluted to an appropriate volume with dextrose or saline. Acuilfem should be prepared for infusion and administered within 30 minutes of preparation and infused continuously over a period of 15 minutes. The drug should be administered via the IV port that is nearest the insertion site. After the first withdrawal from the vial, any solution remaining must be discarded because Acuilfem contains no preservative.

Since Acuilfem is potentially irritating to tissues, it should be administered carefully to avoid extravasation.

Acuilfem should not be simultaneously administered in the same intravenous line with Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN). If necessary, TPN should be interrupted for a 15-minute period prior to and after drug administration. Line patency should be maintained by using dextrose or saline.

Contraindications

The information provided in Contraindications of Acuilfem is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acuilfem of the medicine (Ibuprofen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Acuilfem directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Capsules; Coated tablet; Film-coated tablet; Gel for external use; Ointment for external use; Rectal suppositories for children; Substance; Substance-powder; Substance-powder for the preparation of non-sterile dosage forms; Sugar coated tablets; Suspension for ingestion for children
Capsule, soft; Suppository; Tablets, effervescent
Suspension; Suspension/Drops; Tablet, Chewable
Syrup; Tablets of prolonged action, coated
Intravenous injection; Solution
Solution for intravenous administration
Injectable

Hypersensitivity to Acuilfem or any of the constituents in the product.

Acuilfem is contra-indicated in patients who have previously shown hypersensitivity reactions (e.g. asthma, rhinitis, angiodema or urticaria) in response to aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Active or previous peptic ulcer (two or more episodes of proven ulceration or bleeding).

History of upper gastrointestinal bleeding or perforation, related to previous NSAID therapy.

Patients with severe hepatic failure, renal failure or severe heart failure (NYHA Class IV).

Use in last trimester of pregnancy.

Hypersensitivity to ibuprofen or any of the excipients in the product.

Patients who have previously shown hypersensitivity reactions (e.g. asthma, rhinitis, angioedema, or urticaria) in response to aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Active or history of recurrent peptic ulcer/haemorrhage (two or more distinct episodes of proven ulceration or bleeding).

History of gastrointestinal bleeding or perforation, related to previous NSAIDs therapy.

Severe heart failure (NYHA Class IV), renal failure or hepatic failure

Last trimester of pregnancy

No information provided.

Brufen is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients.

Brufen should not be used in patients who have previously shown hypersensitivity reactions (e.g. asthma, urticaria, angioedema or rhinitis) after taking ibuprofen, aspirin or other NSAIDs.

Brufen is also contraindicated in patients with a history of gastrointestinal bleeding or perforation, related to previous NSAID therapy. Brufen should not be used in patients with active, or history of, recurrent peptic ulcer or gastrointestinal haemorrhage (two or more distinct episodes of proven ulceration or bleeding).

Brufen should not be given to patients with conditions involving an increased tendency to bleeding.

Brufen is contraindicated in patients with severe heart failure (NYHA Class IV), hepatic failure and renal failure.

Brufen is contraindicated during the last trimester of pregnancy.

Acuilfem is contraindicated in the following patients:

  • Known hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylactic reactions and serious skin reactions) to ibuprofen or any components of the drug product
  • History of asthma, urticaria, or other allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, sometimes fatal, anaphylactic reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients
  • In the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery

- Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients;

- Life-threatening infection;

- Active bleeding, especially intracranial or gastrointestinal haemorrhage;

- Thrombocytopenia or coagulation defects;

- Significant impairment of renal function;

- Congenital heart disease in which patency of the ductus arteriosus is necessary for satisfactory pulmonary or systemic blood flow (e.g. pulmonary atresia, severe tetralogy of Fallot, severe coarctation of the aorta);

- Known or suspected necrotising enterocolitis;

Acuilfem is contraindicated in:

  • Preterm infants with proven or suspected infection that is untreated;
  • Preterm infants with congenital heart disease in whom patency of the PDA is necessary for satisfactory pulmonary or systemic blood flow (e.g., pulmonary atresia, severe tetralogy of Fallot, severe coarctation of the aorta);
  • Preterm infants who are bleeding, especially those with active intracranial hemorrhage or gastrointestinal bleeding;
  • Preterm infants with thrombocytopenia;
  • Preterm infants with coagulation defects;
  • Preterm infants with or who are suspected of having necrotizing enterocolitis;
  • Preterm infants with significant impairment of renal function.

Special warnings and precautions for use

The information provided in Special warnings and precautions for use of Acuilfem is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acuilfem of the medicine (Ibuprofen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special warnings and precautions for use in the instructions to the drug Acuilfem directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Capsules; Coated tablet; Film-coated tablet; Gel for external use; Ointment for external use; Rectal suppositories for children; Substance; Substance-powder; Substance-powder for the preparation of non-sterile dosage forms; Sugar coated tablets; Suspension for ingestion for children
Capsule, soft; Suppository; Tablets, effervescent
Suspension; Suspension/Drops; Tablet, Chewable
Syrup; Tablets of prolonged action, coated
Intravenous injection; Solution
Solution for intravenous administration
Injectable

Caution is required in patients with certain conditions:

- Systemic lupus erythematosus as well as those with mixed connective tissue disease due to increased risk of aseptic meningitis.

- Gastrointestinal disorders and chronic inflammatory intestinal disease as these conditions may be exacerbated (ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease).

- Caution is required prior to starting treatment in patients with a history of hypertension and or heart/failure. Oedema, hypertension and/or cardiac impairment as renal function may deteriorate and/or fluid retention occur.

- Renal impairment as renal function may deteriorate.

- Hepatic dysfunction.

Undesirable effects may be minimised by using the minimum effective dose for the shortest possible duration to control symptoms (see GI and cardiovascular risks below).

The elderly are at increased risk of the serious consequences of adverse reactions especially gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation which may be fatal.

Bronchospasm may be precipitated in patients suffering from or with a previous history of bronchial asthma or allergic disease.

Use with concomitant NSAIDs including cyclo-oxygenase-2 specific inhibitors should be avoided .

Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects

Clinical studies suggest that use of Acuilfem, particularly at high doses (2400 mg/day) may be associated with a small increased risk of arterial thrombotic events (for example myocardial infarction or stroke).

Overall, epidemiological studies do not suggest that low dose Acuilfem (e.g. ≤1200mg daily) is associated with an increased risk of arterial thrombotic events.

Patients with uncontrolled hypertension, congestive heart failure (NYHA II-III), established ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and/or cerebrovascular disease should only be treated with Acuilfem after careful consideration and high doses (2400 mg/day) should be avoided.

Careful consideration should also be exercised before initiating long-term treatment of patients with risk factors for cardiovascular events (e.g. hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking), particularly if high doses of Acuilfem (2400 mg/day) are required.

There is some evidence that drugs, which inhibit cyclooxygenase/ prostaglandin synthesis, may cause impairment of female fertility by an effect on ovulation. This is reversible on withdrawal of treatment.

Gastro-intestinal (GI) bleeding, ulceration, or perforation, which can be fatal, has been reported with all NSAIDs at any time during treatment, with or without warning symptoms or a previous history of serious GI effects (including ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease).

The risk of GI bleeding, ulceration or perforation is higher with increasing NSAID doses, in patients with a history of ulcer, particularly if complicated with haemorrhage or perforation , and in the elderly. These patients should commence treatment on the lowest dose available.

Patients with a history of GI toxicity, particularly when elderly, should report any unusual abdominal symptoms (especially GI bleeding) particularly in the initial stages of treatment.

Caution should be advised in patients receiving concomitant medications which could increase the risk of gastrotoxicity or bleeding, such as corticosteroids, or anticoagulants such as warfarin, selective serotonin uptake inhibitors or anti-platelet agents such as aspirin.

Where GI bleeding or ulceration occurs in patients receiving Acuilfem, the treatment should be withdrawn immediately.

Dermatological

Serious skin reactions, some of them fatal, including exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, have been reported very rarely in association with the use of NSAIDs. Patients appear to be at highest risk for these reactions early in the course of therapy: the onset of the reaction occurring in the majority of cases within the first month of treatment. Acuilfem should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash, mucosal lesions, or any other sign of hypersensitivity.

Patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance should not take this medicine as this product contains sucrose.

Each tablet contains 67mg of sucrose. This should be taken into account in patients with diabetes mellitus.

There is a risk of renal impairment in dehydrated children and adolescents, between the ages of 12-18 year olds.

The label will include:

12-18 years: if symptoms worsen, or persist for more than 3 days, or you get new symptoms consult your doctor.

Adults: if symptoms worsen, or persist for more than 10 days, or you get new symptoms consult your pharmacist or doctor.

Read the enclosed leaflet before taking this product.

Do not take if you:

- have ever had a stomach ulcer, perforation or bleeding

- are allergic to Acuilfem (or anything else in this medicine), aspirin or other related painkillers

- are taking other NSAID painkillers, or aspirin with a daily dose above 75mg

- are in the last 3 months of pregnancy.

Speak to a pharmacist or your doctor before taking if you:

- have asthma, diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, had a stroke, heart, liver, kidney or bowel problems

- are a smoker

- are pregnant

The elderly have an increased frequency of adverse reactions to NSAIDs especially gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation which may be fatal.

Respiratory:

Bronchospasm may be precipitated in patients suffering from, or with a previous history of, bronchial asthma or allergic disease.

Other NSAIDs:

The use of Ibuprofen with concomitant NSAIDs including cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors should be avoided.

SLE and mixed connective tissue disease:

Systemic lupus erythematosus as well as those with mixed connective tissue disease - increased risk of aseptic meningitis

Renal:

Renal impairment as renal function may further deteriorate.

There is a risk of renal impairment in dehydrated children and adolescents

Hepatic:

Hepatic dysfunction

Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects:

Caution (discussion with doctor or pharmacist) is required prior to starting treatment in patients with a history of hypertension and/or heart failure as fluid retention, hypertension and oedema have been reported in association with NSAID therapy.

Clinical studies suggest that use of ibuprofen, particularly at a high dose (2400mg/day) may be associated with a small increased risk of arterial thrombotic events (for example myocardial infarction or stroke). Overall, epidemiological studies do not suggest that low dose ibuprofen (e.g. ≤1200mg/day) is associated with an increased risk of arterial thrombotic events.

Patients with uncontrolled hypertension, congestive heart failure (NYHA II-III), established ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and/or cerebrovascular disease should only be treated with ibuprofen after careful consideration and high doses (2400 mg/day) should be avoided.

Careful consideration should also be exercised before initiating long-term treatment of patients with risk factors for cardiovascular events (e.g. hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking), particularly if high doses of ibuprofen (2400 mg/day) are required.

Impaired female fertility:

There is limited evidence that drugs which inhibit cyclo-oxygenase/ prostaglandin synthesis may cause impairment of female fertility by an effect on ovulation. This is reversible upon withdrawal of treatment.

Gastrointestinal:

NSAIDs should be given with care to patients with a history of gastrointestinal disease (ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease) as these conditions may be exacerbated.

GI bleeding, ulceration or perforation, which can be fatal has been reported with all NSAIDs at any time during treatment, with or without warning symptoms or a previous history of GI events.

The risk of GI bleeding, ulceration or perforation is higher with increasing NSAID doses, in patients with a history of ulcer, particularly if complicated with haemorrhage or perforation , and in the elderly. These patients should commence treatment on the lowest dose available.

Patients with a history of GI toxicity, particularly the elderly, should report any unusual abdominal symptoms (especially GI bleeding) particularly in the initial stages of treatment.

Caution should be advised in patients receiving concomitant medications which could increase the risk of ulceration or bleeding, such as oral corticosteroids, anticoagulants such as warfarin, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors or anti-platelet agents such as aspirin.

When GI bleeding or ulceration occurs in patients receiving ibuprofen, the treatment should be withdrawn.

Dermatological:

Serious skin reactions, some of them fatal, including exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, have been reported very rarely in association with the use of NSAIDs. Patients appear to be at highest risk for these reactions early in the course of therapy: the onset of the reaction occurring in the majority of cases within the first month of treatment. Ibuprofen should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash, mucosal lesions, or any other sign of hypersensitivity.

Advice for patients with sugar-related disorders:

Patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption or sucrase-isomaltase insufficiency should not take this medicine.

Advice for patients on a controlled sodium diet:

This medicinal product contains 1.1 mmol (or 25.3 mg) of sodium per 2 doses (2 tablets). To be taken into consideration by patients on a controlled sodium diet.

The leaflet will include:

The quantity of sodium contained in 2 tablets is approximately 1.1mmol, ie about 25.3 mg. This quantity is to be taken into consideration by patients on a controlled sodium diet.

If you have been told by your doctor that you have an intolerance to some sugars, contact your doctor before taking this medicinal product.

The label will include:

Read the enclosed leaflet before taking this product

Do not take if you:

- have (or have had two or more episodes of ) a stomach ulcer, perforation or bleeding

- are allergic to ibuprofen, to any of the ingredients, or to aspirin or other related painkillers

- are taking other NSAID pain killers or aspirin with a daily dose above 75mg

Speak to a pharmacist or your doctor before taking if you:

- have or have had asthma, diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, a stroke, heart, liver, kidney or bowel problems

- Are a smoker

- Are pregnant

If symptoms persist or worsen, or if new symptoms occur, consult your doctor or pharmacist.

WARNINGS

Allergy alert: Ibuprofen may cause a severe allergic reaction, especially in people allergic to aspirin. Symptoms may include:

  • hives
  • facial swelling
  • asthma (wheezing)
  • shock
  • skin reddening
  • rash
  • blisters

If an allergic reaction occurs, stop use and seek medical help right away.

Stomach bleeding warning: This product contains an NSAID, which may cause severe stomach bleeding. The chance is higher if you:

  • have had stomach ulcers or bleeding problems
  • take a blood thinning (anticoagulant) or steroid drug
  • are age 60 or older
  • take other drugs containing prescription or nonprescription NSAIDs [aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, or others]
  • have 3 or more alcoholic drinks every day while using this product
  • take more or for a longer time than directed

Do not use

  • if you have ever had an allergic reaction to any other pain reliever/fever reducer
  • right before or after heart surgery

Ask a doctor before use if

  • stomach bleeding warning applies to you
  • you have a history of stomach problems, such as heartburn
  • you have high blood pressure, heart disease, liver cirrhosis, or kidney disease
  • you are taking a diuretic
  • you have problems or serious side effects from taking pain relievers or fever reducers
  • you have asthma

Ask a doctor or pharmacist before use if you are

  • under a doctor's care for any serious condition
  • taking aspirin for heart attack or stroke, because ibuprofen may decrease this benefit of aspirin
  • taking any other drug

When using this product

  • take with food or milk if stomach upset occurs
  • the risk of heart attack or stroke may increase if you use more than directed or for longer than directed

Stop use and ask a doctor if

  • you experience any of the following signs of stomach bleeding:
    • feel faint
    • have bloody or black stools
    • vomit blood
    • have stomach pain that does not get better
  • pain gets worse or lasts more than 10 days
  • fever gets worse or lasts more than 3 days
  • redness or swelling is present in the painful area
  • any new symptoms appear

If pregnant or breast-feeding,

ask a health professional before use. It is especially important not to use ibuprofen during the last 3 months of pregnancy unless definitely directed to do so by a doctor because it may cause problems in the unborn child or complications during delivery.

Keep out of reach of children.

PRECAUTIONS

See WARNINGS Section above.

). As with other NSAIDs, ibuprofen may mask the signs of infection.

The use of Brufen with concomitant NSAIDs, including cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors, should be avoided due to the increased risk of ulceration or bleeding.

Elderly

The elderly have an increased frequency of adverse reactions to NSAIDs, especially gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation, which may be fatal.

Paediatric population

There is a risk of renal impairment in dehydrated children and adolescents.

Gastrointestinal bleeding, ulceration and perforation

GI bleeding, ulceration or perforation, which can be fatal, has been reported with all NSAIDs at anytime during treatment, with or without warning symptoms or a previous history of serious GI events.

The risk of GI bleeding, ulceration or perforation is higher with increasing NSAID doses, in patients with a history of ulcer, particularly if complicated with haemorrhage or perforation , and in the elderly.).

Patients with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly when elderly, should report any unusual abdominal symptoms (especially gastrointestinal bleeding) particularly in the initial stages of treatment.

Caution should be advised in patients receiving concomitant medications which could increase the risk of ulceration or bleeding, such as oral corticosteroids, anticoagulants such as warfarin, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors or anti-platelet agents such as aspirin.

When GI bleeding or ulceration occurs in patients receiving Brufen, the treatment should be withdrawn.

NSAIDs should be given with care to patients with a history of ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease as these conditions may be exacerbated.

Respiratory disorders and hypersensitivity reactions

Caution is required if Brufen is administered to patients suffering from, or with a previous history of, bronchial asthma, chronic rhinitis or allergic diseases since NSAIDs have been reported to precipitate bronchospasm, urticaria or angioedema in such patients.

Cardiac, renal and hepatic impairment

The administration of an NSAID may cause a dose dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and precipitate renal failure.).

Brufen should be given with care to patients with a history of heart failure or hypertension since oedema has been reported in association with ibuprofen administration.

Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects

Appropriate monitoring and advice are required for patients with a history of hypertension and/or mild to moderate congestive heart failure as fluid retention and oedema have been reported in association with NSAID therapy.

Clinical studies suggest that use of ibuprofen, particularly at a high dose (2400 mg/day) may be associated with a small increased risk of arterial thrombotic events such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Overall, epidemiological studies do not suggest that low dose ibuprofen (e.g. ≤ 1200mg/day) is associated with an increased risk of arterial thrombotic events.

Patients with uncontrolled hypertension, congestive heart failure (NYHA II-III), established ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and/or cerebrovascular disease should only be treated with ibuprofen after careful consideration and high doses (2400mg/day) should be avoided. Careful consideration should also be exercised before initiating long-term treatment of patients with risk factors for cardiovascular events (e.g. hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking), particularly if high doses of ibuprofen (2400mg/day) are required.

Renal effects

Caution should be used when initiating treatment with ibuprofen in patients with considerable dehydration.

As with other NSAIDs, long-term administration of ibuprofen has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal pathologic changes. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of an NSAID may cause a dose-dependant reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may cause renal failure. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pre-treatment state.

SLE and mixed connective tissue disease

).

Dermatological effects

Serious skin reactions, some of them fatal, including exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, have been reported very rarely in association with the use of NSAIDs. Patients appear to be at highest risk of these reactions early in the course of therapy, the onset of the reaction occurring within the first month of treatment in the majority of cases. Brufen should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash, mucosal lesions, or any other sign of hypersensitivity.

Haematological effects

Ibuprofen, like other NSAIDs, can interfere with platelet aggregation and prolong bleeding time in normal subjects.

Aseptic meningitis

Aseptic meningitis has been observed on rare occasions in patients on ibuprofen therapy. Although it is probably more likely to occur in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and related connective tissue diseases, it has been reported in patients who do not have an underlying chronic disease.

Impaired female fertility

The use of Brufen may impair female fertility and is not recommended in women attempting to conceive. In women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility, withdrawal of Brufen should be considered.

WARNINGS

Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.

PRECAUTIONS

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events

Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, which can be fatal. Based on available data, it is unclear that the risk for CV thrombotic events is similar for all NSAIDs. The relative increase in serious CV thrombotic events over baseline conferred by NSAID use appears to be similar in those with and without known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease. However, patients with known CV disease or risk factors had a higher absolute incidence of excess serious CV thrombotic events, due to their increased baseline rate. Some observational studies found that this increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events began as early as the first weeks of treatment. The increase in CV thrombotic risk has been observed most consistently at higher doses.

To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in NSAID-treated patients, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, throughout the entire treatment course, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.

There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID, such as ibuprofen, increases the risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) events.

Status Post Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery

Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10-14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. NSAIDs are contraindicated in the setting of CABG.

Post-MI Patients

Observational studies conducted in the Danish National Registry have demonstrated that patients treated with NSAIDs in the post-MI period were at increased risk of reinfarction, CV-related death, and all-cause mortality beginning in the first week of treatment. In this same cohort, the incidence of death in the first year post-MI was 20 per 100 person years in NSAID-treated patients compared to 12 per 100 person years in non-NSAID exposed patients. Although the absolute rate of death declined somewhat after the first year post-MI, the increased relative risk of death in NSAID users persisted over at least the next four years of follow-up.

Avoid the use of Acuilfem in patients with a recent MI unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of recurrent CV thrombotic events. If Acuilfem is used in patients with a recent MI, monitor patients for signs of cardiac ischemia.

Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, And Perforation

NSAIDs, including ibuprofen, cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occurred in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3-6 months and in about 2%-4% of patients treated for one year. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk.

Risk Factors For GI Bleeding, Ulceration And Perforation

Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or GI bleeding who used NSAIDs had a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients without these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk of GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include longer duration of NSAID therapy; concomitant use of oral corticosteroids, aspirin, anticoagulants, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); smoking; use of alcohol; older age; and poor general health status. Most postmarketing reports of fatal GI events occurred in elderly or debilitated patients. Additionally, patients with advanced liver disease and/or coagulopathy are at increased risk for GI bleeding.

Strategies to Minimize the GI Risks in NSAID-treated patients:

  • Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest possible duration.
  • Avoid administration of more than one NSAID at a time.
  • Avoid use in patients at higher risk unless benefits are expected to outweigh the increased risk of bleeding. For such patients, as well as those with active GI bleeding, consider alternate therapies other than NSAIDs.
  • Remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy.
  • If a serious GI adverse event is suspected, promptly initiate evaluation and treatment, and discontinue Acuilfem until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out.
  • In the setting of concomitant use of low-dose aspirin for cardiac prophylaxis, monitor patients more closely for evidence of GI bleeding.

Hepatotoxicity

Elevations of ALT or AST (three or more times the upper limit of normal [ULN]) have been reported in approximately 1% of NSAID-treated patients in clinical trials. In addition, rare, sometimes fatal, cases of severe hepatic injury, including fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis, and hepatic failure have been reported.

Elevations of ALT or AST (less than three times ULN) may occur in up to 15% of patients treated with NSAIDs, including ibuprofen.

Inform patients of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, diarrhea, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and “flu-like” symptoms).If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), discontinue Acuilfem immediately, and perform a clinical evaluation of the patient.

Hypertension

NSAIDs, including Acuilfem, can lead to new onset of hypertension or worsening of pre-existing hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, thiazide diuretics, or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs.

Monitor blood pressure (BP) during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.

Heart Failure And Edema

The Coxib and traditional NSAID Trialists' Collaboration meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials demonstrated an approximately two-fold increase in hospitalizations for heart failure in COX-2 selective-treated patients and nonselective NSAID-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients. In a Danish National Registry study of patients with heart failure, NSAID use increased the risk of MI, hospitalization for heart failure, and death.

Additionally, fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients treated with NSAIDs. Use of ibuprofen may blunt the CV effects of several therapeutic agents used to treat these medical conditions (e.g., diuretics, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]).

Avoid the use of Acuilfem in patients with severe heart failure unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening heart failure. If Acuilfem is used in patients with severe heart failure, monitor patients for signs of worsening heart failure.

Renal Toxicity And Hyperkalemia

Renal Toxicity

Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury.

Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of an NSAID may cause a dose dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, dehydration, hypovolemia, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors or ARBs, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.

No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of Acuilfem in patients with advanced renal disease. The renal effects of Acuilfem may hasten the progression of renal dysfunction in patients with preexisting renal disease.

Correct volume status in dehydrated or hypovolemic patients prior to initiating Acuilfem. Monitor renal function in patients with renal or hepatic impairment, heart failure, dehydration, or hypovolemia during use of Acuilfem. Avoid the use of Acuilfem in patients with advanced renal disease unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening renal function. If Acuilfem is used in patients with advanced renal disease, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.

Hyperkalemia

Increases in serum potassium concentration, including hyperkalemia, have been reported with use of NSAIDs, even in some patients without renal impairment. In patients with normal renal function, these effects have been attributed to a hyporeninemic­hypoaldosteronism state.

Anaphylactic Reactions

Ibuprofen has been associated with anaphylactic reactions in patients with and without known hypersensitivity to ibuprofen and in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma.

Seek emergency help if anaphylactic reaction occurs.

Exacerbation Of Asthma Related To Aspirin Sensitivity

A subpopulation of patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma which may include chronic rhinosinusitis complicated by nasal polyps; severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm; and/or intolerance to aspirin and other NSAIDs. Because cross-reactivity between aspirin and other NSAIDs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, Acuilfem is contraindicated in patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity. When Acuilfem is used in patients with preexisting asthma (without known aspirin sensitivity), monitor patients for changes in the signs and symptoms of asthma.

Serious Skin Reactions

NSAIDs, including ibuprofen, can cause serious skin adverse reactions such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Inform patients about the signs and symptoms of serious skin reactions, and to discontinue the use of Acuilfem at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity. Acuilfem is contraindicated in patients with previous serious skin reactions to NSAIDs.

Premature Closure Of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus

Ibuprofen may cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. Avoid use of NSAIDs, including Acuilfem, in pregnant women starting at 30 weeks of gestation (third trimester).

Hematologic Toxicity

Anemia has occurred in NSAID-treated patients. This may be due to occult or gross GI blood loss, fluid retention, or an incompletely described effect on erythropoiesis. If a patient treated with Acuilfem has any signs or symptoms of anemia, monitor hemoglobin or hematocrit.

NSAIDs, including Acuilfem may increase the risk of bleeding events. Co-morbid conditions such as coagulation disorder, concomitant use of warfarin, other anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin), serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may increase this risk. Monitor these patients for signs of bleeding.

Acuilfem must be diluted prior to use. Infusion of the drug product without dilution can cause hemolysis.

Masking Of Inflammation And Fever

The pharmacological activity of Acuilfem in reducing inflammation, and possibly fever, may diminish the utility of diagnostic signs in detecting infections.

Laboratory Monitoring

Because serious GI bleeding, hepatotoxicity, and renal injury can occur without warning symptoms or signs, consider monitoring patients on long-term NSAID treatment with a CBC and a chemistry profile periodically.

Ophthalmological Effects

Blurred or diminished vision, scotomata, and changes in color vision have been reported with oral ibuprofen. Discontinue ibuprofen if a patient develops such complaints, and refer the patient for an ophthalmologic examination that includes central visual fields and color vision testing.

Aseptic Meningitis

Aseptic meningitis with fever and coma has been observed in patients on oral ibuprofen therapy. Although it is probably more likely to occur in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and related connective tissue diseases, it has been reported in patients who do not have underlying chronic disease. If signs or symptoms of meningitis develop in a patient on ibuprofen, give consideration to whether or not the signs or symptoms are related to ibuprofen therapy.

Patient Counseling Information

Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide) that accompanies each prescription dispensed. Patients, families, or their caregivers should be informed of the following information before initiating therapy with Acuilfem and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy.

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events

Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of cardiovascular thrombotic events, including chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, or slurring of speech, and to report any of these symptoms to their health care provider immediately.

Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, And Perforation

Advise patients to report symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, including epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis to their health care provider. In the setting of concomitant use of low-dose aspirin for cardiac prophylaxis, inform patients of the increased risk for and the signs and symptoms of GI bleeding.

Hepatotoxicity

Inform patients of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, diarrhea, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and “flu-like” symptoms). If these occur, instruct patients to stop Acuilfem and seek immediate medical therapy.

Heart Failure And Edema

Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of congestive heart failure including shortness of breath, unexplained weight gain, or edema and to contact their healthcare provider if such symptoms occur.

Anaphylactic Reactions

Inform patients of the signs of an anaphylactic reaction (e.g., difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). Instruct patients to seek immediate emergency help if these occur.

Serious Skin Reactions

Advise patients to stop Acuilfem immediately if they develop any type of rash and to contact their healthcare provider as soon as possible.

Female Fertility

Advise females of reproductive potential who desire pregnancy that NSAIDs, including Acuilfem, may be associated with a reversible delay in ovulation

Fetal Toxicity

Inform pregnant women to avoid use of Acuilfem and other NSAIDs starting at 30 weeks gestation because of the risk of the premature closing of the fetal ductus arteriosus.

Avoid Concomitant Use Of NSAIDs

Inform patients that the concomitant use of Acuilfem with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) is not recommended due to the increased risk of gastrointestinal toxicity, and little or no increase in efficacy. Alert patients that NSAIDs may be present in “over the counter” medications for treatment of colds, fever, or insomnia.

Use Of NSAIDS And Low-Dose Aspirin

Inform patients not to use low-dose aspirin concomitantly with Acuilfem until they talk to their healthcare provider.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Carcinogenesis

Long-term studies in animals to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of ibuprofen have not been conducted.

Mutagenesis

In published studies, ibuprofen was not mutagenic in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames assay).

Impairment Of Fertility

In a published study, dietary administration of ibuprofen to male and female rats 8-weeks prior to and during mating at dose levels of 20 mg/kg (0.06-times the MRHD based on body surface area comparison) did not impact male or female fertility or litter size.

In other studies, adult mice were administered ibuprofen intraperitoneally at a dose of 5.6 mg/kg/day (0.0085-times the MRHD based on body surface area comparison) for 35 or 60 days in males and 35 days in females. There was no effect on sperm motility or viability in males but decreased ovulation was reported in females.

Use In Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Use of NSAIDs, including Acuilfem, during the third trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. Avoid use of NSAIDs, including Acuilfem, in pregnant women starting at 30 weeks gestation (third trimester).

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Acuilfem in pregnant women. Data from observational studies regarding potential embryofetal risks of NSAID use in women in the first or second trimesters of pregnancy are inconclusive. In the general U.S. population, all clinically recognized pregnancies, regardless of drug exposure, have a background rate of 2-4% for major malformations, and 15-20% for pregnancy loss. In published animal reproduction studies, there were no clear developmental effects at doses up to 0.4-times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) in the rabbit and 0.5-times in the MRHD rat when dosed throughout gestation. In contrast, an increase in membranous ventricular septal defects was reported in rats treated on Gestation Days 9 & 10 with 0.8-times the MRHD. Based on animal data, prostaglandins have been shown to have an important role in endometrial vascular permeability, blastocyst implantation, and decidualization. In animal studies, administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors such as ibuprofen, resulted in increased pre-and post-implantation loss. Advise a pregnant woman of the potential risk to a fetus.

Clinical Considerations

Labor or Delivery

There are no studies on the effects of Acuilfem during labor or delivery. In animal studies, NSAIDs, including ibuprofen, inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, cause delayed parturition, and increase the incidence of stillbirth.

Animal Data

In a published study, female rabbits given 7.5, 20, or 60 mg/kg ibuprofen (0.04, 0.12, or 0.36-times the maximum recommended human daily dose of 3200 mg of ibuprofen based on body surface area) from Gestation Days 1 to 29, no clear treatment-related adverse developmental effects were noted. This dose was associated with significant maternal toxicity (stomach ulcers, gastric lesions). In the same publication, female rats were administered 7.5, 20, 60, 180 mg/kg ibuprofen (0.02, 0.06, 0.18, 0.54-times the maximum daily dose) did not result in clear adverse developmental effects. Maternal toxicity (gastrointestinal lesions) was noted at 20 mg/kg and above.

In a published study, rats were orally dosed with 300 mg/kg ibuprofen (0.912-times the maximum human daily dose of 3200 mg based on body surface area) during Gestation Days 9 and 10 (critical time points for heart development in rats). Ibuprofen treatment resulted in an increase in the incidence of membranous ventricular septal defects. This dose was associated with significant maternal toxicity including gastrointestinal toxicity. One incidence each of a membranous ventricular septal defect and gastroschisis was noted in fetuses from rabbits treated with 500 mg/kg (3-times the maximum human daily dose) from Gestation Day 9-11.

Lactation

Risk Summary

No lactation studies have been conducted with Acuilfem; however, limited published literature reports that, following oral administration, ibuprofen is present in human milk at relative infant doses of 0.06% to 0.6% of the maternal weight-adjusted daily dose. There are no reports of adverse effects on the breastfed infant and no effects on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for Acuilfem and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from the Acuilfem or from the underlying maternal condition.

Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential

Infertility

Females

Based on the mechanism of action, the use of prostaglandin-mediated NSAIDs, including Acuilfem, may delay or prevent rupture of ovarian follicles, which has been associated with reversible infertility in some women. Published animal studies have shown that administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors has the potential to disrupt prostaglandin- mediated follicular rupture required for ovulation. Small studies in women treated with NSAIDs have also shown a reversible delay in ovulation. Consider withdrawal of NSAIDs, including Acuilfem in women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility.

Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of Acuilfem for the treatment of pain and fever in pediatric patients ages 6 months and older is supported by evidence of fever reduction from a multi-center, open-label study of hospitalized febrile pediatric patients along with safety data from exposure to Acuilfem in 143 pediatric patients ages 6 months and older in two pediatric fever studies and one pediatric pain study, supportive data from other ibuprofen products approved in pediatric patients, and evidence from adequate and well controlled studies in adults. The effectiveness of Acuilfem for the treatment of pain and fever has not been studied in pediatric patients less than 6 months of age..

Geriatric Use

Elderly patients, compared to younger patients, are at greater risk for NSAID-associated serious cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and/or renal adverse reactions. If the anticipated benefit for the elderly patient outweighs these potential risks, start dosing at the low end of the dosing range, and monitor patients for adverse effects.

Clinical studies of Acuilfem did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Elderly patients are at increased risk for serious GI adverse events.

Before administration of Acuilfem an adequate echocardiographic examination should be performed in order to detect a haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus and to exclude pulmonary hypertension and ductal-dependent congenital heart disease.

Since prophylactic use in the first 3 days of life (starting within 6 hours of birth) in preterm newborn infants less than 28 weeks of gestational age was associated with increased pulmonary and renal adverse events, Acuilfem should not be used prophylactically at any gestational age. In particular, severe hypoxemia with pulmonary hypertension was reported in 3 infants within one hour of the first infusion and was reversed within 30 min after start of inhaled nitric oxide therapy.

If hypoxaemia occurs during or following Acuilfem infusion, close attention should be paid to pulmonary pressure.

Since ibuprofen was shown in vitro to displace bilirubin from its binding site to albumin, the risk of bilirubin encephalopathy in premature newborn infants may be increased. Therefore, ibuprofen should not be used in infants with marked elevated bilirubin concentration.

As a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), ibuprofen may mask the usual signs and symptoms of infection.).

Acuilfem should be administered carefully to avoid extravasation and potential resultant irritation to tissues.

As ibuprofen may inhibit platelet aggregation, premature neonates should be monitored for signs of bleeding.

As ibuprofen may decrease the clearance of aminoglycosides, strict surveillance of their serum levels is recommended during co-administration with ibuprofen.

Careful monitoring of both renal and gastrointestinal function is recommended.

In preterm newborn infants less than 27 weeks of gestational age, the closure rate of the ductus arteriosus (33 to 50%) was shown to be low at the recommended dose regimen.

This medicinal product contains less than 1 mmol sodium (15 mg) per 2 ml, i.e. essentially 'sodium-free'.

WARNINGS

Included as part of the "PRECAUTIONS" Section

PRECAUTIONS

General

There are no long-term evaluations of the infants treated with ibuprofen at durations greater than the 36 weeks post-conceptual age observation period. Ibuprofen’s effects on neurodevelopmental outcome and growth as well as disease processes associated with prematurity (such as retinopathy of prematurity and chronic lung disease) have not been assessed.

Infection

Acuilfem may alter the usual signs of infection. The physician must be continually on the alert and should use the drug with extra care in the presence of controlled infection and in infants at risk of infection.

Platelet Aggregation

Acuilfem, like other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, can inhibit platelet aggregation. Preterm infants should be observed for signs of bleeding. Ibuprofen has been shown to prolong bleeding time (but within the normal range) in normal adult subjects. This effect may be exaggerated in patients with underlying hemostatic defects (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Bilirubin Displacement

Ibuprofen has been shown to displace bilirubin from albumin binding-sites; therefore, it should be used with caution in patients with elevated total bilirubin.

Administration

Acuilfem should be administered carefully to avoid extravascular injection or leakage, as solution may be irritating to tissue.

Use In Specific Populations

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness have only been established in premature infants.

Effects on ability to drive and use machines

The information provided in Effects on ability to drive and use machines of Acuilfem is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acuilfem of the medicine (Ibuprofen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Effects on ability to drive and use machines in the instructions to the drug Acuilfem directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Capsules; Coated tablet; Film-coated tablet; Gel for external use; Ointment for external use; Rectal suppositories for children; Substance; Substance-powder; Substance-powder for the preparation of non-sterile dosage forms; Sugar coated tablets; Suspension for ingestion for children
Capsule, soft; Suppository; Tablets, effervescent
Syrup; Tablets of prolonged action, coated
Solution for intravenous administration

None expected at recommended doses and duration of therapy.

None expected at recommended dose and duration of therapy.

Undesirable effects such as dizziness, drowsiness, fatigue and visual disturbances are possible after taking NSAIDs. If affected, patients should not drive or operate machinery.

Not relevant

Undesirable effects

The information provided in Undesirable effects of Acuilfem is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acuilfem of the medicine (Ibuprofen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Undesirable effects in the instructions to the drug Acuilfem directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close
Capsules; Coated tablet; Film-coated tablet; Gel for external use; Ointment for external use; Rectal suppositories for children; Substance; Substance-powder; Substance-powder for the preparation of non-sterile dosage forms; Sugar coated tablets; Suspension for ingestion for children
Capsule, soft; Suppository; Tablets, effervescent
Suspension; Suspension/Drops; Tablet, Chewable
Syrup; Tablets of prolonged action, coated
Intravenous injection; Solution
Solution for intravenous administration
Injectable

Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported and these may consist of

a) Non specific allergic reactions and anaphylaxis,

b) Respiratory tract reactivity comprising asthma, aggravated asthma, bronchospasm or dyspnoea or

c) Various skin reactions, e.g. pruritus, urticaria, angioedema, and more rarely, exfoliative and bullous dermatoses (including epidermal necrolysis, and erythema multiforme).

The list of the following adverse effects relates to those experienced with Acuilfem at OTC doses, from short-term use. In chronic conditions, under long-term treatment, additional adverse effects may occur.

Infections and infestations

Very rare:

Aseptic meningitis

Blood and lymphatic disorders

Very rare:

Haematopoietic disorders (anaemia, hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia), leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, agranulocytosis). First signs are: fever, sore throat, superficial mouth ulcers, flu-like symptoms, severe exhaustion, nose and skin bleeding.

Immune system disorders

Uncommon:

Hypersensitivity reactions with urticaria and pruritus.

Very rare:

In patients with existing auto-immune disorders (such as systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective tissue disease) during treatment with Acuilfem, single cases of symptoms of aseptic meningitis, such as stiff neck, headache, nausea, vomiting, fever or disorientation have been observed.

Severe hypersensitivity reactions. Symptoms could be: facial, tongue and larynx swelling, dyspnoea, tachycardia, hypotension, (anaphylaxis, angioedema or severe shock).

Exacerbation of asthma and bronchospasm.

Psychiatric disorders

Very rare:

Nervousness

Nervous System

Uncommon:

Headache

Eye disorders

Very rare:

Visual disturbance

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Very rare:

Tinnitus and vertigo

Cardiac disorders

Very rare:

Cardiac failure

Vascular disorders

Very rare:

Hypertension

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Very rare:

Asthma, broncospasm, dyspnoea and wheezing

Gastrointestinal disorders

Uncommon:

Abdominal pain, abdominal distension, dyspepsia and nausea.

Rare:

Diarrhoea, flatulence, constipation and vomiting.

Very rare:

Peptic ulcer, perforation or gastrointestinal haemorrhage, melaena, haematemesis, sometimes fatal, particularly in the elderly. Exacerbation of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Mouth ulceration.

Hepatobiliary disorders

Very rare:

Liver disorders, especially in long-term treatment, hepatitis and jaundice.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Uncommon:

Various skin rashes.

Very rare:

Not known:

Severe forms of skin reactions such as bullous reactions, including Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, erythema multiforme and toxic epidermal necrolysis can occur.

Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome)

Renal and urinary disorders

Very rare:

Acute renal failure, papillary necrosis, especially in long-term use, associated with increased serum urea and oedema. Haematuria, interstitial nephritis, nephritic syndrome, proteinuria

General disorders and administration site conditions

Very rare:

Oedema, peripheral oedema.

Investigations

Very rare:

Decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin levels.

Clinical studies suggest that use of Acuilfem, particularly at a high dose (2400mg/day) may be associated with a small increased risk of arterial thrombotic events (for example myocardial infarction or stroke).

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.

Adverse events which have been associated with Ibuprofen are given below, listed by system organ class and frequency. Frequencies are defined as: very common (>1/10), common (>1/100 to <1/10), uncommon (>1/1000 to <1/100), rare (>1/10,000 to <1/1000), very rare (<1/10,000) and not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). Within each frequency grouping, adverse events are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.

The list of the following adverse events relates to those experienced with ibuprofen at OTC doses for short-term use. In the treatment of chronic conditions, under long-term treatment, additional adverse events may occur.

The adverse events observed most often are gastrointestinal in nature. Adverse events are mostly dose-dependent, in particular the risk of occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding is dependent on the dosage range and duration of treatment.

Clinical studies suggest that use of ibuprofen, particularly at a high dose 2400mg/day) may be associated with a small increased risk of arterial thrombotic events (for example myocardial infarction or stroke),.

System Organ Class

Frequency

Adverse Event

Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders

Very rare:

Haematopoietic disorders (anaemia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, agranulocytosis).

First signs are: fever, sore throat, superficial mouth ulcers, flu-like symptoms, severe exhaustion, unexplained bleeding and bruising.

Immune System Disorders

 

Uncommon

Very rare

 

 

 

Not Known

Hypersensitivity reactions consisting of1:

Urticaria and pruritus

Severe hypersensitivity reactions.

Symptoms could be facial, tongue and laryngeal swelling, dyspnoea, tachycardia, hypotension (anaphylaxis, angioedema or severe shock).

Respiratory tract reactivity comprising asthma, aggravated asthma, bronchospasm or dyspnoea.

Nervous System Disorders

Uncommon

Very rare

Headache

Aseptic meningitis2

Cardiac Disorders

Not Known

Cardiac failure and oedema

Vascular Disorders

Not Known

Hypertension

Gastrointestinal Disorders

Uncommon

Rare

Very rare

 

 

Not Known

Abdominal pain, nausea, dyspepsia

Diarrhoea, flatulence, constipation and vomiting

Peptic ulcer, perforation or gastrointestinal haemorrhage, melaena, haematemesis, sometimes fatal, particularly in the elderly. Ulcerative stomatitis, gastritis

Hepatobiliary Disorders

Very rare

Liver disorders

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders

Uncommon

Very rare

Various skin rashes

Severe forms of skin reactions such as bullous reactions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme and toxic epidermal necrolysis can occur.

Renal and Urinary Disorders

Very rare

 

Not Known

Acute renal failure, papillary necrosis, especially in long-term use, associated with increased serum urea and oedema.

Renal insufficiency

Investigations

Very rare

Decreased haemoglobin levels

Description of Selected Adverse Reactions

1 Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported following treatment with ibuprofen. These may consist of (a) non-specific allergic reactions and anaphylaxis, (b) respiratory tract activity comprising asthma, aggravated asthma, bronchospasm, dyspnoea or (c) assorted skin disorders, including rashes of various types pruritus, urticaria, purpura, angioedema and more rarely exfoliative and bullous dermatoses (including epidermal necrolysis and erythema multiforme).

2The pathogenic mechanism of drug-Induced aseptic meningitis is not fully understood. However, the available data on NSAID-related aseptic meningitis points to a hypersensitivity reaction (due to a temporal relationship with drug intake, and disappearance of symptoms after drug discontinuation). Of note, single cases of symptoms of aseptic meningitis (such as stiff neck, headache, nausea, vomiting, fever or disorientation) have been observed during treatment with ibuprofen, in patients with existing auto-immune disorders (such as systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective tissue disease).

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard

No information provided.

See WARNINGS Section.

Gastrointestinal disorders: The most commonly observed adverse events are gastrointestinal in nature. Peptic ulcers, perforation or GI bleeding, sometimes fatal, particularly in the elderly, may occur. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, flatulence, constipation, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, melaena, haematemesis, ulcerative stomatitis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage and exacerbation of colitis and Crohn's disease have been reported following ibuprofen administration. Less frequently, gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastrointestinal perforation have been observed.

Immune system disorders: Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported following treatment with NSAIDs. These may consist of (a) non-specific allergic reaction and anaphylaxis, (b) respiratory tract reactivity comprising asthma, aggravated asthma, bronchospasm or dyspnoea, or (c) assorted skin disorders, including rashes of various types, pruritus, urticaria, purpura, angioedema and, very rarely, erythema multiforme, bullous dermatoses (including Stevens- Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis).

Cardiac disorders and vascular disorders: Oedema, hypertension and cardiac failure have been reported in association with NSAID treatment. Clinical studies suggest that use of ibuprofen, particularly at high dose (2400 mg/day) may be associated with a small increased risk of arterial thrombotic events such as myocardial infarction or stroke .

Infections and infestations: Rhinitis and aseptic meningitis (especially in patients with existing autoimmune disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and mixed connective tissue disease) with symptoms of stiff neck, headache, nausea, vomiting, fever or disorientation.

Exacerbation of infection-related inflammations coinciding with the use of NSAIDs has been described. If signs of an infection occur or get worse during use of Ibuprofen the patient is therefore recommended to go to a doctor without delay.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: In exceptional cases, severe skin infections and soft-tissue complications may occur during a varicella infection (see also "Infections and infestations")

The following adverse reactions possibly related to ibuprofen and displayed by MedDRA frequency convention and system organ classification. Frequency groupings are classified according to the subsequent conventions: very common (>1/10), Common (>1/100 to <1/10), Uncommon (>1/1,000 to <1/100), Rare (>1/10,000 to <1/1,000), Very rare (<1/10,000) and Not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

System organ class

Frequency

Adverse reaction

Infections and infestations

Uncommon

Rhinitis

Rare

Meningitis aseptic

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Rare

Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis, aplastic anaemia , haemolytic anaemia

Immune system disorders

Rare

Anaphylactic reaction

Psychiatric disorders

Uncommon

Insomnia, anxiety

Rare

Depression, confusional state

Nervous system disorders

Common

Headache, dizziness

Uncommon

Paraesthesia, somnolence

Rare

Optic neuritis

Eye disorders

Uncommon

Visual impairment

Rare

Toxic optic neuropathy

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Uncommon

Hearing impaired , tinnitus, vertigo

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Uncommon

Asthma, bronchospasm, dyspnoea

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common

Dyspepsia, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, flatulence, constipation, melaena, haematemesis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage

Uncommon

Gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, mouth ulceration, gastrointestinal perforation

Very rare

Pancreatitis

Not known

Exacerbation of Colitis and Crohn´s disease

Hepatobiliary disorders

Uncommon

Hepatitis, jaundice, hepatic function abnormal

Very Rare

Hepatic failure

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Common

Rash

Uncommon

Urticaria, pruritus, purpura, angioedema, photosensitivity reaction

Very rare

Severe forms of skin reactions ( e.g. Erythema multiforme, bullous reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome,and toxic epidermal necrolysis)

Renal and urinary disorders

Uncommon

Nephrotoxity in various forms e.g.Tubulointerstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and renal failure

General disorders and administration site conditions

Common

Fatigue

Rare

Oedema

Cardiac disorders

Very rare

Cardiac failure, myocardial infarction

Vascular disorders

Very rare

Hypertension

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard

The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:

  • Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
  • GI Bleeding, Ulceration and Perforation
  • Hepatotoxicity
  • Hypertension
  • Heart Failure and Edema
  • Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia
  • Anaphylactic reactions
  • Serious Skin Reactions
  • Hematologic Toxicity

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be compared directly to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Adult Population

During clinical development, 560 patients were exposed to Acuilfem, 438 in pain and 122 with fever. In the pain studies, Acuilfem was started intra-operatively and administered at a dose of 400 mg or 800 mg every six hours for up to three days. In the fever studies, Acuilfem was administered at doses of 100 mg, 200 mg, or 400 mg every four or six hours for up to 3 days. The most frequent type of adverse reaction occurring with oral ibuprofen is gastrointestinal.

Pain Studies

The incidence rates of adverse reactions listed in the following table were derived from multi-center, controlled clinical studies in post-operative patients comparing Acuilfem to placebo in patients also receiving morphine as needed for post-operative pain.

Table 1: Post-operative Patients with Adverse Reactions Observed in ≥ 3% of Patients in any Acuilfem Treatment Group in Pain Studies*

Event Acuilfem Placebo
(N=287)
400 mg
(N=134)
800 mg
(N=304)
Any Reaction 118 (88%) 260 (86%) 258 (90%)
Nausea 77 (57%) 161 (53%) 179 (62%)
Vomiting 30 (22%) 46 (15%) 50 (17%)
Flatulence 10 (7%) 49 (16%) 44 (15%)
Headache 12 (9%) 35 (12%) 31 (11%)
Hemorrhage 13 (10%) 13 (4%) 16 (6%)
Dizziness 8 (6%) 13 (4%) 5 (2%)
Edema peripheral 1 ( < 1%) 9 (3%) 4 (1%)
Urinary retention 7 (5%) 10 (3%) 10 (3%)
Anemia 5 (4%) 7 (2%) 6 (2%)
Decreased hemoglobin 4 (3%) 6 (2%) 3 (1%)
Dyspepsia 6 (4%) 4 (1%) 2 ( < 1%)
Wound hemorrhage 4 (3%) 4 (1%) 4 (1%)
Abdominal discomfort 4 (3%) 2 ( < 1%) 0
Cough 4 (3%) 2 ( < 1%) 1 ( < 1%)
Hypokalemia 5 (4%) 3 ( < 1%) 8 (3%)
* All patients received concomitant morphine during these studies.

Fever Studies

Fever studies were conducted in febrile hospitalized patients with malaria and febrile hospitalized patients with varying causes of fever. In hospitalized febrile patients with malaria, the adverse reactions observed in at least two Acuilfem-treated patients included abdominal pain and nasal congestion.

In hospitalized febrile patients (all causes), adverse reactions observed in more than two patients in any given treatment group are presented in the table below.

Table 2: Patients with Adverse Reactions Observed in ≥ 3% of Patients in any Acuilfem Treatment Group in All-Cause Fever Study

Event Acuilfem Placebo
N=28
100 mg
N=30
200 mg
N=30
400 mg
N=31
Any Reaction 27 (87%) 25 (83%) 23 (74%) 25 (89%)
Anemia 5 (17%) 6 (20%) 11 (36%) 4 (14%)
Eosinophilia 7 (23%) 7 (23%) 8 (26%) 7 (25%)
Hypokalemia 4 (13%) 4 (13%) 6 (19%) 5 (18%)
Hypoproteinemia 3 (10%) 0 4 (13%) 2 (7%)
Neutropenia 2 (7%) 2 (7%) 4 (13%) 2 (7%)
Blood urea increased 0 0 3 (10%) 0
Hypernatremia 2 (7%) 0 3 (10%) 0
Hypertension 0 0 3 (10%) 0
Hypoalbuminemia 3 (10%) 1 (3%) 3 (10%) 1 (4%)
Hypotension 0 2 (7%) 3 (10%) 1 (4%)
Diarrhea 3 (10%) 3 (10%) 2 (7%) 2 (7%)
Pneumonia bacterial 3 (10%) 1 (3%) 2 (7%) 0
Blood LDH increased 3 (10%) 2 (7%) 1 (3%) 1 (4%)
Thrombocythemia 3 (10%) 2 (7%) 1 (3%) 0
Bacteremia 4 (13%) 0 0 0

Pediatric Population

A total of 143 pediatric patients ages 6 months and older have received Acuilfem in controlled clinical trials. The most common adverse reactions (incidence greater than or equal to 2%) in pediatric patients treated with Acuilfem were infusion site pain, vomiting, nausea, anemia and headache.

Data are currently available on approximately 1,000 preterm newborn from both the literature concerning ibuprofen and clinical trials with Acuilfem. Causality of adverse events reported in the preterm newborn is difficult to assess since they may be related to the haemodynamic consequences of the patent ductus arteriosus as well as to direct effects of ibuprofen.

Reported adverse reactions are listed below, by system organ class and by frequency. Frequencies are defined as: very common (> 1/10), common (>1/100, <1/10) and uncommon (>1/1,000, <1/100).

Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Very common: Thrombocytopenia, Neutropenia

Nervous system disorders

Common: Intraventricular haemorrhage, Periventricular leukomalacia

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Very common: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia*

Common: Pulmonary haemorrhage

Uncommon: Hypoxemia*

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common: Necrotizing enterocolitis, Intestinal perforation

Uncommon: Gastrointestinal haemorrhage

Unknown: Gastric perforation

Renal and urinary disorders

Common: Oliguria, Fluid retention, Haematuria

Uncommon: Acute renal failure

Investigations

Very Common: Blood creatinine increased, Blood sodium decreased

* see below

In a clinical curative trial involving 175 preterm newborn infants less than 35 weeks of gestational age, the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia at 36 weeks post-conceptional age was 13/81 (16%) for indomethacin versus 23/94 (24%) for ibuprofen.

In a clinical trial where Acuilfem was administered prophylactically during the first 6 hours of life, severe hypoxemia with pulmonary hypertension was reported in 3 newborn infants less than 28 weeks of gestational age. This occurred within one hour of the first infusion and was reversed within 30 minutes after the inhalation of nitric oxide. There have also been post-marketing reports of pulmonary hypertension where Acuilfem was administered to premature neonates in the therapeutic setting.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via

United Kingdom

Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard

Ireland

HPRA Pharmacovigilance

Earlsfort Terrace

Dublin 2

Ireland

Tel: +353 1 6764971

Fax: +353 1 6762517

Website: www.hpra.ie

e-mail: medsafety@hpra.ie

Clinical Trials Experience

The most frequently reported adverse events with Acuilfem were as shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Adverse Events within 30 Days of Therapy in the Multicenter Study*

Adverse Event % Incidence
Acuilfem Placebo
Sepsis 43 37
Anemia 32 25
Total Bleeding** 32 29
  Intraventricular Hemorrhage, Grades 1/2 15 13
  Intraventricular Hemorrhage, Grades 3/4 15 10
  Other Bleeding 6 13
Intraventricular Hemorrhage, All Grades 29 24
Apnea 28 26
Gastrointestinal Disorders 22 18
  non-Necrotizing Enterocolitis    
Total Renal Events** 21 15
  Renal Failure 1 3
  Renal Insufficiency, Impairment 6 4
  Urine Output Reduced 3 1
  Blood Creatinine Increased 3 1
  Blood Urea Increased with Hematuria 1 1
  Blood Urea Increased 7 4
Respiratory Infection 19 13
Skin Lesion/Irritation 16 6
Hypoglycemia 12 6
Hypocalcemia 12 9
Respiratory Failure 10 4
Urinary Tract Infection 9 4
Adrenal Insufficiency 7 1
Hypernatremia 7 4
Edema 4 0
Atelectasis 4 1
* Within 30 days of therapy, with an event rate greater on Acuilfem than on placebo, and greater than 2 events on Acuilfem.
** A given subject may have experienced more than one specific event within these adverse event categories.
Only the most severe grade of IVH counted for a given subject.

Renal Function

Compared to placebo, there was a small decrease in urinary output in the ibuprofen group on days 2-6 of life, with a compensatory increase in urine output on day 9. In other studies, adverse events classified as renal insufficiency including oliguria, elevated BUN, elevated creatinine, or renal failure were reported in ibuprofen treated infants.

Additional Adverse Events

The adverse events reported in the multicenter study and of unknown association include tachycardia, cardiac failure, abdominal distension, gastroesophageal reflux, gastritis, ileus, inguinal hernia, injection site reactions, cholestasis, various infections, feeding problems, convulsions, jaundice, hypotension, and various laboratory abnormalities including neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and hyperglycemia.

Post-Marketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified from spontaneous post-marketing reports or published literature: gastrointestinal perforation, necrotizing enterocolitis, and pulmonary hypertension. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency, or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Overdose

The information provided in Overdose of Acuilfem is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acuilfem of the medicine (Ibuprofen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Overdose in the instructions to the drug Acuilfem directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Capsules; Coated tablet; Film-coated tablet; Gel for external use; Ointment for external use; Rectal suppositories for children; Substance; Substance-powder; Substance-powder for the preparation of non-sterile dosage forms; Sugar coated tablets; Suspension for ingestion for children
Capsule, soft; Suppository; Tablets, effervescent
Suspension; Suspension/Drops; Tablet, Chewable
Syrup; Tablets of prolonged action, coated
Intravenous injection; Solution
Solution for intravenous administration
Injectable

In children ingestion of more than 400mg/kg may cause symptoms. In adults the dose response effect is less clear cut. The half-life in overdose is 1.5-3 hours.

Symptoms

Most patients who have ingested clinically important amounts of NSAIDs will develop no more than nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, or more rarely diarrhoea. Tinnitus, headache and gastrointestinal bleeding are also possible. In more serious poisoning, toxicity is seen in the central nervous system, manifesting as vertigo, headache, respiratory depression, dyspnoea, drowsiness, occasionally excitation and disorientation or coma. Occasionally patents develop convulsions. In serious poisoning, hypotension, hyperkalaemia, and metabolic acidosis may occur and the prothrombin time / INR may be prolonged, probably due to interference with the actions of circulating clotting factors. Acute renal failure and liver damage may occur. Exacerbation of asthma is possible in asthmatics.

Management

Should be symptomatic and supportive and include maintenance of a clear airway and monitoring of cardiac and vital signs until stable. Consider oral administration of activated charcoal if the patient presents within 1 hour of ingestion of a potentially toxic amount. If frequent or prolonged, convulsions should be treated with intravenous diazepam or lorazepam. Give bronchodilators for asthma.

In children ingestion of more than 400mg/kg may cause symptoms. In adults the dose response effect is less clear cut. The half-life in overdose is 1.5-3 hours.

Symptoms:

Most patients who have ingested clinically important amounts of NSAIDs will develop no more than nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, or more rarely diarrhoea. Tinnitus, headache and gastrointestinal bleeding are also possible. In more serious poisoning, toxicity is seen in the central nervous system, manifesting as drowsiness, occasionally excitation and disorientation or coma. Occasionally patients develop convulsions. In serious poisoning metabolic acidosis may occur and the prothrombin time/INR may be prolonged, probably due to interference with the actions of circulating clotting factors. Acute renal failure and liver damage may occur. Exacerbation of asthma is possible in asthmatics.

Management:

Management should be symptomatic and supportive and include the maintenance of a clear airway and monitoring of cardiac and vital signs until stable. Consider oral administration of activated charcoal if the patient presents within 1 hour of ingestion of a potentially toxic amount. If frequent or prolonged, convulsions should be treated with intravenous diazepam or lorazepam. Give bronchodilators for asthma.

In case of overdose, get medical help or contact a Poison Control Center right away.

Toxicity

Signs and symptoms of toxicity have generally not been observed at doses below 100 mg/kg in children or adults. However, supportive care may be needed in some cases. Children have been observed to manifest signs and symptoms of toxicity after ingestion of 400 mg/kg or greater.

Symptoms

Most patients who have ingested significant amounts of ibuprofen will manifest symptoms within 4 to 6 hours.

The most frequently reported symptoms of overdose include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, lethargy and drowsiness. Central nervous system (CNS) effects include headache, tinnitus, dizziness, convulsion, and loss of consciousness. Nystagmus, metabolic acidosis, hypothermia, renal effects, gastrointestinal bleeding, coma, apnoea, diarrhoea and depression of the CNS and respiratory system have also been rarely reported. Disorientation, excitation, fainting and cardiovascular toxicity, including hypotension, bradycardia and tachycardia have been reported. In cases of significant overdose, renal failure and liver damage are possible. Large overdoses are generally well tolerated when no other drugs are being taken.

Therapeutic measures

Patients should be treated symptomatically as required. Within one hour of ingestion of a potentially toxic amount, activated charcoal should be considered. Alternatively, in adults, gastric lavage should be considered within one hour of ingestion of a potentially life-threatening overdose.

Good urine output should be ensured.

Renal and liver function should be closely monitored.

Patients should be observed for at least four hours after ingestion of potentially toxic amounts.

Frequent or prolonged convulsions should be treated with intravenous diazepam. Other measures may be indicated by the patient's clinical condition.

Symptoms following acute NSAID overdosages have been typically limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which have been generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding has occurred. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression, and coma have occurred, but were rare.

Manage patients with symptomatic and supportive care following an NSAID overdosage. There are no specific antidotes. Forced diuresis, alkalinization of urine, hemodialysis, or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding.

For additional information about overdosage treatment contact a poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.

No case of overdose has been reported with intravenous ibuprofen in preterm newborn infants.

However, overdose has been described in infants and children administered oral ibuprofen: CNS depression, seizures, gastrointestinal disturbances, bradycardia, hypotension, apnoea, abnormal renal function, haematuria have been observed.

Massive overdose (up to more than 1000 mg/kg) has been reported to induce coma, metabolic acidosis, and transient renal failure. All patients recovered with conventional treatment. Only one recorded death has been published: after an overdose of 469 mg/kg, a 16-month old child developed an apnoeic episode with seizures and a fatal aspiration pneumonia.

The management of ibuprofen overdose is primarily supportive.

The following signs and symptoms have occurred in individuals (not necessarily in premature infants) following an overdose of oral ibuprofen: breathing difficulties, coma, drowsiness, irregular heartbeat, kidney failure, low blood pressure, seizures, and vomiting. There are no specific measures to treat acute overdosage with Acuilfem. The patient should be followed for several days because gastrointestinal ulceration and hemorrhage may occur.

Pharmacodynamic properties

The information provided in Pharmacodynamic properties of Acuilfem is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acuilfem of the medicine (Ibuprofen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacodynamic properties in the instructions to the drug Acuilfem directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Capsules; Coated tablet; Film-coated tablet; Gel for external use; Ointment for external use; Rectal suppositories for children; Substance; Substance-powder; Substance-powder for the preparation of non-sterile dosage forms; Sugar coated tablets; Suspension for ingestion for children
Capsule, soft; Suppository; Tablets, effervescent
Syrup; Tablets of prolonged action, coated
Solution for intravenous administration

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Propionic acid derivatives.

ATC Code: M01AE

Acuilfem is a phenylpropionic acid derivative NSAID that has demonstrated its efficacy by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. In humans, Acuilfem reduces inflammatory pain, swelling and fever. Furthermore, Acuilfem reversibly inhibits platelet aggregation.

Experimental data suggest that Acuilfem may competitively inhibit the effect of low dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) on platelet aggregation when they are dosed concomitantly. Some pharmacodynamics studies show that when single doses of Acuilfem 400mg were taken within 30 min after immediate release aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) dosing (81 mg), a decreased effect of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) on the formation of thromboxane or platelet aggregation occurred. Although there are uncertainties regarding extrapolation of these data to the clinical situation, the possibility that regular, long-term use of Acuilfem may reduce the cardioprotective effect of low-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) cannot be excluded. No clinically relevant effect is considered to be likely for occasional Acuilfem use.

ATC Code: M01AE01

Ibuprofen is a propionic acid derivative NSAID that has demonstrated its efficacy by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. In humans, ibuprofen reduces inflammatory pain, swellings and fever. Furthermore, ibuprofen reversibly inhibits platelet aggregation.

Experimental data suggest that ibuprofen may competitively inhibit the effect of low dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) on platelet aggregation when they are dosed concomitantly. Some pharmacodynamics studies show that when single doses of ibuprofen 400mg were taken within 8 h before or within 30 min after immediate release aspirin dosing (81mg), a decreased effect of (acetylsalicylic acid) on the formation of thromboxane or platelet aggregation occurred. Although there are uncertainties regarding extrapolation of these data to the clinical situation, the possibility that regular, long-term use of ibuprofen may reduce the cardioprotective effect of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid cannot be excluded. No clinically relevant effect is considered to be likely for occasional ibuprofen use.

Pharmacotherapeutic classification: Anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, nonsteroidal; propionic acid derivatives.

ATC code: M01AE01

Ibuprofen is a propionic acid derivative with analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity. The drug's therapeutic effect as an NSAID is thought to result from its inhibitory effect on the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase, which results in a marked reduction in prostaglandin synthesis.

Experimental data suggest that ibuprofen may competitively inhibit the effect of low dose aspirin on platelet aggregation when they are dosed concomitantly. Some pharmacodynamic studies show that when single doses of ibuprofen 400mg were taken within 8 hours before or within 30 minutes after immediate release aspirin dosing (81mg), a decreased effect of aspirin on the formation of thromboxane or platelet aggregation occurred. Although there are uncertainties regarding extrapolation of these data to the clinical situation, the possibility that regular, long-term use of ibuprofen may reduce the cardioprotective effect of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid cannot be excluded. No clinically relevant effect is considered to be likely for occasional ibuprofen use.

Pharmacotherapeutic group: other cardiac preparations, ATC code: C01 EB16

Ibuprofen is a NSAID that possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity. Ibuprofen is a racemic mixture of S(+) and R(-) enantiomers. In vivo and in vitro studies indicate that the S(+) isomer is responsible for the clinical activity. Ibuprofen is a non selective inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase, leading to reduced synthesis of prostaglandins.

Since prostaglandins are involved in the persistence of the ductus arteriosus after birth, this effect is believed to be the main mechanism of action of ibuprofen in this indication.

In a dose-response study of Acuilfem in 40 preterm newborn infants, the ductus arteriosus closure rate associated to the 10-5-5 mg/kg dose regimen was 75% (6/8) in neonates of 27-29 weeks' gestation and 33% (2/6) in neonates of 24-26 weeks' gestation.

Prophylactic use of Acuilfem in the first 3 days of life (starting within 6 hours of birth) in preterm newborn infants less than 28 weeks of gestational age was associated with increased incidence of renal failure and pulmonary adverse events including hypoxia, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary haemorrhage, as compared to curative use. Conversely, a lower incidence of neonatal grade III-IV intraventricular haemorrhage and of surgical ligation was associated with prophylactic use of Acuilfem.

Pharmacokinetic properties

The information provided in Pharmacokinetic properties of Acuilfem is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acuilfem of the medicine (Ibuprofen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacokinetic properties in the instructions to the drug Acuilfem directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Capsules; Coated tablet; Film-coated tablet; Gel for external use; Ointment for external use; Rectal suppositories for children; Substance; Substance-powder; Substance-powder for the preparation of non-sterile dosage forms; Sugar coated tablets; Suspension for ingestion for children
Capsule, soft; Suppository; Tablets, effervescent
Syrup; Tablets of prolonged action, coated
Intravenous injection; Solution
Solution for intravenous administration

Acuilfem is rapidly absorbed following administration and is rapidly distributed throughout the whole body. The excretion is rapid and complete via the kidneys.

Maximum plasma concentrations are reached 45 minutes after ingestion if taken on an empty stomach. When taken with food, peak levels are observed after 1 to 2 hours. These times may vary with different dosage forms.

The half life of Acuilfem is about 2 hours.

In limited studies, Acuilfem appears in the breast milk in very low concentrations.

Ibuprofen is rabidly absorbed following administration and is rapidly distributed throughout the whole body. The excretion is rapid and complete via the kidneys.

Maximum plasma concentrations are reached 45 minutes after ingestion if taken on an empty stomach. When taken with food, peak levels are observed after 1 to 2 hours. These times may vary with different dosage forms.

Elimination half-life is approximately 2 hours.

In limited studies, ibuprofen appears in the breast milk in very low concentrations.

The pharmacokinetic profile of Acuilfem compared with that of conventional-release 400mg tablets showed that the sustained-release formulation reduced the peaks and troughs characteristic of the conventional-release tablets and gave higher levels at 5, 10, 15 and 24 hours. Compared with conventional-release tablets, the area under the plasma concentration time curve for sustained-release tablets was almost identical.

Both mean plasma profiles and the pre-dose plasma levels showed no major differences between the young and elderly age groups. In several studies, Acuilfem produced a double peak plasma profile when taken under fasting conditions. The elimination half-life of ibuprofen is approximately 2 hours. Ibuprofen is metabolised in the liver to two inactive metabolites and these, together with unchanged ibuprofen, are excreted by the kidney either as such or as conjugates. Excretion by the kidney is both rapid and complete. Ibuprofen is extensively bound to plasma proteins.

Ibuprofen is a racemic mixture of [-]R- and [+]S-isomers. In vivo and in vitro studies indicate that the [+]S-isomer is responsible for clinical activity. The [-]R-form, while thought to be pharmacologically inactive, is slowly and incompletely (~60%) interconverted into the active [+]S species in adults. The [-]R-isomer serves as a circulating reservoir to maintain levels of active drug. The pharmacokinetic parameters of Acuilfem determined in a study with volunteers are presented below.

Table 4: Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Intravenous Ibuprofen

  400 mg* Acuilfem Mean (CV%) 800 mg* Acuilfem Mean (CV%)
Number of Patients 12 12
AUC (mcg•h/mL) 109.3 (26.4) 192.8 (18.5)
Cmax (mcg/mL) 39.2 (15.5) 72.6 (13.2)
KEL (1/h) 0.32 (17.9) 0.29 (12.8)
T½ (h) 2.22 (20.1) 2.44 (12.9)
AUC = Area-under-the-curve
Cmax = Peak plasma concentration
CV = Coefficient of Variation
KEL = First-order elimination rate constant
T½ = Elimination half-life
* = 60 minute infusion time

The pharmacokinetic parameters of Acuilfem determined in a study with febrile pediatric patients are presented in Table 5. It was observed that the median Tmax was at the end of the infusion and that Acuilfem had a shorter elimination half-life in pediatric patients compared to adults. The volume of distribution and clearance increased with age.

Table 5: Pharmacokinetic Parameters of 10 mg/kg Intravenous Ibuprofen, Pediatric Patients, by Age Group

  6 months to < 2 years Mean (CV%) 2 years to < 6 years Mean (CV%) 6 years to 16 years Mean (CV%)
Number of Patients 5 12 25
AUC (mcgh/mL) 71.1 (37.1) 79.2 (37.0) 80.7 (36.9)
Cmax (mcg/mL) 59.2 (34.8) 64.2 (34.3) 61.9 (26.6)
Tmax (min)* 10 (10-30) 12 (10-46) 10 (10-40)
T½ (h) 1.8 (29.9) 1.5 (41.8) 1.55 (26.4)
Cl (mL/h) 1172.5 (38.9) 1967.3 (56.0) 4878.5 (71.0)
Vz (mL) 2805.7 (20.1) 3695.8 (30.0) 10314.2 (67.4)
Cl/WT# (mL/hr/kg) 133.7 (58.6) 130.1 (82.4) 109.2 (41.6)
Vz/WT# (mL/kg) 311.2 (35.4) 227.2 (41.7) 226.8 (30.4)
*Median (minimum-maximum)
#WT: body weight (kg)

Ibuprofen, like most NSAIDs, is highly protein bound ( > 99% bound at 20 mcg/mL). Protein binding is saturable, and at concentrations > 20 mcg/mL binding is nonlinear. Based on oral dosing data, there is an age- or fever-related change in volume of distribution for ibuprofen.

Distribution

Although a great variability is observed in the premature population, peak plasma concentrations are measured around 35-40 mg/l after the initial loading dose of 10 mg/kg as well as after the last maintenance dose, whatever gestational and postnatal age. Residual concentrations are around 10-15 mg/l 24 hours after the last dose of 5 mg/kg.

Plasma concentrations of the S-enantiomer are much higher than those of the R-enantiomer, which reflects a rapid chiral inversion of the R- to the S-form in a proportion similar to adults (about 60%).

The apparent volume of distribution is on average 200 ml/kg (62 to 350 according to various studies). The central volume of distribution may depend on the status of the ductus and decrease as the ductus closes.

In vitro studies suggest that, similarly to other NSAIDs, ibuprofen is highly bound to plasma albumin, although this seems to be significantly lower (95 %) compared with adult plasma (99 %). Ibuprofen competes with bilirubin for albumin binding in newborn infant serum and, as a consequence, the free fraction of bilirubin may be increased at high ibuprofen concentrations.

Elimination

Elimination rate is markedly lower than in older children and adults, with an elimination half-life estimated at approximately 30 hours (16-43). The clearance of both enantiomers increases with gestational age, at least in the range of 24 to 28 weeks.

PK-PD relationship

In preterm newborns ibuprofen significantly reduced plasma concentrations of prostaglandins and their metabolites, particularly PGE2 and 6-keto-PGF-1-alpha. Low levels were sustained up to 72 hours in neonates who received 3 doses of ibuprofen, whereas subsequent re-increases were observed at 72 hours after only 1 dose of ibuprofen.

Pharmacotherapeutic group

The information provided in Pharmacotherapeutic group of Acuilfem is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acuilfem of the medicine (Ibuprofen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacotherapeutic group in the instructions to the drug Acuilfem directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Capsules; Coated tablet; Film-coated tablet; Gel for external use; Ointment for external use; Rectal suppositories for children; Substance; Substance-powder; Substance-powder for the preparation of non-sterile dosage forms; Sugar coated tablets; Suspension for ingestion for children
Solution for intravenous administration
Propionic acid derivatives.
other cardiac preparations, ATC code: C01 EB16

Preclinical safety data

The information provided in Preclinical safety data of Acuilfem is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acuilfem of the medicine (Ibuprofen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Preclinical safety data in the instructions to the drug Acuilfem directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Capsules; Coated tablet; Film-coated tablet; Gel for external use; Ointment for external use; Rectal suppositories for children; Substance; Substance-powder; Substance-powder for the preparation of non-sterile dosage forms; Sugar coated tablets; Suspension for ingestion for children
Capsule, soft; Suppository; Tablets, effervescent
Syrup; Tablets of prolonged action, coated
Solution for intravenous administration

No relevant information additional to that already contained elsewhere in the SmPC.

No relevant information, additional to that contained elsewhere in the SPC.

None stated.

There are no preclinical data considered relevant to clinical safety beyond data included in other sections of this Summary of Product Characteristics. With the exception of an acute toxicity study, no further studies have been carried out in juvenile animals with Acuilfem.

Incompatibilities

The information provided in Incompatibilities of Acuilfem is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acuilfem of the medicine (Ibuprofen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Incompatibilities in the instructions to the drug Acuilfem directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Capsules; Coated tablet; Film-coated tablet; Gel for external use; Ointment for external use; Rectal suppositories for children; Substance; Substance-powder; Substance-powder for the preparation of non-sterile dosage forms; Sugar coated tablets; Suspension for ingestion for children
Capsule, soft; Suppository; Tablets, effervescent
Syrup; Tablets of prolonged action, coated
Solution for intravenous administration

None known.

Not applicable

None.

Acuilfem solution must not be in contact with any acidic solution such as certain antibiotics or diuretics. A rinse of the infusion line must be performed between each product administration.

Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The information provided in Special precautions for disposal and other handling of Acuilfem is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acuilfem of the medicine (Ibuprofen). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special precautions for disposal and other handling in the instructions to the drug Acuilfem directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Capsules; Coated tablet; Film-coated tablet; Gel for external use; Ointment for external use; Rectal suppositories for children; Substance; Substance-powder; Substance-powder for the preparation of non-sterile dosage forms; Sugar coated tablets; Suspension for ingestion for children
Capsule, soft; Suppository; Tablets, effervescent
Syrup; Tablets of prolonged action, coated
Solution for intravenous administration

Not applicable.

Not applicable

None.

Administrative data

As for all parenteral products, ampoules of Acuilfem should be visually inspected for particulate matter and the integrity of the container prior to use. Ampoules are intended for single use only, any unused portions must be discarded.

Chlorhexidine must not be used to disinfect the neck of the ampoule as it is not compatible with the Acuilfem solution. Therefore, for asepsis of the ampoule before use, ethanol 60% or isopropyl alcohol 70% is recommended.

When disinfecting the neck of the ampoule with an antiseptic, to avoid any interaction with the Acuilfem solution, the ampoule must be completely dry before it is opened.

The required volume to be given to the infant should be determined according to body weight, and should be injected intravenously as a short infusion over 15 minutes, preferably undiluted.

Use only sodium chloride 9 mg/ml (0.9%) solution for injection or glucose 50 mg/ml (5%) solution to adjust injection volume.

The total volume of solution injected to preterm infants should take into account the total daily fluid volume administered. A maximal volume of 80 ml/kg/day on the first day of life should usually be respected; this should be progressively increased in the following 1-2 weeks (about 20 ml/kg birthweight/day) up to a maximal volume of 180 ml/kg birthweight/day.

Before and after administration of Acuilfem, to avoid contact with any acidic solution, rinse the infusion line over 15 minutes with 1.5 to 2 ml of either sodium chloride 9 mg/ml (0.9%) or glucose 50 mg/ml (5%), solution for injection.

After first opening of an ampoule, any unused portions must be discarded.

Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

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