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Components:
Erythromycin
Method of action:
Antiacne, Antibiotic Combination, Bacteriostatic
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Medically reviewed by Oliinyk Elizabeth Ivanovna, Pharmacy. Last updated on 2019.09.15

Name of the medicinal product

Acne

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Erythromycin

Therapeutic indications

The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Acne is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acne of the medicine (Erythromycin). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Therapeutic indications in the instructions to the drug Acne directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Enteric coated tablets; Eye ointment; Lyophilizate for the preparation of a solution for intravenous administration; Ointment for external use; Substance-powder
Ointment; Ophthalmic ointment; Tablet, Delayed Release
Granule; Tablet, Chewable
Injectable
Tablet, Coated Particles
Capsule, Delayed Rel Pellets
Gel

Acne is indicated for the treatment / prophylaxis of infections caused by Acne-sensitive organisms:-

- upper and lower respiratory tract infections

- Skin and soft tissue infections

- bone infections

- gastro -intestinal infections

- oral/dental infections

- eye infections

- sexually transmitted diseases

- prophylaxis of whooping cough and diphtheria

- as an alternative to penicillin for staphylococcal infections in sensitive patients

Consideration should be given to official guidance on the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents

For the treatment of superficial ocular infections involving the conjunctiva and/or cornea caused by organisms susceptible to erythromycin.

For prophylaxis of ophthalmia neonatorum due to N. gonorrhoeae or C. trachomatis.

The effectiveness of erythromycin in the prevention of ophthalmia caused by penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae is not established.

For infants born to mothers with clinically apparent gonorrhea, intravenous or intramuscular injections of aqueous crystalline penicillin G should be given; a single dose of 50,000 units for term infants or 20,000 units for infants of low birth weight. Topical prophylaxis alone is inadequate for these infants.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Ery-Ped and other antibacterial drugs, Ery-Ped should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Ery-Ped is indicated in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated organisms in the diseases listed below:

Upper respiratory tract infections of mild to moderate degree caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae,or Haemophilus influenzae (when used concomitantly with adequate doses of sulfonamides, since many strains of H. influenzae are not susceptible to the erythromycin concentrations ordinarily achieved). (See appropriate sulfonamide labeling for prescribing information.)

Lower-respiratory tract infections of mild to moderate severity caused by Streptococcus pneumonia or Streptococcus pyogenes.

Listeriosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes.

Pertussis (whooping cough) caused by Bordetella pertussis. Erythromycin is effective in eliminating the organism from the nasopharynx of infected individuals rendering them noninfectious. Some clinical studies suggest that erythromycin may be helpful in the prophylaxis of pertussis in exposed susceptible individuals.

Respiratory tract infections due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

Skin and skin structure infections of mild to moderate severity caused by Streptococcus pyogenes or Staphylococcus aureus (resistant staphylococci may emerge during treatment).

Diphtheria: Infections due to Corynebacterium diphtheriae, as an adjunct to antitoxin, to prevent establishment of carriers and to eradicate the organism in carriers.

Erythrasma: In the treatment of infections due to Corynebacterium minutissimum. Intestinal amebiasis caused by Entamoebahistolytica (oral erythromycins only). Extra enteric amebiasis requires treatment with other agents. Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae: As an alternative drug in treatment of acute pelvic inflammatory disease caused by N. gonorrhoeae in female patients with a history of sensitivity to penicillin. Patients should have a serologic test for syphilis before receiving erythromycin as treatment of gonorrhea and a follow-up serologic test for syphilis after 3 months.

Syphilis Caused by Treponemapallidum: Erythromycin is an alternate choice of treatment for primary syphilis in penicillin-allergic patients. In primary syphilis, spinal fluid examinations should be done before treatment and as part of follow-up after therapy.

Erythromycins are indicated for the treatment of the following infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis: Conjunctivitis of the newborn, pneumonia of infancy, and urogenital infections during pregnancy. When tetracyclines are contraindicated or not tolerated, erythromycin is indicated for the treatment of uncomplicated urethral, endocervical, or rectal infections in adults due to Chlamydia trachomatis.

When tetracyclines are contraindicated or not tolerated, erythromycin is indicated for the treatment of nongonococcal urethritis caused by Urea plasma urealyticum.

Legionnaires' Disease caused by Legionella pneumophila. Although no controlled clinical efficacy studies have been conducted, in vitro and limited preliminary clinical data suggest that erythromycin may be effective in treating Legionnaires' Disease.

Prophylaxis

Prevention of Initial Attacks of Rheumatic Fever

Penicillin is considered by the American Heart Association to be the drug of choice in the prevention of initial attacks of rheumatic fever (treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes infections of the upper respiratory tract, e.g., tonsillitis or pharyngitis). Erythromycin is indicated for the treatment of penicillin-allergic patients.4 The therapeutic dose should be administered for 10 days.

Prevention of Recurrent Attacks of Rheumatic Fever

Penicillin or sulfonamides are considered by the American Heart Association to be the drugs of choice in the prevention of recurrent attacks of rheumatic fever. In patients who are allergic to penicillin and sulfonamides, oral erythromycin is recommended by the American Heart Association in the long-term prophylaxis of Streptococcal pharyngitis (for the prevention of recurrent attacks of rheumatic fever).4

For the prophylaxis and treatment of infections caused by erythromycin-sensitive organisms.

Erythromycin is highly effective in the treatment of a great variety of clinical infections such as:

1. Upper Respiratory Tract infections: tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, pharyngitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, secondary infections in influenza and common colds

2. Lower Respiratory Tract infections: tracheitis, acute and chronic bronchitis, pneumonia (lobar pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, primary atypical pneumonia), bronchiectasis, Legionnaire's disease

3. Ear infection: otitis media and otitis externa, mastoiditis

4. Oral infections: gingivitis, Vincent's angina

5. Eye infections: blepharitis

6. Skin and soft tissue infections: boils and carbuncles, paronychia, abscesses, pustular acne, impetigo, cellulitis, erysipelas

7. Gastrointestinal infections: cholecystitis, staphylococcal enterocolitis

8. Prophylaxis: pre- and post- operative trauma, burns, rheumatic fever

9. Other infections: osteomyelitis, urethritis, gonorrhoea, syphilis, lymphogranuloma venereum, diphtheria, prostatitis, scarlet fever

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Acne tablets and other antibacterial drugs, Acne tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Acne tablets are indicated in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the diseases listed below:

Upper respiratory tract infections of mild to moderate degree caused by Streptococcus pyogenes; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Haemophilus influenzae (when used concomitantly with adequate doses of sulfonamides, since many strains of H. influenzae are not susceptible to the erythromycin concentrations ordinarily achieved). (See appropriate sulfonamide labeling for prescribing information.)

Lower respiratory tract infections of mild to moderate severity caused by Streptococcus pyogenes or Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Listeriosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes.

Respiratory tract infections due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

Skin and skin structure infections of mild to moderate severity caused by Streptococcus pyogenes or Staphylococcus aureus (resistant staphylococci may emerge during treatment).

Pertussis (whooping cough) caused by Bordetella pertussis. Erythromycin is effective in eliminating the organism from the nasopharynx of infected individuals, rendering them noninfectious. Some clinical studies suggest that erythromycin may be helpful in the prophylaxis of pertussis in exposed susceptible individuals.

Diphtheria: Infections due to Corynebacterium diphtheriae, as an adjunct to antitoxin, to prevent establishment of carriers and to eradicate the organism in carriers.

Erythrasma: In the treatment of infections due to Corynebacterium minutissimum.

Intestinal amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica (oral erythromycins only). Extraenteric amebiasis requires treatment with other agents.

Acute pelvic inflammatory disease caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Erythrocin® Lactobionate-I.V. (erythromycin lactobionate for injection, USP) followed by erythromycin base orally, as an alternative drug in treatment of acute pelvic inflammatory disease caused by N. gonorrhoeae in female patients with a history of sensitivity to penicillin. Patients should have a serologic test for syphilis before receiving erythromycin as treatment of gonorrhea and a follow-up serologic test for syphilis after 3 months.

Erythromycins are indicated for treatment of the following infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis: conjunctivitis of the newborn, pneumonia of infancy, and urogenital infections during pregnancy. When tetracyclines are contraindicated or not tolerated, erythromycin is indicated for the treatment of uncomplicated urethral, endocervical, or rectal infections in adults due to Chlamydia trachomatis.

When tetracyclines are contraindicated or not tolerated, erythromycin is indicated for the treatment of nongonococcal urethritis caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum.

Primary syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum. Erythromycin (oral forms only) is an alternative choice of treatment for primary syphilis in patients allergic to the penicillins. In treatment of primary syphilis, spinal fluid should be examined before treatment and as part of the follow-up after therapy.

Legionnaires' Disease caused by Legionella pneumophila. Although no controlled clinical efficacy studies have been conducted, in vitro and limited preliminary clinical data suggest that erythromycin may be effective in treating Legionnaires' Disease.

Prophylaxis

Prevention of Initial Attacks of Rheumatic Fever

Penicillin is considered by the American Heart Association to be the drug of choice in the prevention of initial attacks of rheumatic fever (treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes infections of the upper respiratory tract e.g., tonsillitis, or pharyngitis).4 Erythromycin is indicated for the treatment of penicillin-allergic patients. The therapeutic dose should be administered for ten days.

Prevention of Recurrent Attacks of Rheumatic Fever

Penicillin or sulfonamides are considered by the American Heart Association to be the drugs of choice in the prevention of recurrent attacks of rheumatic fever. In patients who are allergic to penicillin and sulfonamides, oral erythromycin is recommended by the American Heart Association in the long-term prophylaxis of streptococcal pharyngitis (for the prevention of recurrent attacks of rheumatic fever).4

Erythromycin is indicated in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated organisms in the diseases listed below:

Upper respiratory tract infections of mild to moderate degree caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Haemophilus influenzae (when used concomitantly with adequate doses of sulfonamides, since many strains of H. influenzae are not susceptible to the erythromycin concentrations ordinarily achieved) (see appropriate sulfonamide labeling for prescribing information).

Lower respiratory tract infections of mild to moderate severity caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae or Streptococcus pyogenes.

Listeriosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes.

Pertussis (whooping cough) caused by Bordetella pertussis. Erythromycin is effective in eliminating the organism from the nasopharynx of infected individuals rendering them noninfectious. Some clinical studies suggest that erythromycin may be helpful in the prophylaxis of pertussis in exposed susceptible individuals.

Respiratory tract infections due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

Skin and skin structure infections of mild to moderate severity caused by Streptococcus pyogenes or Staphylococcus aureus (resistant staphylococci may emerge during treatment).

Diphtheria: Infections due to Corynebacterium diphtheriae, as an adjunct to antitoxin, to prevent establishment of carriers and to eradicate the organism in carriers.

Erythrasma: In the treatment of infections due to Corynebacterium minutissimum.

Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum: Erythromycin is an alternate choice of treatment for primary syphilis in penicillin-allergic patients. In primary syphilis, spinal fluid examinations should be done before treatment and as part of follow-up after therapy.

Intestinal amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica (oral erythromycins only). Extraenteric amebiasis requires treatment with other agents.

Acute pelvic inflammatory disease caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Erythromycin lactobionate for injection, USP followed by erythromycin base orally, as an alternative drug in treatment of acute pelvic inflammatory disease caused by N. gonorrhoeae in female patients with a history of sensitivity to penicillin. Patients should have a serologic test for syphilis before receiving erythromycin as treatment of gonorrhea and a follow-up serologic test for syphilis after 3 months.

Erythromycins are indicated for the treatment of the following infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis: conjunctivitis of the newborn, pneumonia of infancy, and urogenital infections during pregnancy. When tetracyclines are contraindicated or not tolerated, erythromycin is indicated for the treatment of uncomplicated urethral, endocervical, or rectal infections in adults due to Chlamydia trachomatis.

When tetracyclines are contraindicated or not tolerated, erythromycin is indicated for the treatment of nongonococcal urethritis caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum.

Legionnaires' Disease caused by Legionella pneumophila. Although no controlled clinical efficacy studies have been conducted, in vitro and limited preliminary clinical data suggest that erythromycin may be effective in treating Legionnaires' Disease.

Prophylaxis

Prevention of Initial Attacks of Rheumatic Fever: Penicillin is considered by the American Heart Association to be the drug of choice in the prevention of initial attacks of rheumatic fever (treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes infections of the upper respiratory tract, e.g., tonsillitis or pharyngitis). Erythromycin is indicated for the treatment of penicillin-allergic patients.3 The therapeutic dose should be administered for ten days.

Prevention of Recurrent Attacks of Rheumatic Fever: Penicillin or sulfonamides are considered by the American Heart Association to be the drugs of choice in the prevention of recurrent attacks of rheumatic fever. In patients who are allergic to penicillin and sulfonamides, oral erythromycin is recommended by the American Heart Association in the long-term prophylaxis of streptococcal pharyngitis (for the prevention of recurrent attacks of rheumatic fever).3

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Acne and other antibacterial drugs, Acne should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Acne® (erythromycin topical gel) Topical Gel is indicated for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administration of Acne is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acne of the medicine (Erythromycin). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Acne directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Enteric coated tablets; Eye ointment; Lyophilizate for the preparation of a solution for intravenous administration; Ointment for external use; Substance-powder
Ointment; Ophthalmic ointment; Tablet, Delayed Release
Granule; Tablet, Chewable
Injectable
Tablet, Coated Particles
Capsule, Delayed Rel Pellets
Gel

Method of Administration

For oral administration only

Posology

Adults, including elderly, and children over 8 years:

250 - 500 mg every six hours, up to 4 g daily for more severe infections.

For acne vulgaris the usual dose is 250 mg three times daily before meals for one to four weeks and then reduced to twice daily until improvement occurs.

Children 2 to 8 years:

250 mg every six hours, doubled for severe infections.

30 mg/kg/day in divided doses. For severe infections up to 50 mg/kg/day in divided doses.

Children up to 2 years:

125 mg every six hours, doubled for severe infections.

30 mg/kg/day in divided doses. For severe infections up to 50 mg/kg/day in divided doses.

Renal Impairment

If impairment is severe (GFR< 10 ml/min), the daily dose should not exceed 1.5 g due to risk of ototoxicity.

In the treatment of superficial ocular infections, a ribbon approximately 1 cm in length of Acne™ Ophthalmic Ointment should be applied directly to the infected structure up to 6 times daily, depending on the severity of the infection.

For prophylaxis of neonatal gonococcal or chlamydial conjunctivitis, a ribbon of ointment approximately 1 cm in length should be instilled into each lower conjunctival sac. The ointment should not be flushed from the eye following instillation. A new tube should be used for each infant.

Ery-Ped (erythromycin ethylsuccinate) oral suspensions may be administered without regard to meals.

Children

Age, weight, and severity of the infection are important factors in determining the proper dosage. In mild to moderate infections, the usual dosage of erythromycin ethylsuccinate for children is 30 to 50 mg/kg/day in equally divided doses every 6 hours. For more severe infections this dosage may be doubled. If twice-a-day dosage is desired, one-half of the total daily dose may be given every 12 hours. Doses may also be given three times daily by administering one-third of the total daily dose every 8 hours.

The following dosage schedule is suggested for mild to moderate infections:

Body Weight Total Daily Dose
Under 10 lbs 30-50 mg/kg/day
15-25 mg/lb/day
10 to 15 lbs 200 mg
16 to 25 lbs 400 mg
26 to 50 lbs 800 mg
51 to 100 lbs 1200 mg
over 100 lbs 1600 mg

Adults

400 mg erythromycin ethylsuccinate every 6 hours is the usual dose. Dosage may be increased up to 4 g per day according to the severity of the infection. If twice-a-day dosage is desired, one-half of the total daily dose may be given every 12 hours. Doses may also be given three times daily by administering one-third of the total daily dose every 8 hours.

For adult dosage calculation, use a ratio of 400 mg of erythromycin activity as the ethylsuccinate to 250 mg of erythromycin activity as the stearate, base or estolate.

In the treatment of streptococcal infections, a therapeutic dosage of erythromycin ethylsuccinate should be administered for at least 10 days. In continuous prophylaxis against recurrences of streptococcal infections in persons with a history of rheumatic heart disease, the usual dosage is 400 mg twice a day.

For treatment of urethritis due to C. trachomatisor U. urealyticum: 800 mg three times a day for 7 days.

For treatment of primary syphilis: Adults: 48 to 64 g given in divided doses over a period of 10 to 15 days.

For intestinal amebiasis: Adults: 400 mg four times daily for 10 to 14 days.Children: 30 to 50 mg/kg/day in divided doses for 10 to 14 days.

For use in pertussis: Although optimal dosage and duration have not been established, doses of erythromycin utilized in reported clinical studies were 40 to 50 mg/kg/day, given in divided doses for 5 to 14 days.

For treatment of Legionnaires' Disease: Although optimal doses have not been established, doses utilized in reported clinical data were 1.6 to 4 g daily in divided doses.

For oral administration

Adults and children over 8 years: For mild to moderate infections 2g daily in divided doses. Up to 4g daily in severe infections.

Elderly: No special dosage recommendations.

Note: For younger children, infants and babies, Erythroped, erythromycin ethylsuccinate suspensions, are normally recommended. The recommended dose for children age 2-8 years, for mild to moderate infections, is 1 gram daily in divided doses. The recommended dose for infants and babies, for mild to moderate infections, is 500 mg daily in divided doses. For severe infections doses may be doubled.

In most patients, Acne tablets are well absorbed and may be dosed orally without regard to meals. However, optimal blood levels are obtained when either Acne 333 mg or Acne 500 mg tablets are given in the fasting state (at least ½ hour and preferably 2 hours before meals).

Adults

The usual dosage of Acne tablets are one 333 mg tablet every 8 hours or one 500 mg tablet every 12 hours. Dosage may be increased up to 4 g per day according to the severity of the infection. However, twice-a-day dosing is not recommended when doses larger than 1 g daily are administered.

Children

Age, weight, and severity of the infection are important factors in determining the proper dosage. The usual dosage is 30 to 50 mg/kg/day, in equally divided doses. For more severe infections this dosage may be doubled but should not exceed 4 g per day.

In the treatment of streptococcal infections of the upper respiratory tract (e.g., tonsillitis or pharyngitis), the therapeutic dosage of erythromycin should be administered for at least ten days.

The American Heart Association suggests a dosage of 250 mg of erythromycin orally, twice a day in long-term prophylaxis of streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections for the prevention of recurring attacks of rheumatic fever in patients allergic to penicillin and sulfonamides.4

Conjunctivitis of the Newborn Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis

Oral erythromycin suspension 50 mg/kg/day in 4 divided doses for at least 2 weeks.4

Pneumonia of Infancy Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis

Although the optimal duration of therapy has not been established, the recommended therapy is oral erythromycin suspension 50 mg/kg/day in 4 divided doses for at least 3 weeks.

Urogenital Infections During Pregnancy Due to Chlamydia trachomatis

Although the optimal dose and duration of therapy have not been established, the suggested treatment is 500 mg of erythromycin by mouth four times a day or two erythromycin 333 mg tablets orally every 8 hours on an empty stomach for at least 7 days. For women who cannot tolerate this regimen, a decreased dose of one erythromycin 500 mg tablet orally every 12 hours, one 333 mg tablet orally every 8 hours or 250 mg by mouth four times a day should be used for at least 14 days.6

For adults with uncomplicated urethral, endocervical, or rectal infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, when tetracycline is contraindicated or not tolerated

500 mg of erythromycin by mouth four times a day or two 333 mg tablets orally every 8 hours for at least 7 days.6

For patients with nongonococcal urethritis caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum when tetracycline is contraindicated or not tolerated

500 mg of erythromycin by mouth four times a day or two 333 mg tablets orally every 8 hours for at least seven days.6

Primary Syphilis

30 to 40 g given in divided doses over a period of 10 to 15 days.

Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Caused by N. gonorrhoeae

500 mg Erythrocin Lactobionate-I.V. (erythromycin lactobionate for injection, USP) every 6 hours for 3 days, followed by 500 mg of erythromycin base orally every 12 hours, or 333 mg of erythromycin base orally every 8 hours for 7 days.

Intestinal Amebiasis

Adults

500 mg every 12 hours, 333 mg every 8 hours or 250 mg every 6 hours for 10 to 14 days.

Children

30 to 50 mg/kg/day in divided doses for 10 to 14 days.

Pertussis

Although optimal dosage and duration have not been established, doses of erythromycin utilized in reported clinical studies were 40 to 50 mg/kg/day, given in divided doses for 5 to 14 days.

Legionnaires' Disease

Although optimal dosage has not been established, doses utilized in reported clinical data were 1 to 4 g daily in divided doses.

Erythromycin is well absorbed and may be given without regard to meals. Optimum blood levels are obtained in a fasting state (administration at least one half hour and preferably two hours before or after a meal); however, blood levels obtained upon administration of enteric-coated erythromycin products in the presence of food are still above minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of most organisms for which erythromycin is indicated.

Adults: The usual dose is 250 mg every 6 hours taken one hour before meals. If twice-a-day dosage is desired, the recommended dose is 500 mg every 12 hours. Dosage may be increased up to 4 grams per day, according to the severity of the infection. Twice-a-day dosing is not recommended when doses larger than 1 gram daily are administered.

Children: Age, weight, and severity of the infection are important factors in determining the proper dosage. The usual dosage is 30 to 50 mg/kg/day in divided doses. For the treatment of more severe infections, this dose may be doubled.

Streptococcal infections

A therapeutic dosage of oral erythromycin should be administered for at least 10 days. For continuous prophylaxis against recurrences of streptococcal infections in persons with a history of rheumatic heart disease, the dose is 250 mg twice a day.

Primary syphilis

30 to 40 grams given in divided doses over a period of 10 to 15 days.

Intestinal amebiasis

250 mg four times daily for 10 to 14 days for adults; 30 to 50 mg/kg/day in divided doses for 10 to 14 days for children.

Legionnaires' disease

Although optimal doses have not been established, doses utilized in reported clinical data were those recommended above (1 to 4 grams daily in divided doses).

Urogenital infections during pregnancy due to Chlamydia trachomatis

Although the optimal dose and duration of therapy have not been established, the suggested treatment is erythromycin 500 mg, by mouth, 4 times a day on an empty stomach for at least 7 days. For women who cannot tolerate this regimen, a decreased dose of 250 mg, by mouth, 4 times a day should be used for at least 14 days.

For adults with uncomplicated urethral, endocervical, or rectal infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis in whom tetracyclines are contraindicated or not tolerated: 500 mg, by mouth, 4 times a day for at least 7 days.

Pertussis

Although optimum dosage and duration of therapy have not been established, doses of erythromycin utilized in reported clinical studies were 40 to 50 mg/kg/day, given in divided doses for 5 to 14 days.

Nongonococcal urethritis due to Ureaplasma urealyticum

When tetracycline is contraindicated or not tolerated: 500 mg of erythromycin, orally, four times daily for at least 7 days.

Acute pelvic inflammatory disease due to N gonorrhoeae

500 mg IV of erythromycin lactobionate for injection, USP every 6 hours for 3 days followed by 250 mg of erythromycin, orally every six hours for 7 days.

Acne® (erythromycin topical gel) Topical Gel should be applied sparingly as a thin film to affected area(s) once or twice a day after the skin is thoroughly cleansed and patted dry. If there has been no improvement after 6 to 8 weeks, or if the condition becomes worse, treatment should be discontinued, and the physician should be reconsulted. Spread the medication lightly rather than rubbing it in. There are no data directly comparing the safety and efficacy of b.i.d. versus q.d. dosing.

Contraindications

The information provided in Contraindications of Acne is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acne of the medicine (Erythromycin). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Acne directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close
Enteric coated tablets; Eye ointment; Lyophilizate for the preparation of a solution for intravenous administration; Ointment for external use; Substance-powder
Ointment; Ophthalmic ointment; Tablet, Delayed Release
Granule; Tablet, Chewable
Injectable
Tablet, Coated Particles
Capsule, Delayed Rel Pellets
Gel

Acne is contraindicated in patients taking simvastatin, tolterodine, mizolastine, amisulpride, astemizole, terfenadine, domperidone, cisapride or pimozide.

Acne is contraindicated with ergotamine and dihydroergotamine.

This drug is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to erythromycin.

Erythromycin is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to this antibiotic.

Erythromycin is contraindicated in patients taking terfenadine, astemizole, pimozide, or cisapride. (See PRECAUTIONS - DRUG INTERACTIONS.)

Known hypersensitivity to erythromycin.

Erythromycin is contraindicated in patients taking simvastatin, tolterodine, mizolastine, amisulpride, astemizole, terfenadine, domperidone, cisapride or pimozide.

Erythromycin is contraindicated with ergotamine and dihydroergotamine.

Erythromycin is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to this antibiotic.

Erythromycin is contraindicated in patients taking terfenadine, astemizole, cisapride, pimozide, ergotamine or dihydroergotamine. (See PRECAUTIONS:DRUG INTERACTIONS.)

Erythromycin is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to this antibiotic.

Erythromycin is contraindicated in patients taking terfenadine, astemizole,cisapride, pimozide, ergotamine, or dihydroergotamine (see PRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS).

Acne® (erythromycin topical gel) Topical Gel is contraindicated in those individuals who have shown hypersensitivity to any of its components.

Special warnings and precautions for use

The information provided in Special warnings and precautions for use of Acne is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acne of the medicine (Erythromycin). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special warnings and precautions for use in the instructions to the drug Acne directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close
Enteric coated tablets; Eye ointment; Lyophilizate for the preparation of a solution for intravenous administration; Ointment for external use; Substance-powder
Ointment; Ophthalmic ointment; Tablet, Delayed Release
Granule; Tablet, Chewable
Injectable
Tablet, Coated Particles
Capsule, Delayed Rel Pellets
Gel

As with other macrolides, rare serious allergic reactions, including acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) have been reported. If an allergic reaction occurs, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate therapy should be instituted. Physicians should be aware that reappearance of the allergic symptoms may occur when symptomatic therapy is discontinued.

Acne is excreted principally by the liver, so caution should be exercised in administering the antibiotic to patients with impaired hepatic function or concomitantly receiving potentially hepatotoxic agents. Hepatic dysfunction including increased liver enzymes and/or cholestatic hepatitis, with or without jaundice, has been infrequently reported with Acne.

Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including macrolides, and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents including Acne, and may range in severity from mild diarrhoea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon, which may lead to overgrowth of C. difficile. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhoea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

Patients receiving Acne concurrently with drugs which can cause prolongation of the QT interval should be carefully monitored. The concomitant use of Acne with some of these drugs is contraindicated.

There have been reports suggesting Acne does not reach the foetus in adequate concentrations to prevent congenital syphilis. Infants born to women treated during pregnancy with oral Acne for early syphilis should be treated with an appropriate penicillin regimen.

There have been reports that Acne may aggravate the weakness of patients with myasthenia gravis.

Acne interferes with the fluorometric determination of urinary catecholamines.

Rhabdomyolysis with or without renal impairment has been reported in seriously ill patients receiving Acne concomitantly with statins.

There have been reports of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) occurring in infants following Acne therapy. In one cohort of 157 newborns who were given Acne for pertussis prophylaxis, seven neonates (5%) developed symptoms of non-bilious vomiting or irritability with feeding and were subsequently diagnosed as having IHPS requiring surgical pyloromyotomy. Since Acne may be used in the treatment of conditions in infants which are associated with significant mortality or morbidity (such as pertussis or chlamydia), the benefit of Acne therapy needs to be weighed against the potential risk of developing IHPS. Parents should be informed to contact their physician if vomiting or irritability with feeding occurs.

This medicine contains 1193 mg sorbitol in each 5 ml. Patients with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) should not take/be given this medicine.

This medicine contains less than 1 mmol sodium (23 mg) per 5 ml, that is to say essentially 'sodium free'.

WARNINGS

No information provided.

PRECAUTIONS

General

The use of antimicrobial agents may be associated with the overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms including fungi; in such a case, antibiotic administration should be stopped and appropriate measures taken.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Two year oral studies conducted in rats with erythromycin did not provide evidence of tumorigenicity. Mutagenicity studies have not been conducted. No evidence of impaired fertility that appeared related to erythromycin was reported in animal studies.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic effects -Pregnancy category B

Reproduction studies have been performed in rats, mice, and rabbits using erythromycin and its various salts and esters, at doses that were several multiples of the usual human dose. No evidence of harm to the fetus that appeared related to erythromycin was reported in these studies. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproductive studies are not always predictive of human response, the erythromycins should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

Caution should be exercised when erythromycin is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

See INDICATIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.

WARNINGS

Hepatotoxicity

There have been reports of hepatic dysfunction, including increased liver enzymes, and hepatocellular and/or cholestatic hepatitis, with or without jaundice, occurring in patients receiving oral erythromycin products.

QT Prolongation

Erythromycin has been associated with prolongation of the QT interval and infrequent cases of arrhythmia. Cases of torsades de pointes have been spontaneously reported during postmarketing surveillance in patients receiving erythromycin. Fatalities have been reported. Erythromycin should be avoided in patients with known prolongation of the QT interval, patients with ongoing proarrhythmic conditions such as uncorrected hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, clinically significant bradycardia, and in patients receiving Class IA (quinidine, procainamide) or Class III (dofetilide, amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents. Elderly patients may be more susceptible to drug-associated effects on the QT interval.

Syphilis in Pregnancy

There have been reports suggesting that erythromycin does not reach the fetus in adequate concentration to prevent congenital syphilis. Infants born to women treated during pregnancy with oral erythromycin for early syphilis should be treated with an appropriate penicillin regimen.

Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Ery-Ped, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Drug Interactions

Serious adverse reactions have been reported in patients taking erythromycin concomitantly with CYP3A4 substrates. These include colchicine toxicity with colchicine; rhabdomyolysis with simvastatin, lovastatin, and atorvastatin; and hypotension with calcium channel blockers metabolized by CYP3A4 (e.g. verapamil, amlodipine, diltiazem) (see PRECAUTIONSDRUG INTERACTIONS).

There have been post-marketing reports of colchicine toxicity with concomitant use of erythromycin and colchicine. This interaction is potentially life-threatening, and may occur while using both drugs at their recommended doses (see PRECAUTIONSDRUG INTERACTIONS).

Rhabdomyolysis with or without renal impairment has been reported in seriously ill patients receiving erythromycin concomitantly with lovastatin. Therefore, patients receiving concomitant lovastatin and erythromycin should be carefully monitored for creatine kinase (CK) and serum transaminase levels. (See package insert for lovastatin)

PRECAUTIONS

General

Prescribing Ery-Ped in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Since erythromycin is principally excreted by the liver, caution should be exercised when erythromycin is administered to patients with impaired hepatic function. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and WARNINGS sections.)

Exacerbation of symptoms of myasthenia gravis and new onset of symptoms of myasthenic syndrome has been reported in patients receiving erythromycin therapy.

There have been reports of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) occurring in infants following erythromycin therapy. In one cohort of 157 newborns who were given erythromycin for pertussis prophylaxis, seven neonates (5%) developed symptoms of non-bilious vomiting or irritability with feeding and were subsequently diagnosed as having IHPS requiring surgical pyloromyotomy. A possible dose-response effect was described with an absolute risk of IHPS of 5.1% for infants who took erythromycin for 8-14 days and 10% for infants who took erythromycin for 15-21 days.5 Since erythromycin may be used in the treatment of conditions in infants which are associated with significant mortality or morbidity (such as pertussis or neonatal Chlamydia trachomatis infections), the benefit of erythromycin therapy needs to be weighed against the potential risk of developing IHPS. Parents should be informed to contact their physician if vomiting or irritability with feeding occurs. Prolonged or repeated use of erythromycin may result in an overgrowth of nonsusceptible bacteria or fungi. If superinfection occurs, erythromycin should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

When indicated, incision and drainage or other surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy. Observational studies in humans have reported cardiovascular malformations after exposure to drug products containing erythromycin during early pregnancy.

REFERENCES

5. Honein, M.A., et. al.: Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis after pertussis prophylaxis with erythromycin: a case review and cohort study. The Lancet 1999;354 (9196): 2101-5

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term oral dietary studies conducted with erythromycin stearate in rats up to 400 mg/kg/day and in mice up to 500 mg/kg/day (approximately 1-2 fold of the maximum human dose on a body surface area basis) did not provide evidence of tumorigenicity. Erythromycin stearate did not show genotoxic potential in the Ames, and mouse lymphoma assays or induce chromosomal aberrations in CHO cells. There was no apparent effect on male or female fertility in rats treated with erythromycin base by oral gavage at 700 mg/kg/day (approximately 3 times the maximum human dose on a body surface area basis).

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category B: There is no evidence of teratogenicity or any other adverse effect on reproduction in female rats fed erythromycin base by oral gavage at 350 mg/kg/day (approximately twice the maximum recommended human dose on a body surface area) prior to and during mating, during gestation, and through weaning. No evidence of teratogenicity or embryotoxicity was observed when erythromycin base was given by oral gavage to pregnant rats and mice at 700 mg/kg/day and to pregnant rabbits at 125 mg/kg/day (approximately 1-3 times the maximum recommended human dose).

Labor and Delivery

The effect of erythromycin on labor and delivery is unknown.

Nursing Mothers

Erythromycin is excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when erythromycin is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

See INDICATIONS AND USAGE and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections.

Geriatric Use

Elderly patients, particularly those with reduced renal or hepatic function, may be at increased risk for developing erythromycin-induced hearing loss. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Elderly patients may be more susceptible to development of torsades de pointes arrhythmias than younger patients. (See WARNINGS).

Elderly patients may experience increased effects of oral anticoagulant therapy while undergoing treatment with erythromycin. (See PRECAUTIONS - DRUG INTERACTIONS).

Ery-Ped 200 contains 117.5 mg (5.1 mEq) of sodium per individual dose.

Ery-Ped 400 contains 117.5 mg (5.1 mEq) of sodium per individual dose.

Based on the 200 mg/5 mL strength, at the usual recommended doses, adult patients would receive a total of 940 mg/day (40.8 mEq) of sodium. Based on the 400 mg/5 mL strength, at the usual recommended doses, adult patients would receive a total of 470 mg/day (20.4 mEq) of sodium. The geriatric population may respond with a blunted natriuresis to salt loading. This may be clinically important with regard to such diseases as congestive heart failure.

Erythromycin is excreted principally by the liver, so caution should be exercised in administering the antibiotic to patients with impaired hepatic function or concomitantly receiving potentially hepatotoxic agents. Hepatic dysfunction including increased liver enzymes and/or cholestatic hepatitis, with or without jaundice, has been infrequently reported with erythromycin.

Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including macrolides, and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents including erythromycin, and may range in severity from mild diarrhoea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon, which may lead to overgrowth of C. difficile. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhoea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

As with other macrolides, rare serious allergic reactions, including acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) have been reported. If an allergic reaction occurs, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate therapy should be instituted. Physicians should be aware that reappearance of the allergic symptoms may occur when symptomatic therapy is discontinued.

Patients receiving erythromycin concurrently with drugs which can cause prolongation of the QT interval should be carefully monitored. The concomitant use of erythromycin with some of these drugs is contraindicated.

There have been reports suggesting erythromycin does not reach the foetus in adequate concentrations to prevent congenital syphilis. Infants born to women treated during pregnancy with oral erythromycin for early syphilis should be treated with an appropriate penicillin regimen.

There have been reports that erythromycin may aggravate the weakness of patients with myasthenia gravis.

Erythromycin interferes with the fluorometric determination of urinary catecholamines.

Rhabdomyolysis with or without renal impairment has been reported in seriously ill patients receiving erythromycin concomitantly with statins.

There have been reports of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) occurring in infants following erythromycin therapy. In one cohort of 157 newborns who were given erythromycin for pertussis prophylaxis, seven neonates (5%) developed symptoms of non-bilious vomiting or irritability with feeding and were subsequently diagnosed as having IHPS requiring surgical pyloromyotomy. Since erythromycin may be used in the treatment of conditions in infants which are associated with significant mortality or morbidity (such as pertussis or chlamydia), the benefit of erythromycin therapy needs to be weighed against the potential risk of developing IHPS. Parents should be informed to contact their physician if vomiting or irritability with feeding occurs.

WARNINGS

Hepatotoxicity

There have been reports of hepatic dysfunction, including increased liver enzymes, and hepatocellular and/or cholestatic hepatitis, with or without jaundice, occurring in patients receiving oral erythromycin products.

QT Prolongation

Erythromycin has been associated with prolongation of the QT interval and infrequent cases of arrhythmia. Cases of torsades de pointes have been spontaneously reported during postmarketing surveillance in patients receiving erythromycin. Fatalities have been reported. Erythromycin should be avoided in patients with known prolongation of the QT interval, patients with ongoing proarrhythmic conditions such as uncorrected hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, clinically significant bradycardia, and in patients receiving Class IA (quinidine, procainamide) or Class III (dofetilide, amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents. Elderly patients may be more susceptible to drug-associated effects on the QT interval.

Syphilis in Pregnancy

There have been reports suggesting that erythromycin does not reach the fetus in adequate concentration to prevent congenital syphilis. Infants born to women treated during pregnancy with oral erythromycin for early syphilis should be treated with an appropriate penicillin regimen.

Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Acne tablets, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Drug Interactions

Serious adverse reactions have been reported in patients taking erythromycin concomitantly with CYP3A4 substrates. These include colchicine toxicity with colchicine; rhabdomyolysis with simvastatin, lovastatin, and atorvastatin; and hypotension with calcium channel blockers metabolized by CYP3A4 (e.g., verapamil, amlodipine, diltiazem) (see PRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS).

There have been post-marketing reports of colchicine toxicity with concomitant use of erythromycin and colchicine. This interaction is potentially life-threatening, and may occur while using both drugs at their recommended doses (see PRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS).

Rhabdomyolysis with or without renal impairment has been reported in seriously ill patients receiving erythromycin concomitantly with lovastatin. Therefore, patients receiving concomitant lovastatin and erythromycin should be carefully monitored for creatine kinase (CK) and serum transaminase levels. (See package insert for lovastatin.)

PRECAUTIONS

General

Prescribing Acne tablets in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Since erythromycin is principally excreted by the liver, caution should be exercised when erythromycin is administered to patients with impaired hepatic function. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and WARNINGS.)

Exacerbation of symptoms of myasthenia gravis and new onset of symptoms of myasthenic syndrome has been reported in patients receiving erythromycin therapy.

There have been reports of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) occurring in infants following erythromycin therapy. In one cohort of 157 newborns who were given erythromycin for pertussis prophylaxis, seven neonates (5%) developed symptoms of non-bilious vomiting or irritability with feeding and were subsequently diagnosed as having IHPS requiring surgical pyloromyotomy. A possible dose-response effect was described with an absolute risk of IHPS of 5.1% for infants who took erythromycin for 8-14 days and 10% for infants who took erythromycin for 15-21 days.5 Since erythromycin may be used in the treatment of conditions in infants which are associated with significant mortality or morbidity (such as pertussis or neonatal Chlamydia trachomatis infections), the benefit of erythromycin therapy needs to be weighed against the potential risk of developing IHPS. Parents should be informed to contact their physician if vomiting or irritability with feeding occurs.

Prolonged or repeated use of erythromycin may result in an overgrowth of nonsusceptible bacteria or fungi. If superinfection occurs, erythromycin should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

When indicated, incision and drainage or other surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.

Observational studies in humans have reported cardiovascular malformations after exposure to drug products containing erythromycin during early pregnancy.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term oral dietary studies conducted with erythromycin stearate in rats up to 400 mg/kg/day and in mice up to about 500 mg/kg/day (approximately 1-2 fold of the maximum human dose on a body surface area basis) did not provide evidence of tumorigenicity. Erythromycin stearate did not show genotoxic potential in the Ames, and mouse lymphoma assays or induce chromosomal aberrations in CHO cells. There was no apparent effect on male or female fertility in rats treated with erythromycin base by oral gavage at 700 mg/kg/day (approximately 3 times the maximum human dose on a body surface area basis).

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category B: There is no evidence of teratogenicity or any other adverse effect on reproduction in female rats fed erythromycin base by oral gavage at 350 mg/kg/day (approximately twice the maximum recommended human dose on a body surface area) prior to and during mating, during gestation, and through weaning. No evidence of teratogenicity or embryotoxicity was observed when erythromycin base was given by oral gavage to pregnant rats and mice at 700 mg/kg/day and to pregnant rabbits at 125 mg/kg/day (approximately 1-3 times the maximum recommended human dose).

Labor and Delivery

The effect of erythromycin on labor and delivery is unknown.

Nursing Mothers

Erythromycin is excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when erythromycin is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

See INDICATIONS AND USAGE and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.

Geriatric Use

Elderly patients, particularly those with reduced renal or hepatic function, may be at increased risk for developing erythromycin-induced hearing loss. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Elderly patients may be more susceptible to development of torsades de pointes arrhythmias than younger patients. (See WARNINGS).

Elderly patients may experience increased effects of oral anticoagulant therapy while undergoing treatment with erythromycin. (See PRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS).

Acne 333 MG Tablets contain 0.5 mg (0.02 mEq) of sodium per individual dose.

Acne 500 MG Tablets do not contain sodium.

REFERENCES

5. Honein, M.A., et. al.: Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis after pertussis prophylaxis with erythromycin: a case review and cohort study. The Lancet 1999; 354 (9196):2101-5.

WARNINGS

Hepatotoxicity

There have been reports of hepatic dysfunction, including increased liver enzymes, and hepatocellular and/or cholestatic hepatitis, with or without jaundice, occurring in patients receiving oral erythromycin products.

QT Prolongation

Erythromycin has been associated with prolongation of the QT interval and infrequent cases of arrhythmia. Cases of torsades de pointes have been spontaneously reported during postmarketing surveillance in patients receiving erythromycin. Fatalities have been reported. Erythromycin should be avoided in patients with known prolongation of the QT interval, patients with ongoing proarrhythmic conditions such as uncorrected hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, clinically significant bradycardia, and in patients receiving Class IA (quinidine, procainamide) or Class III (dofetilide, aminodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents. Elderly patients may be more susceptible to drug-associated effects on the QT interval.

Syphilis in pregnancy

There have been reports suggesting that erythromycin does not reach the fetus in adequate concentration to prevent congenital syphilis. Infants born to women treated during pregnancy with oral erythromycin for early syphilis should be treated with an appropriate penicillin regimen.

Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea

Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Acne Capsules, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Drug Interactions

Serious adverse reactions have been reported in patients taking erythromycin concomitantly with CYP3A4 substrates. These include colchicine toxicity with colchicine; rhabdomyolysis with simvastatin, lovastatin, and atorvastatin; and hypotension with calcium channel blockers metabolized by CYP3A4 (for example, verapamil, amlodipine, diltiazem) (see PRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS).

There have been post-marketing reports of colchicine toxicity with concomitant use of erythromycin and colchicine. This interaction is potentially life-threatening, and may occure while using both drugs at their recommended doses (see PRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS).

Rhabdomyolysis with or without renal impairment has been reported in seriously ill patients receiving erythromycin concomitantly with lovastatin. Therefore, patients receiving concomitant lovastatin and erythromycin should be carefully monitored for creatine kinase (CK) and serum transaminase levels. (See package insert for lovastatin.)

PRECAUTIONS

General

Prescribing Acne in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Since erythromycin is principally excreted by the liver, caution should be exercised when erythromycin is administered to patients with impaired hepatic function (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and WARNINGS.)

Exacerbation of symptoms of myasthenia gravis and new onset of symptoms of myasthenic syndrome has been reported in patients receiving erythromycin therapy.

There have been reports of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) occurring in infants following erythromycin therapy. In one cohort of 157 newborns who were given erythromycin for pertussis prophylaxis, seven neonates (5 percent) developed symptoms of non bilious vomiting or irritability with feeding and were subsequently diagnosed as having IHPS requiring surgical pyloromyotomy. A possible dose-response effect was described with an absolute risk of IHPS of 5.1 percent for infants who took erythromycin for 8 to 14 days and 10 percent for infants who took erythromycin for 15 to 21 days.4 Since erythromycin may be used in the treatment of conditions in infants which are associated with significant mortality or morbidity (such as pertussis or neonatal Chlamydia trachomatis infections), the benefit of erythromycin therapy needs to be weighed against the potential risk of developing IHPS. Parents should be informed to contact their physician if vomiting or irritability with feeding occurs.

Prolonged or repeated use of erythromycin may result in an overgrowth of nonsusceptible bacteria or fungi. If superinfection occurs, erythromycin should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

When indicated, incision and drainage or other surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.

REFERENCES

4. Honein, M.A., et. al.: Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis after pertussis prophylaxis with erythromycin: a case review and cohort study. The Lancet 1999;354 (9196): 2101-5.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis and Impairment of Fertility

Long-term (2-year) oral studies conducted in rats with erythromycin base did not provide evidence of tumorigenicity. Mutagenicity studies have not been conducted. There was no apparent effect on male or female fertility in rats fed erythromycin (base) at levels up to 0.25 percent of diet.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category B: There was no evidence of teratogenicity or any other adverse effect on reproduction in female rats fed erythromycin base (up to 0.25 percent of diet) prior to and during mating, during gestation, and through weaning of two successive litters. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Labor and Delivery

The effect of erythromycin on labor and delivery is unknown.

Nursing Mothers

Erythromycin is excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when erythromycin is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

See INDICATIONS AND USAGE and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies with Acne did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of the decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Elderly patients may be more susceptible to development of torsades de pointes arrhythmias than younger patients (see WARNINGS).

Elderly patients may experience increased effects of oral anticoagulant therapy while undergoing treatment with erythromycin (see PRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS.)

Acne 250 mg capsules do not contain sodium.

WARNINGS

Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including erythromycin, and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhea subsequent to the administration of antibacterial agents.

Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon and may permit overgrowth of clostridia. Studies indicate that a toxin produced by Clostridium difficile is one primary cause of “antibiotic-associated colitis”.

After the diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis has been established, therapeutic measures should be initiated. Mild cases of pseudomembranous colitis usually respond to drug discontinuation alone. In moderate to severe cases, consideration should be given to management with fluids and electrolytes, protein supplementation and treatment with an antibacterial drug clinically effective against C. difficile colitis.

PRECAUTIONS

General: For topical use only; not for ophthalmic use. Concomitant topical acne therapy should be used with caution because a possible cumulative irritancy effect may occur, especially with the use of peeling, desquamating or abrasive agents. The use of antibiotic agents may be associated with the overgrowth of antibiotic-resistant organisms. If this occurs, discontinue use and take appropriate measures.

Avoid contact with eyes and all mucous membranes.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility: No animal studies have been performed to evaluate carcinogenic and mutagenic potential or effects on fertility of topical erythromycin. However, long-term (2-year) oral studies in rats with erythromycin ethylsuccinate and erythromycin base did not provide evidence of tumorigenicity. There was no apparent effect on male or female fertility in rats fed erythromycin (base) at levels up to 0.25% of diet.

Pregnancy: Teratogenic effects: Pregnancy Category B: There was no evidence of teratogenicity or any other adverse effect on reproduction in female rats fed erythromycin base (up to 0.25% of diet) prior to and during mating, during gestation and through weaning of two successive litters. There are, however, no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used in pregnancy only if clearly needed. Erythromycin has been reported to cross the placental barrier in humans, but fetal plasma levels are generally low.

Nursing Women: It is not known whether erythromycin is excreted in human milk after topical application. However, erythromycin is excreted in human milk following oral and parenteral erythromycin administration. Therefore, caution should be exercised when erythromycin is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Effects on ability to drive and use machines

The information provided in Effects on ability to drive and use machines of Acne is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acne of the medicine (Erythromycin). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Effects on ability to drive and use machines in the instructions to the drug Acne directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Enteric coated tablets; Eye ointment; Lyophilizate for the preparation of a solution for intravenous administration; Ointment for external use; Substance-powder
Injectable

None known

None reported

Undesirable effects

The information provided in Undesirable effects of Acne is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acne of the medicine (Erythromycin). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Undesirable effects in the instructions to the drug Acne directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Enteric coated tablets; Eye ointment; Lyophilizate for the preparation of a solution for intravenous administration; Ointment for external use; Substance-powder
Ointment; Ophthalmic ointment; Tablet, Delayed Release
Granule; Tablet, Chewable
Injectable
Tablet, Coated Particles
Capsule, Delayed Rel Pellets
Gel

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Eosinophilia.

Immune system disorders

Allergic reactions ranging from urticaria and mild skin eruptions to anaphylaxis have occurred.

Psychiatric disorders

Hallucinations

Nervous system disorders

There have been isolated reports of transient central nervous system side effects including confusion, seizures and vertigo; however, a cause and effect relationship has not been established.

Eye disorders

Mitochondrial Optic Neuropathy

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Deafness, tinnitus

There have been isolated reports of reversible hearing loss occurring chiefly in patients with renal insufficiency or taking high doses.

Cardiac disorders

QTc interval prolongation, torsades de pointes, palpitations, and cardiac rhythm disorders including ventricular tachyarrhythmias.

Vascular disorders

Hypotension.

Gastrointestinal disorders

The most frequent side effects of oral Acne preparations are gastrointestinal and are dose-related. The following have been reported:

upper abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, pancreatitis, anorexia, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.

Pseudomembranous colitis has been rarely reported in association with Acne therapy.

Hepatobiliary disorders

Cholestatic hepatitis, jaundice, hepatic diysfunction, hepatomegaly, hepatic failure, hepatocellular hepatitis.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Skin eruptions, pruritus, urticaria, exanthema, angioedema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme.

Not known: acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP).

Renal and urinary disorders

Interstitial nephritis

General disorders and administration site conditions

Chest pain, fever, malaise.

Investigations

Increased liver enzyme values.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.

The most frequently reported adverse reactions are minor ocular irritations, redness, and hypersensitivity reactions.

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Fera Pharmaceuticals, LLC at (414) 434-6604 Monday-Friday 9am-5pm EST or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

The most frequent side effects of oral erythromycin preparations are gastrointestinal and are dose-related. They include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and anorexia. Symptoms of hepatitis, hepatic dysfunction and/or abnormal liver function test results may occur. (See WARNINGS section.)

Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment. (See WARNINGS.)

Erythromycin has been associated with QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia and torsades de pointes. (See WARNINGS.)

Allergic reactions ranging from urticaria to anaphylaxis have occurred. Skin reactions ranging from mild eruptions to erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported rarely.

There have been reports of interstitial nephritis coincident with erythromycin use.

There have been rare reports of pancreatitis and convulsions.

There have been isolated reports of reversible hearing loss occurring chiefly in patients with renal insufficiency and in patients receiving high doses of erythromycin.

Blood and lymphatic system disorders:

Eosinophilia.

Cardiac disorders

QTc interval prolongation, torsades de pointes, palpitations, and cardiac rhythm disorders including ventricular tachyarrhythmias.

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Deafness, tinnitus

There have been isolated reports of reversible hearing loss occurring chiefly in patients with renal insufficiency or high doses.

Gastrointestinal disorders

The most frequent side effects of oral erythromycin preparations are gastrointestinal and are dose-related. The following have been reported:

upper abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, pancreatitis, anorexia, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.

Pseudomembranous colitis has been rarely reported in association with erythromycin therapy.

General disorders and administration site conditions

Chest pain, fever, malaise.

Hepatobiliary disorders

Cholestatic hepatitis, jaundice, hepatic disfunction, hepatomegaly, hepatic failure, hepatocellular hepatitis.

Immune system disorders

Allergic reactions ranging from urticaria and mild skin eruptions to anaphylaxis have occurred.

Investigations

Increased liver enzyme values.

Nervous system disorders

There have been isolated reports of transient central nervous system side effects including confusion, seizures and vertigo; however, a cause and effect relationship has not been established.

Psychiatric disorders

Hallucinations

Eye disorders

Mitochondrial Optic Neuropathy

Renal and urinary disorders

Interstitial nephritis

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Skin eruptions, prurituls, urticaria, exanthema, angioedema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme.

Not known: acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP).

Vascular disorders

Hypotension.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard

The most frequent side effects of oral erythromycin preparations are gastrointestinal and are dose-related. They include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and anorexia. Symptoms of hepatitis, hepatic dysfunction and/or abnormal liver function test results may occur. (See WARNINGS.) Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment. (See WARNINGS.) Erythromycin has been associated with QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia and torsades de pointes. (See WARNINGS.)

Allergic reactions ranging from urticaria to anaphylaxis have occurred. Skin reactions ranging from mild eruptions to erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported rarely.

There have been reports of interstitial nephritis coincident with erythromycin use.

There have been rare reports of pancreatitis and convulsions.

There have been isolated reports of reversible hearing loss occurring chiefly in patients with renal insufficiency and in patients receiving high doses of erythromycin.

The most frequent side effects of oral erythromycin preparations are gastrointestinal and are dose-related. They include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and anorexia. Symptoms of hepatitis, hepatic dysfunction and/or abnormal liver function test results may occur (see WARNINGS).

Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment (see WARNINGS).

Erythromycin has been associated with QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia and torsade de pointes (see WARNINGS).

Allergic reactions ranging from urticaria to anaphylaxis have occurred. Skin reactions ranging from mild eruptions to erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported rarely.

There have been reports of interstitial nephritis coincident with erythromycin use.

There have been reports of pancreatitis and convulsions.

There have been isolated reports of reversible hearing loss occurring chiefly in patients with renal insufficiency and in patients receiving high doses of erythromycin.

In controlled clinical trials, the incidence of burning associated with Acne® (erythromycin topical gel) Topical Gel was approximately 25%. The following additional local adverse reactions have been reported occasionally: peeling, dryness, itching, erythema, and oiliness. Irritation of the eyes and tenderness of the skin have also been reported with the topical use of erythromycin. Ageneralized urticarial reaction, possibly related to the use of erythromycin, which required systemic steroid therapy has been reported.

Overdose

The information provided in Overdose of Acne is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acne of the medicine (Erythromycin). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Overdose in the instructions to the drug Acne directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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In case of overdosage, erythromycin should be discontinued. Overdosage should be handled with the prompt elimination of unabsorbed drug and all other appropriate measures.

Erythromycin is not removed by peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis.

Pharmacodynamic properties

The information provided in Pharmacodynamic properties of Acne is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acne of the medicine (Erythromycin). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacodynamic properties in the instructions to the drug Acne directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Enteric coated tablets; Eye ointment; Lyophilizate for the preparation of a solution for intravenous administration; Ointment for external use; Substance-powder
Injectable

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Macrolides, Lincosamides and Streptogramins, Macrolides, ATC code: J01F A01

Mechanism of action

Acne exerts its antimicrobial action by binding to the 50S ribosomal sub-unit of susceptible microorganisms and suppresses protein synthesis. Acne is usually active against most strains of the following organisms both in vitro and in clinical infections.

Gram positive bacteria - Listeria monocytogenes, Corynebacterium diphtheriae (as an adjunct to antitoxin), Staphylococci spp, Streptococci spp (including Enterococci).

Gram negative bacteria - Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Legionella pneumophila, Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, Bordetella pertussis, Campylobacter spp.

Mycoplasma - Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Ureaplasma urealyticum.

Other organisms - Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia spp, Clostridia spp, L-forms, the agents causing trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum.

Note: The majority of strains of Haemophilus influenzae are susceptible to the concentrations reached after ordinary doses.

ATC code: J01FA01

Erythromycin exerts its antimicrobial action by binding to the 50S ribosomal sub-unit of susceptible microorganisms and suppresses protein synthesis. Erythromycin is usually active against most strains of the following organisms both in vitro and in clinical infections:

Gram positive bacteria - Listeria monocytogenes, Corynebacterium diphtheriae (as an adjunct to antitoxin), Staphylococci spp, Streptococci spp (including Enterococci).

Gram negative bacteria - Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Legionella pneumophila, Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, Bordetella pertussis, Campylobacter spp.

Mycoplasma - Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Ureaplasma urealyticum.

Other organisms - Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia spp, Clostridia spp, L-forms, the agents causing trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum.

Note: The majority of strains of Haemophilus influenzae are susceptible to the concentrations reached after ordinary doses.

Pharmacokinetic properties

The information provided in Pharmacokinetic properties of Acne is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acne of the medicine (Erythromycin). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacokinetic properties in the instructions to the drug Acne directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Enteric coated tablets; Eye ointment; Lyophilizate for the preparation of a solution for intravenous administration; Ointment for external use; Substance-powder
Injectable

Absorption is facilitated if the stomach is empty.

Peak blood levels normally occur within 1 hour of dosing of Acne ethylsuccinate granules. The elimination half life is approximately 2 hours. Doses may be administered 2, 3 or 4 times a day.

Acne ethylsuccinate is less susceptible than Acne to the adverse effect of gastric acid. It is absorbed from the small intestine. It is widely distributed throughout body tissues. Little metabolism occurs and only about 5% is excreted in the urine. It is excreted principally by the liver.

The drug is not removed by either peritoneal dialysis or haemodialysis. It diffuses readily into intracellular fluids and antibacterial activity can be achieved at essentially all sites. There is some retention on liver and spleen. Only low concentrations are achieved in cerebrospinal fluid, unless the meninges are inflamed. Diffusion into the aqueous humour, but not the vitreous humour of the eye is good. A significant proportion is bound to serum proteins.

Peak blood levels normally occur within one hour of dosing of erythromycin ethylsuccinate granules. The elimination half life is approximately two hours. Doses may be administered two, three or four times a day.

Erythromycin ethylsuccinate is less susceptible than erythromycin to the adverse effect of gastric acid. It is absorbed from the small intestine. It is widely distributed throughout body tissues. Little metabolism occurs and only about 5% is excreted in the urine. It is excreted principally by the liver.

Pharmacotherapeutic group

The information provided in Pharmacotherapeutic group of Acne is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acne of the medicine (Erythromycin). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacotherapeutic group in the instructions to the drug Acne directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Macrolides, Lincosamides and Streptogramins, Macrolides, ATC code: J01F A01

Preclinical safety data

The information provided in Preclinical safety data of Acne is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acne of the medicine (Erythromycin). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Preclinical safety data in the instructions to the drug Acne directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Enteric coated tablets; Eye ointment; Lyophilizate for the preparation of a solution for intravenous administration; Ointment for external use; Substance-powder
Injectable

There are no preclinical data of relevance to the prescriber, which are additional to that already included in the other sections of the SPC

There are no pre-clinical data of relevance to the prescriber which are additional to that already included in other sections of the SPC.

Incompatibilities

The information provided in Incompatibilities of Acne is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acne of the medicine (Erythromycin). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Incompatibilities in the instructions to the drug Acne directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Enteric coated tablets; Eye ointment; Lyophilizate for the preparation of a solution for intravenous administration; Ointment for external use; Substance-powder
Injectable

None know

None stated.

Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The information provided in Special precautions for disposal and other handling of Acne is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acne of the medicine (Erythromycin). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special precautions for disposal and other handling in the instructions to the drug Acne directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Enteric coated tablets; Eye ointment; Lyophilizate for the preparation of a solution for intravenous administration; Ointment for external use; Substance-powder
Injectable

60 ml suspension: to reconstitute add 48 ml water and shake the bottle vigorously. The resulting suspension is yellow in colour.

100 ml suspension: to reconstitute add 80 ml water and shake the bottle vigorously. The resulting suspension is yellow in colour

140 ml suspension: to reconstitute add 112 ml water and shake the bottle vigorously. The resulting suspension is yellow in colour

Not applicable