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Components:
Hydrochlorothiazide, Lisinopril
Method of action:
Agents Acting In The Renin-Angiotensin System, Antihypertensive, Diuretic, Hypotensive
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Medically reviewed by Fedorchenko Olga Valeryevna, Pharmacy-Provisor. Last updated on 2019.12.09

Name of the medicinal product

Acecomb mite

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Hydrochlorothiazide; Lisinopril

Therapeutic indications

The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Acecomb mite is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acecomb mite of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Lisinopril). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Therapeutic indications in the instructions to the drug Acecomb mite directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Acecomb mite is indicated in the management of mild to moderate hypertension in patients who have been stabilised on the individual components given in the same proportions.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administration of Acecomb mite is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acecomb mite of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Lisinopril). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Acecomb mite directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Primary Hypertension

The usual dosage is one tablet, administered once daily. As with all other medication taken once daily, Acecomb mite should be taken at approximately the same time each day.

In general, if the desired therapeutic effect cannot be achieved in a period of 2 to 4 weeks at this dose level, the dose can be increased to two tablets administered once daily.

Renal impairment

Thiazides may not be appropriate diuretics for use in patients with renal impairment and are ineffective at creatinine clearance values of 30 ml/min or below (i.e. moderate or severe renal insufficiency).

Acecomb mite is not to be used as initial therapy in any patient with renal insufficiency.

In patients with creatinine clearance of >30 and <80 ml/min, Acecomb mite may be used, but only after titration of the individual components. The recommended dose of lisinopril, when used alone, in mild renal insufficiency, is 5 to 10 mg.

Prior Diuretic Therapy

Symptomatic hypotension may occur following the initial dose of Acecomb mite; this is more likely in patients who are volume and/or salt depleted as a result of prior diuretic therapy. The diuretic therapy should be discontinued for 2-3 days prior to initiation of therapy with Acecomb mite. If this is not possible, treatment should be started with lisinopril alone, in a 5 mg dose.

Elderly

No adjustment of dosage is required in the elderly.

In clinical studies the efficacy and tolerability of lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide, administered concomitantly, were similar in both elderly and younger hypertensive patients.

Lisinopril, within a daily dosage range of 20 to 80 mg, was equally effective in the elderly (65 years or over) and non-elderly hypersensitive patients, monotherapy with lisinopril was as effective in reducing diastolic blood pressure as monotherapy with either hydrochlorothiazide or atenolol. In clinical studies, age did not affect the tolerability of lisinopril.

Paediatric population

The safety and efficacy in children have not been established.

Contraindications

The information provided in Contraindications of Acecomb mite is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acecomb mite of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Lisinopril). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Acecomb mite directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Hypersensitivity to any other angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor.

Hypersensitivity to any sulphonamide-derived drugs.

History of angioedema associated with previous ACE inhibitor therapy.

Hereditary or idiopathic angioedema.

Second and third trimesters of pregnancy.

Severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min).

Anuria.

Severe hepatic impairment.

The concomitant use of Acecomb mite with aliskiren-containing products is contraindicated in patients with diabetes mellitus or renal impairment (GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2).

Special warnings and precautions for use

The information provided in Special warnings and precautions for use of Acecomb mite is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acecomb mite of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Lisinopril). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special warnings and precautions for use in the instructions to the drug Acecomb mite directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Symptomatic hypotension

Symptomatic hypotension is rarely seen in uncomplicated hypertensive patients, but is more likely to occur if the patient has been volume-depleted, e.g. by diuretic therapy, dietary salt restriction, dialysis, diarrhoea or vomiting, or has severe renin-dependant hypertension. Regular determination of serum electrolytes should be performed at appropriate intervals in such patients. In patients at increased risk of symptomatic hypotension, initiation of therapy and dose adjustment should be monitored under close medical supervision. Particular consideration applies to patients with ischaemic heart or cerebrovascular disease, because an excessive fall in blood pressure could result in a myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident.

If hypotension occurs, the patient should be placed in the supine position and, if necessary, should receive an intravenous infusion of normal saline. A transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication for further doses. Following restoration of effective blood volume and pressure, reinstitution of therapy at reduced dosage may be possible; or either of the components may be used appropriately alone.

In some patients with heart failure who have normal or low blood pressure, additional lowering of systemic blood pressure may occur with lisinopril. This effect is anticipated and is not usually a reason to discontinue treatment. If hypotension becomes symptomatic, a reduction of dose or discontinuation of lisinopril-hydrochlorothiazide may be necessary.

Aortic and mitral valve stenosis / hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

As with other ACE inhibitors, lisinopril should be given with caution to patients with mitral valve stenosis and obstruction in the outflow of the left ventricle such as aortic stenosis or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)

There is evidence that the concomitant use of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren increases the risk of hypotension, hyperkalaemia and decreased renal function (including acute renal failure). Dual blockade of RAAS through the combined use of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren is therefore not recommended.

If dual blockade therapy is considered absolutely necessary, this should only occur under specialist supervision and subject to frequent close monitoring of renal function, electrolytes and blood pressure.

ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers should not be used concomitantly in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

Renal function impairment

Thiazides may not be appropriate diuretics for use in patients with renal impairment and are ineffective at creatinine clearance values of 30 ml/min or below (corresponds to moderate or severe renal insufficiency).

Lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide should not be administered to patients with renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance less than or equal to 80 ml/min) until titration of the individual components has shown the need for the doses present in the combination tablet.

In patients with heart failure, hypotension following the initiation of therapy with ACE inhibitors may lead to some further impairment in renal function. Acute renal failure, usually reversible, has been reported in this situation.

In some patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis or stenosis of the artery to a solitary kidney, who have been treated with ACE inhibitors, increases in blood urea and serum creatinine, usually reversible upon discontinuation of therapy, have been seen. This is especially likely in patients with renal insufficiency. If renovascular hypertension is also present there is an increased risk of severe hypotension and renal insufficiency. In these patients, treatment should be started under close medical supervision with low doses and careful dose titration. Since treatment with diuretics may be a contributory factor to the above, renal function should be monitored during the first few weeks of lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide therapy.

Some hypertensive patients with no apparent pre-existing renal disease have developed usually minor and transient increases in blood urea and serum creatinine when lisinopril has been given concomitantly with a diuretic.

This is more likely to occur in patients with pre-existing renal impairment. Dosage reduction and/or discontinuation of the diuretic and/or lisinopril may be required.

Prior diuretic therapy

The diuretic therapy should be discontinued for 2-3 days prior to initiation with lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide. If this is not possible, treatment should be started with lisinopril alone, in a 5 mg dose.

Renal transplantation

Should not be used, since there is no experience with patients recently transplanted with a kidney.

Anaphylactoid reactions in haemodialytic patients

The use of lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide is not indicated in patients requiring dialysis for renal failure.

Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients, undergoing certain haemodialysis procedures (e.g. with the high-flux membranes AN 69 and during low-density lipoproteins (LDL) apheresis with dextran sulphate) and treated concomitantly with an ACE inhibitor. In these patients consideration should be given to using a different type of dialysis membrane or a different class of antihypertensive agent.

Anaphylactoid reactions related to low-density lipoproteins (LDL) apheresis

In rare occasions, patients treated with ACE inhibitors during low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis with dextran sulfate have shown life threatening anaphylactic reactions. These symptoms could be avoided by temporary discontinuation of the treatment with ACE inhibitors before each apheresis.

Hepatic impairment

Thiazides should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease, since minor alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance may precipitate hepatic coma. Rarely, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a syndrome that starts with cholestatic jaundice or hepatitis and progresses to fulminant necrosis and (sometimes) death. The mechanism of this syndrome is not understood. Patients receiving lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide who develop jaundice or marked elevations of hepatic enzymes should discontinue lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide and receive appropriate medical follow-up.

Surgery/anaesthesia

In patients undergoing major surgery or during anaesthesia with agents that produce hypotension, lisinopril may block angiotensin II formation secondary to compensatory renin release. If hypotension occurs and is considered to be due to this mechanism, it can be corrected by volume expansion.

Metabolic and endocrine effects

ACE inhibitor and thiazide therapy may impair glucose tolerance. Dosage adjustment of antidiabetic agents, including insulin, may be required. In diabetic patients treated with oral antidiabetic agents or insulin, glycaemia levels should be closely monitored during the first month of treatment with an ACE inhibitor. Latent diabetes mellitus may become manifest during thiazide therapy.

Increases in cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be associated with thiazide diuretic therapy.

Thiazide therapy may precipitate hyperuricaemia and/or gout in certain patients. However, lisinopril may increase urinary uric acid and thus may attenuate the hyperuricaemic effect of hydrochlorothiazide.

Electrolyte imbalance

As for any patient receiving diuretic therapy, periodic determination of serum electrolytes should be performed at appropriate intervals.

Thiazides, including hydrochlorothiazide, can cause fluid or electrolyte imbalance (hypokalaemia, hyponatraemia, and hypochloremic alkalosis). Warning signs of fluid or electrolyte imbalance are dryness of mouth, thirst, weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, muscle pain or cramps, muscular fatigue, hypotension, oliguria, tachycardia, and gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea or vomiting. Dilutional hyponatraemia may occur in oedematous patients in hot weather. Chloride deficit is generally mild and does not require treatment. Thiazides have been shown to increase the urinary excretions of magnesium, which may result in hypomagnesaemia.

Thiazides may decrease urinary calcium excretion and may cause intermittent and slight elevation of serum calcium. Marked hypercalcaemia may be evidence of hidden hyperparathyroidism. Thiazides should be discontinued before carrying out tests for parathyroid function.

Hyperkalaemia

Elevations in serum potassium have been observed in some patients treated with ACE inhibitors, including lisinopril. Patients at risk for the development of hyperkalaemia include those with renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, or those using concomitant potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements or potassium-containing salt substitutes, or those patients taking other drugs associated with increases in serum potassium (e.g. heparin, the combination trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole also known as co-trimoxazole). If concomitant use of the above-mentioned agents is deemed appropriate, regular monitoring of serum potassium is recommended.

Diabetic patients

In diabetic patients treated with oral antidiabetic agents or insulin, glycaemic control should be closely monitored during the first month of treatment with an ACE inhibitor.

Hypersensitivity/angioedema

Angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis and/or larynx has been reported uncommonly in patients treated with ACE inhibitors, including lisinopril. This may occur at any time during therapy. In such cases, lisinopril should be discontinued promptly and appropriate treatment and monitoring should be instituted to ensure complete resolution of symptoms prior to dismissing the patient. Even in those instances where swelling of only the tongue is involved, without respiratory distress, patients may require prolonged observation since treatment with anti-histamines and corticosteroids may not be sufficient.

Very rarely, fatalities have been reported due to angioedema associated with laryngeal oedema or tongue oedema. Patients with involvement of the tongue, glottis or larynx, are likely to experience airway obstruction, especially those with a history of airway surgery. In such cases emergency therapy should be administered promptly. This may include the administration of adrenaline and/or the maintenance of a patent airway. The patient should be under close medical supervision until complete and sustained resolution of symptoms has occurred.

ACE inhibitors cause a higher rate of angioedema in black patients than in non-black patients.

Patients with a history of angioedema unrelated to ACE inhibitor therapy may be at increased risk of angioedema while receiving an ACE inhibitor.

Patients taking concomitant mTOR inhibitors (e.g. sirolimus, everolimus, temsirolimus) therapy may be at increased risk of angioedema (e.g. swelling of the airways or tongue, with or without respiratory impairment).

In patients receiving thiazides, hypersensitivity reactions may occur with or without a history of allergy or bronchial asthma. Exacerbation or activation of systemic lupus erythematosus has been reported with the use of thiazides.

Desensitisation

Patients receiving ACE inhibitors during desensitisation treatment (e.g. hymenoptera venom) have sustained anaphylactoid reactions. In the same patients, these reactions have been avoided when ACE inhibitors were temporarily withheld but they reappeared upon inadvertent rechallenge.

Neutropenia/agranulocytosis

Neutropenia/agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia and anaemia have been reported for patients receiving ACE inhibitors. In patients with normal renal function and no other complicating factors neutropenia occurs rarely. Neutropenia and agranulocytosis are reversible after discontinuation of the ACE inhibitor. Lisinopril should be used with extreme caution in patients with collagen vascular disease, immunosuppressant therapy, treatment with allopurinol or procainamide, or a combination of these complicating factors, especially if there is pre-existing impaired renal function. Some of these patients developed serious infections, which in a few instances did not respond to intensive antibiotic therapy. If lisinopril is used in such patients, periodic monitoring of white blood cell counts is advised and patients should be instructed to report any sign of infection.

Race

ACE inhibitors cause a higher rate of angioedema in black patients than in non-black patients.

As with other ACE inhibitors, lisinopril may be less effective in lowering blood pressure in black patients than in non-black patients, possibly because of a higher prevalence of low-renin states in the black hypertensive population.

Cough

Cough has been reported with the use of ACE inhibitors. Characteristically, the cough is non-productive, persistent and resolves after discontinuation of therapy. ACE inhibitor-induced cough should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis of cough.

Lithium

The combination of ACE inhibitors and lithium is generally not recommended.

Anti-doping test

The hydrochlorothiazide contained in this medication could produce a positive analytic result in an anti-doping test.

Pregnancy

ACE inhibitors should not be initiated during pregnancy. Unless continued ACE inhibitor therapy is considered essential, patients planning pregnancy should be changed to alternative anti-hypertensive treatments which have an established safety profile for use in pregnancy. When pregnancy is diagnosed, treatment with ACE inhibitors should be stopped immediately, and, if appropriate, alternative therapy should be started.

Effects on ability to drive and use machines

The information provided in Effects on ability to drive and use machines of Acecomb mite is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acecomb mite of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Lisinopril). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Effects on ability to drive and use machines in the instructions to the drug Acecomb mite directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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As with other antihypertensives, lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide combination products may have a mild to moderate influence on the ability to drive and use machines. Especially at the start of the treatment or when the dose is modified, and also when used in combination with alcohol, but these affects depend on the individual's susceptibility.

When driving vehicles or operating machines it should be taken into account that occasionally dizziness or tiredness may occur.

Undesirable effects

The information provided in Undesirable effects of Acecomb mite is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acecomb mite of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Lisinopril). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Undesirable effects in the instructions to the drug Acecomb mite directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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The following undesirable effects have been observed and reported during treatment with lisinopril and/or hydrochlorothiazide with the following frequencies: Very common (>1/10), Common (>1/100 to <1/10), Uncommon (>1/1,000 to <1/100), Rare (>1/10,000 to 1/1,000), Very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

The most commonly reported ADRs are cough, dizziness, hypotension, and headache which may occur in 1 to 10% of treated patients. In clinical studies, side effects have usually been mild and transient, and in most instances have not required interruption of therapy.

Lisinopril:

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Rare

Decreases in haemoglobin, decreases in haematocrit.

Very rare

Bone marrow depression, anaemia, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis , haemolytic anaemia, lymphadenopathy, autoimmune disease.

Immune system disorders

Not known

Anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reaction

Endocrine disorders

Rare

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH).

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Very rare

Hypoglycaemia.

Psychiatric disorders and nervous system disorders

Common

Dizziness, headache, syncope.

Uncommon

Paraesthesia, vertigo, taste disturbance, sleep disturbances mood alterations, depressive symptoms.

Rare

Mental confusion, Olfactory disturbance.

Not known

Hallucinations.

Cardiac and vascular disorders

Common

Orthostatic effects (including orthostatic hypotension).

Uncommon

Myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident, possibly secondary to excessive hypotension in high risk patients , palpitations, tachycardia, Raynaud's syndrome.

Frequency Not known

Flushing.

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Common

Cough.

Uncommon

Rhinitis.

Very rare

Bronchospasm, sinusitis, allergic alveolitis/eosinophilic pneumonia.

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common

Diarrhoea, vomiting.

Uncommon

Nausea, abdominal pain and indigestion.

Rare

Dry mouth.

Very rare

Pancreatitis, intestinal angioedema.

Hepatobiliary disorders

Uncommon

Elevated liver enzymes and bilirubin.

Very rare

Hepatitis - either hepatocellular or cholestatic, jaundice and hepatic failure. *

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Uncommon

Rash, pruritus.

Rare

Hypersensitivity/angioneurotic oedema: angioneurotic oedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis, and/or larynx , urticaria, alopecia, psoriasis.

Very rare

Diaphoresis, pemphigus, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, erythema multiforme, cutaneous pseudolymphoma. **

Renal and urinary disorders

Common

Renal dysfunction.

Rare

Uraemia, acute renal failure.

Very rare

Oliguria/anuria.

Reproductive system and breast disorders

Uncommon

Impotence.

Rare

Gynaecomastia.

General disorders and administration site conditions

Uncommon

Asthenia, fatigue.

Investigations

Uncommon

Increases in blood urea, increases in serum creatinine, hyperkalaemia.

Rare

Hyponatraemia.

* Very rarely, it has been reported that in some patients the undesirable development of hepatitis has progressed to hepatic failure. Patients receiving lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide combination who develop jaundice or marked elevations of hepatic enzymes should discontinue lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide combination and receive appropriate medical follow up.

** A symptom complex has been reported which may include one or more of the following: fever, vasculitis, myalgia, arthralgia/arthritis, a positive antinuclear antibodies (ANA), elevated red blood cell sedimentation rate (ESR), eosinophilia and leucocytosis, rash, photosensitivity or other dermatological manifestations may occur.

Hydrochlorothiazide (frequencies not known):

Infections and infestations

Sialadenitis.

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Leukopenia, neutropenia/agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, aplastic anaemia, haemolytic anaemia, bone marrow depression.

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Anorexia, hyperglycaemia, glycosuria, hyperuricaemia, electrolyte imbalance (including hyponatraemia, hypokalaemia, hypochloremic alkalosis and hypomagnesaemia), increases in cholesterol and triglycerides, gout.

Psychiatric disorders

Restlessness, depression, sleep disturbance.

Nervous system disorders

Loss of appetite, paraesthesia, light-headedness.

Eye disorders

Xanthopsia, transient blurred vision, acute myopia and acute angle-closure glaucoma.

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Vertigo.

Cardiac disorders

Postural hypotension.

Vascular disorders

Necrotising angiitis (vasculitis, cutaneous vasculitis).

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Respiratory distress (including pneumonitis and pulmonary oedema).

Gastrointestinal disorders

Gastric irritation, diarrhoea, constipation, pancreatitis.

Hepatobiliary disorders

Jaundice (intrahepatic cholestatic jaundice).

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Photosensitivity reactions, rash, systemic lupus erythematosus, cutaneous lupus erythematosus-like reactions, reactivation of cutaneous lupus erythematosus, urticaria, anaphylactic reactions, toxic epidermal necrolysis.

Musculo-skeletal, connective tissue and bone disorders

Muscle spasm, muscle weakness.

Renal and urinary disorders

Renal dysfunction, interstitial nephritits.

General disorders

Fever, weakness.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.

Overdose

The information provided in Overdose of Acecomb mite is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acecomb mite of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Lisinopril). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Overdose in the instructions to the drug Acecomb mite directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Symptoms

Limited data are available for overdose in humans. Symptoms associated with overdosage of ACE inhibitors may include hypotension, circulatory shock, electrolyte disturbances, renal failure, hyperventilation, tachycardia, palpitations, bradycardia, dizziness, anxiety and cough.

Additional symptoms of hydrochlorothiazide overdose are increased diuresis, depression of consciousness (incl. coma), convulsions, paresis, cardiac arrhythmias and renal failure.

If digitalis has also been administered hypokalaemia may accentuate cardiac arrhythmias.

Management

The recommended treatment of overdose is intravenous infusion of normal saline solution. If hypotension occurs, the patient should be placed in the supine position. If available, treatment with angiotensin II infusion and/or intravenous catecholamines may also be considered. If ingestion is recent, take measures aimed at eliminating lisinopril (e.g. emesis, gastric lavage, administration of absorbents and sodium sulphate). Lisinopril may be removed from the general circulation by haemodialysis. Pacemaker therapy is indicated for therapy-resistant bradycardia. Vital signs, serum electrolytes and creatinine concentrations should be monitored frequently.

Bradycardia or extensive vagal reactions should be treated by administering atropine.

Pharmacodynamic properties

The information provided in Pharmacodynamic properties of Acecomb mite is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acecomb mite of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Lisinopril). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacodynamic properties in the instructions to the drug Acecomb mite directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Pharmacotherapeutic group: ACE-inhibitor and diuretic

ATC code: C09BA03

Acecomb mite is a fixed dose combination product containing lisinopril, an inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic. Both components have complementary modes of action and exert an additive antihypertensive effect.

Lisinopril

Mechanism of action

Lisinopril is a peptidyl dipeptidase inhibitor. It inhibits the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) that catalyses the conversion of angiotensin I to the vasoconstrictor peptide, angiotensin II. Angiotensin II also stimulates aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex. Inhibition of ACE results in decreased concentrations of angiotensin II which results in decreased vasopressor activity and reduced aldosterone secretion. The latter decrease may result in an increase in serum potassium concentration.

Pharmacodynamic effects

While the mechanism through which lisinopril lowers blood pressure is believed to be primarily suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, lisinopril is antihypertensive even in patients with low-renin hypertension. ACE is identical to kininase II, an enzyme that degrades bradykinin. Whether increased levels of bradykinin, a potent vasodilatory peptide, play a role in the therapeutic effects of lisinopril remains to be elucidated.

Clinical efficacy and safety

Renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-acting agents

Two large randomised, controlled trials (ONTARGET (ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial) and VA NEPHRON-D (The Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes)) have examined the use of the combination of an ACE-inhibitor with an angiotensin II receptor blocker.

ONTARGET was a study conducted in patients with a history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease, or type 2 diabetes mellitus accompanied by evidence of end organ damage. VA NEPHRON-D was a study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy.

These studies have shown no significant beneficial effect on renal and/or cardiovascular outcomes and mortality, while an increased risk of hyperkalaemia, acute kidney injury and/or hypotension as compared to monotherapy was observed. Given their similar pharmacodynamic properties, these results are also relevant for other ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers.

ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers should therefore not be used concomitantly in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

ALTITUDE (Aliskiren Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardiovascular and Renal Disease Endpoints) was a study designed to test the benefit of adding aliskiren to a standard therapy of an ACE-inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, or both. The study was terminated early because of an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Cardiovascular death and stroke were both numerically more frequent in the aliskiren group than in the placebo group and adverse events and serious adverse events of interest (hyperkalaemia, hypotension and renal dysfunction) were more frequently reported in the aliskiren group than in the placebo group.

Hydrochlorothiazide

Mechanism of action

Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic and an antihypertensive agent. It affects the distal renal tubular mechanism of electrolyte reabsorption and increases excretion of sodium and chloride in approximately equivalent amounts. Natriuresis may be accompanied by some loss of potassium and bicarbonate. The mechanism of the antihypertensive effect of the thiazides is unknown.

Pharmacodynamic effects

Thiazides do not usually affect normal blood pressure.

Pharmacokinetic properties

The information provided in Pharmacokinetic properties of Acecomb mite is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acecomb mite of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Lisinopril). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacokinetic properties in the instructions to the drug Acecomb mite directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Concomitant administration of lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide has little or no effect on the bioavailability of either drug. The combination tablet is bioequivalent to concomitant administration of the separate entities.

Lisinopril

Absorption

Following oral administration of lisinopril, peak serum concentrations occur within about 7 hours, although there was a trend to a small delay in time taken to reach peak serum concentrations in acute myocardial infarction patients. Based on urinary recovery, the mean extent of absorption of lisinopril is approximately 25%, with interpatient variability (6-60%) at all doses tested (5-80 mg) The absolute bioavailability is reduced approximately 16% in patients with heart failure.

Lisinopril absorption is not affected by the presence of food.

Distribution

Lisinopril does not appear to bind to other serum proteins other than to circulating angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE).

Studies in rats indicate that lisinopril crosses the blood-brain barrier poorly.

Elimination

Lisinopril does not undergo metabolism and absorbed drug is excreted unchanged entirely in the urine.

On multiple dosing lisinopril has an effective half-life of accumulation of 12.6 hours. The clearance of lisinopril in healthy subjects is approximately 50 ml/min. Declining serum concentrations exhibit a prolonged terminal phase, which does not contribute to drug accumulation. This terminal phase probably represents saturable binding to ACE and is not proportional to dose.

Hepatic impairment

Impairment of hepatic function in cirrhotic patients resulted in a decrease in lisinopril absorption (about 30% as determined by urinary recovery) but an increase in exposure (approximately 50%) compared to healthy subjects due to decreased clearance.

Renal impairment

Impaired renal function decreases elimination of lisinopril, which is excreted via the kidneys, but this decrease becomes clinically important only when the glomerular filtration rate is below 30 ml/min.

Table 1 Pharmacokinetic parameters of lisinopril to different groups of renal patients after administration of a multiple 5 mg dose

Renal Function

Measured by creatinine clearance

n

Cmax

(ng/ml)

Tmax

(hr)

AUC

(0-24 hrs)

(ng/hr/ml)

t1/2

(hr)

>80 ml/min

6

40.3

6

492+/-172

6.0+/-1.1

30-80 ml/min

6

36.6

8

555+/-364

11.8+/-1.9

5-30 ml/min

6

106.7

8

2228+/-938

19.5+/-5.2

With a creatinine clearance of 30-80ml/min, mean AUC was increased by 13% only, while a 4-5 fold increase in mean AUC was observed with creatinine clearance of 5-30ml/min.

Lisinopril can be removed by dialysis. During 4 hours of haemodialysis, plasma lisinopril concentrations decreased on average by 60%, with a dialysis clearance between 40 and 55 ml/min.

Heart Failure

Patients with heart failure have a greater exposure of lisinopril when compared to healthy subjects (an increase in AUC on average of 125%), but based on the urinary recovery of lisinopril, there is reduced absorption of approximately 16% compared to healthy subjects.

Elderly

Elderly patients have higher blood levels and higher values for the area under the plasma concentration time curve (increased approximately 60%) than younger patients.

Hydrochlorothiazide

When plasma levels have been followed for at least 24 hours, the plasma half-life has been observed to vary between 5.6 and 14.8 hours.

At least 61% of the dose is eliminated unchanged within 24 hours. After oral hydrochlorothiazide, diuresis begins within 2 hours, peaks in about 4 hours and lasts 6 to 12 hours.

Hydrochlorothiazide crosses the placental but not the blood-brain barrier.

Pharmacotherapeutic group

The information provided in Pharmacotherapeutic group of Acecomb mite is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acecomb mite of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Lisinopril). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacotherapeutic group in the instructions to the drug Acecomb mite directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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ACE-inhibitor and diuretic

Preclinical safety data

The information provided in Preclinical safety data of Acecomb mite is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acecomb mite of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Lisinopril). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Preclinical safety data in the instructions to the drug Acecomb mite directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide are both drugs on which extensive clinical experience has been obtained, both separately and in combination. All relevant information for the prescriber is provided elsewhere in the Summary of Product Characteristics.

Incompatibilities

The information provided in Incompatibilities of Acecomb mite is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acecomb mite of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Lisinopril). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Incompatibilities in the instructions to the drug Acecomb mite directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Not applicable.

Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The information provided in Special precautions for disposal and other handling of Acecomb mite is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Acecomb mite of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Lisinopril). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special precautions for disposal and other handling in the instructions to the drug Acecomb mite directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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No special requirements for disposal.

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