Components:
Quinapril Hydrochloride
Method of action:
Antihypertensive, Hypotensive, Normalizing The Function Of The Prostate
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Name of the medicinal product

Accumax

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Quinapril Hydrochloride

Therapeutic indications

The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Accumax is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accumax of the medicine (Quinapril Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Therapeutic indications in the instructions to the drug Accumax directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Hypertension

For the treatment of all grades of essential hypertension. Accumax Tablets are effective as monotherapy or concomitantly with diuretics in patients with hypertension.

Congestive Heart Failure

For the treatment of congestive heart failure when given concomitantly with a diuretic and/or cardiac glycoside. Treatment of congestive heart failure with Accumax Tablets should always be initiated under close medical supervision.

Hypertension

Accumax is indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including the class to which this drug principally belongs. There are no controlled trials demonstrating risk reduction with Accumax.

Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC).

Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly.

Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal.

Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy.

Accumax may be used alone or in combination with thiazide diuretics.

Heart Failure

Accumax is indicated in the management of heart failure as adjunctive therapy when added to conventional therapy including diuretics and/or digitalis.

In using Accumax, consideration should be given to the fact that another ACE inhibitor, captopril, has caused agranulocytosis, particularly in patients with renal impairment or collagen vascular disease. Available data are insufficient to show that Accumax does not have a similar risk (see WARNINGS).

Angioedema in black patients: Black patients receiving ACE inhibitor monotherapy have been reported to have a higher incidence of angioedema compared to non-blacks. It should also be noted that in controlled clinical trials ACE inhibitors have an effect on blood pressure that is less in black patients than in non-blacks.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administration of Accumax is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accumax of the medicine (Quinapril Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Accumax directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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For oral use.

Adults

Hypertension

Monotherapy: The recommended initial dosage is 10 mg once daily in uncomplicated hypertension. Depending upon clinical response, patient's dosage may be titrated (by doubling the dose allowing adequate time for dosage adjustment) to a maintenance dosage of 20 to 40 mg/day given as a single dose or divided into 2 doses. Long-term control is maintained in most patients with a single daily dosage regimen. Patients have been treated with dosages up to 80 mg/day.

Concomitant Diuretics: In order to determine if excess hypotension will occur, an initial dosage of 2.5 mg of Accumax Tablets is recommended in patients who are being treated with a diuretic. After this the dosage of Accumax Tablets should be titrated (as described above) to the optimal response.

Congestive Heart Failure

In order to closely monitor patients for symptomatic hypotension, a single 2.5 mg initial dosage is recommended. After this, patients should be titrated to an effective dose: (up to 40 mg/day) given in 1 or 2 doses with concomitant diuretic and/or cardiac glycoside therapy. Patients are usually maintained effectively on doses of 10-20 mg/day given with concomitant therapy. Take either with or without food. The dose should always be taken at about the same time of day to help increase compliance.

Severe Heart Failure

In the treatment of severe or unstable congestive heart failure, Accumax Tablets should always be initiated in hospital under close medical supervision.

Other patients who may also be considered to be at higher risk and should have treatment initiated in hospital include: patients who are on high dose loop diuretics (e.g.> 80 mg frusemide) or on multiple diuretic therapy, have hypovolaemia, hyponatraemia (serum sodium < 130 mmol/l) or systolic blood pressure < 90 mm Hg, are on high dose vasodilator therapy, have a serum creatinine > 150 µmol/l or are aged 70 years or over.

Take either with or without food. The dose should always be taken at about the same time of day to help increase compliance.

Elderly/Renal Impairment (over 65 years of age)

In elderly patients and in patients with a creatinine clearance of less than 40 ml/min, an initial dosage in essential hypertension of 2.5 mg is recommended followed by titration to the optimal response.

Paediatric population

<2 but no recommendation on a posology can be made.

Hypertension

Monotherapy

The recommended initial dosage of Accumax in patients not on diuretics is 10 or 20 mg once daily. Dosage should be adjusted according to blood pressure response measured at peak (2–6 hours after dosing) and trough (predosing). Generally, dosage adjustments should be made at intervals of at least 2 weeks. Most patients have required dosages of 20, 40, or 80 mg/day, given as a single dose or in two equally divided doses. In some patients treated once daily, the antihypertensive effect may diminish toward the end of the dosing interval. In such patients an increase in dosage or twice daily administration may be warranted. In general, doses of 40–80 mg and divided doses give a somewhat greater effect at the end of the dosing interval.

Concomitant Diuretics

If blood pressure is not adequately controlled with Accumax monotherapy, a diuretic may be added. In patients who are currently being treated with a diuretic, symptomatic hypotension occasionally can occur following the initial dose of Accumax. To reduce the likelihood of hypotension, the diuretic should, if possible, be discontinued 2 to 3 days prior to beginning therapy with Accumax (see WARNINGS). Then, if blood pressure is not controlled with Accumax alone, diuretic therapy should be resumed.

If the diuretic cannot be discontinued, an initial dose of 5 mg Accumax should be used with careful medical supervision for several hours and until blood pressure has stabilized.

The dosage should subsequently be titrated (as described above) to the optimal response (see WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, and DRUG INTERACTIONS).

Renal Impairment

Kinetic data indicate that the apparent elimination half-life of quinaprilat increases as creatinine clearance decreases. Recommended starting doses, based on clinical and pharmacokinetic data from patients with renal impairment, are as follows:

Creatinine Clearance Maximum Recommended Initial Dose
>60 mL/min 10 mg
30–60 mL/min 5 mg
10–30 mL/min 2.5 mg
10–30 mL/min Insufficient data for dosage recommendation

Patients should subsequently have their dosage titrated (as described above) to the optimal response.

Elderly (≥65 Years)

The recommended initial dosage of Accumax in elderly patients is 10 mg given once daily followed by titration (as described above) to the optimal response.

Heart Failure

Accumax is indicated as adjunctive therapy when added to conventional therapy including diuretics and/or digitalis. The recommended starting dose is 5 mg twice daily. This dose may improve symptoms of heart failure, but increases in exercise duration have generally required higher doses. Therefore, if the initial dosage of Accumax is well tolerated, patients should then be titrated at weekly intervals until an effective dose, usually 20 to 40 mg daily given in two equally divided doses, is reached or undesirable hypotension, orthostatis, or azotemia (see WARNINGS) prohibit reaching this dose.

Following the initial dose of Accumax, the patient should be observed under medical supervision for at least two hours for the presence of hypotension or orthostatis and, if present, until blood pressure stabilizes. The appearance of hypotension, orthostatis, or azotemia early in dose titration should not preclude further careful dose titration. Consideration should be given to reducing the dose of concomitant diuretics.

Dose Adjustments In Patients With Heart Failure And Renal Impairment Or Hyponatremia

Pharmacokinetic data indicate that quinapril elimination is dependent on level of renal function. In patients with heart failure and renal impairment, the recommended initial dose of Accumax is 5 mg in patients with a creatinine clearance above 30 mL/min and 2.5 mg in patients with a creatinine clearance of 10 to 30 mL/min. There is insufficient data for dosage recommendation in patients with a creatinine clearance less than 10 mL/min (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Heart Failure,WARNINGS, and PRECAUTIONS, DRUG INTERACTIONS).

If the initial dose is well tolerated, Accumax may be administered the following day as a twice daily regimen. In the absence of excessive hypotension or significant deterioration of renal function, the dose may be increased at weekly intervals based on clinical and hemodynamic response.

Contraindications

The information provided in Contraindications of Accumax is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accumax of the medicine (Quinapril Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Accumax directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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• Second and third trimesters of pregnancy .

• History of angioedema related to previous treatment with ACE inhibitors.

• Hereditary or idiopathic angioneurotic oedema.

• Accumax should not be used in patients with dynamic left ventricular outflow obstruction.

• The concomitant use of Accumax with aliskiren-containing products is contraindicated in patients with diabetes mellitus or renal impairment (GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) .

Accumax is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to this product and in patients with a history of angioedema related to previous treatment with an ACE inhibitor.

Do not co-administer Accumax with aliskiren in patients with diabetes.

Special warnings and precautions for use

The information provided in Special warnings and precautions for use of Accumax is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accumax of the medicine (Quinapril Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special warnings and precautions for use in the instructions to the drug Accumax directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)

There is evidence that the concomitant use of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren increases the risk of hypotension, hyperkalaemia and decreased renal function (including acute renal failure). Dual blockade of RAAS through the combined use of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren is therefore not recommended .

If dual blockade therapy is considered absolutely necessary, this should only occur under specialist supervision and subject to frequent close monitoring of renal function, electrolytes and blood pressure.

ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers should not be used concomitantly in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

Accumax Tablets should be used with caution in selected patients with aortic stenosis or outflow obstruction.

Sensitivity reactions:

Sensitivity reactions may occur in patients with or without a history of allergy or bronchial asthma, e.g., purpura, photosensitivity, urticaria, necrotising angiitis, respiratory distress including pneumonitis and pulmonary oedema, anaphylactic reactions.

Symptomatic hypotension:

Symptomatic hypotension is seen rarely in uncomplicated hypertensive patients but it is a possible consequence of ACE inhibition. In hypertensive patients receiving Accumax, hypotension is more likely to occur if the patient has been salt/volume-depleted e.g., by diuretic therapy, dietary salt restriction, dialysis, diarrhoea or vomiting, or has severe renin-dependent hypertension .

If symptomatic hypotension occurs, the patient should be placed in the supine position and, if necessary, receive an intravenous infusion of normal saline. A transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication to further doses; however, lower doses of Accumax or any concomitant diuretic therapy should be considered if this event occurs.

In patients with congestive heart failure, who are at risk of excessive hypotension, Accumax therapy should be started at the recommended dose under close medical supervision; these patients should be followed closely for the first two weeks of treatment and whenever the dosage of Accumax is increased.

Similar considerations apply to patients with ischaemic heart or cerebrovascular disease in whom an excessive fall in blood pressure could result in a myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident.

Impaired Renal Function

In patients with renal insufficiency, monitoring of renal function during therapy should be performed as deemed appropriate; although in the majority renal function will not alter or may improve.

The half-life of Accumaxat is prolonged as creatinine clearance falls. Patients with a creatinine clearance of <40 ml/min require a lower initial dosage of Accumax . These patients' dosage should be titrated upwards based upon therapeutic response, and renal function should be closely monitored although initial studies do not indicate that Accumax produces further deterioration in renal function.

As a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, changes in renal function may be anticipated in susceptible individuals. In patients with severe heart failure whose renal function may depend on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, treatment with ACE inhibitors including Accumax, may be associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotemia and rarely acute renal failure and/or death.

In clinical studies in hypertensive patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine have been observed in some patients following ACE inhibitor therapy. These increases were almost always reversible upon discontinuation of the ACE inhibitor and/or diuretic therapy. In such patients, renal function should be monitored during the first few weeks of therapy.

Some patients with hypertension or heart failure with no apparent pre-existing renal vascular disease have developed increases >1.25 times the upper limit of normal) in blood urea and serum creatinine, usually minor and transient, especially when Accumax has been given concomitantly with a diuretic. Increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine have been observed in 2% and 2%, respectively of hypertensive patients on Accumax monotherapy and in 4% and 3%, respectively of hypertensive patients on Accumax/HCTZ. These increases are more likely to occur in patients with pre-existing renal impairment. Dosage reduction and/or discontinuation of a diuretic and/or Accumax may be required.

There is insufficient experience in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <10 ml/min). Treatment is therefore not recommended in these patients.

Angioedema:

Angioedema has been reported in patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. If laryngeal stridor or angioedema of the face, tongue, or glottis occur, treatment should be discontinued immediately, the patient treated appropriately in accordance with accepted medical care, and carefully observed until the swelling disappears. In instances where swelling is confined to the face and lips, the condition generally resolves without treatment; antihistamines may be useful in relieving symptoms. Angioedema associated with laryngeal involvement may be fatal. Where there is involvement of the tongue, glottis, or larynx likely to cause airway obstruction, appropriate therapy e.g., subcutaneous adrenaline solution 1:1000 (0.3 to 0.5 ml) should be promptly administered.

Patients with a history of angioedema unrelated to ACE inhibitor therapy may be at increased risk of angioedema while receiving an ACE inhibitor .

Intestinal angioedema:

Intestinal angioedema has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. These patients presented with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); in some cases there was no prior history of facial angioedema and C-1 esterase levels were normal. The angioedema was diagnosed by procedures including abdominal CT scan or ultrasound, or at surgery, and symptoms resolved after stopping the ACE inhibitor. Intestinal angioedema should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients on ACE inhibitors presenting with abdominal pain.

Ethnic Differences

Black patients receiving ACE inhibitor therapy generally have a higher incidence of angioedema than non-black patients. It should also be noted that in controlled clinical trials, ACE inhibitors have an effect on blood pressure that is less in black patients than in non-blacks.

Neutropenia/agranulocytosis:

ACE inhibitors have been rarely associated with agranulocytosis and bone marrow depression in patients with uncomplicated hypertension but more frequently in patients with renal impairment, especially if they also have collagen vascular disease. As with other ACE inhibitors, monitoring of white blood cell counts in patients with collagen vascular disease and/or renal diseases should be considered.

Agranulocytosis has been rarely reported during treatment with Accumax. Monitoring of white blood cell counts in patients with collagen vascular disease and/or renal disease should be considered.

Desensitization:

Patients receiving ACE inhibitors during desensitising treatment with hymenoptera venom have sustained life threatening anaphylactoid reactions. In the same patients, these reactions have been avoided when ACE inhibitors were temporarily withheld, but they have reappeared upon inadvertent re-challenge.

Haemodialysis and LDL Apheresis:

Patients haemodialysed using high-flux polyacrylonitrile ('AN69') membranes are highly likely to experience anaphylactoid reactions if they are treated with ACE inhibitors. This combination should therefore be avoided, either by use of alternative antihypertensive drugs or alternative membranes for haemodialysis. Similar reactions have been observed during low-density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran-sulphate. This method should therefore not be used in patients treated with ACE inhibitors.

Impaired Hepatic Function:

Accumax when combined with a diuretic should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease, since minor alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance may precipitate hepatic coma. The metabolism of Accumax to Accumaxat is normally dependent upon hepatic esterase. Accumaxat concentrations are reduced in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis due to impaired de-esterification of Accumax.

Rarely, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a syndrome beginning as a cholestatic jaundice and progressing to a fulminant hepatic necrosis (in some cases fatal). Patients who during ACE inhibitor therapy experience jaundice or clearly elevated hepatic enzymes should discontinue Accumax and receive appropriate medical follow-up.

Cough:

Cough has been reported with the use of ACE inhibitors. Characteristically, the cough is non-productive, persistent and resolves after discontinuation of therapy. ACE inhibitor-induced cough should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis of cough.

Surgery/Anaesthesia:

In patients undergoing major surgery or during anaesthesia with agents that produce hypotension, Accumax may block angiotensin II formation secondary to compensatory renin release.).

Diabetic patients:

In diabetic patients ACE inhibitors may enhance insulin sensitivity and have been associated with hypoglycaemia in patients treated with oral antidiabetic agents or insulin. Glycaemic control should be closely monitored particularly during the first month of treatment with an ACE inhibitor .

Pregnancy

ACE inhibitors should not be initiated during pregnancy. Unless continued ACE inhibitor therapy is considered essential, patients planning pregnancy should be changed to alternative anti-hypertensive treatments which have an established safety profile for use in pregnancy. When pregnancy is diagnosed, treatment with ACE inhibitors should be stopped immediately, and, if appropriate, alternative therapy should be started .

WARNINGS

Anaphylactoid And Possibly Related Reactions

Presumably because ACE inhibitors affect the metabolism of eicosanoids and polypeptides, including endogenous bradykinin, patients receiving ACE inhibitors (including Accumax) may be subject to a variety of adverse reactions, some of them serious.

Head And Neck Angioedema

Angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis, and larynx has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors and has been seen in 0.1% of patients receiving Accumax.

In two similarly sized U.S. postmarketing trials that, combined, enrolled over 3,000 black patients and over 19,000 non-blacks, angioedema was reported in 0.30% and 0.55% of blacks (in study 1 and 2 respectively) and 0.39% and 0.17% of non-blacks.

Angioedema associated with laryngeal edema can be fatal. If laryngeal stridor or angioedema of the face, tongue, or glottis occurs, treatment with Accumax should be discontinued immediately, the patient treated in accordance with accepted medical care, and carefully observed until the swelling disappears. In instances where swelling is confined to the face and lips, the condition generally resolves without treatment; antihistamines may be useful in relieving symptoms. Where there is involvement of the tongue, glottis, or larynx likely to cause airway obstruction, emergency therapy including, but not limited to, subcutaneous epinephrine solution 1:1000 (0.3 to 0.5 mL) should be promptly administered (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

Patients taking concomitant mTOR inhibitor (e.g. temsirolimus) therapy may be at increased risk for angioedema.

Intestinal Angioedema

Intestinal angioedema has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. These patients presented with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); in some cases there was no prior history of facial angioedema and C-1 esterase levels were normal. The angioedema was diagnosed by procedures including abdominal CT scan or ultrasound, or at surgery, and symptoms resolved after stopping the ACE inhibitor. Intestinal angioedema should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients on ACE inhibitors presenting with abdominal pain.

Patients With A History Of Angioedema

Patients with a history of angioedema unrelated to ACE inhibitor therapy may be at increased risk of angioedema while receiving an ACE inhibitor (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Anaphylactoid Reactions During Desensitization

Two patients undergoing desensitizing treatment with hymenoptera venom while receiving ACE inhibitors sustained life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions. In the same patients, these reactions were avoided when ACE inhibitors were temporarily withheld, but they reappeared upon inadvertent rechallenge.

Anaphylactoid Reactions During Membrane Exposure

Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients dialyzed with high-flux membranes and treated concomitantly with an ACE inhibitor. Anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported in patients undergoing low-density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate absorption.

Hepatic Failure

Rarely, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a syndrome that starts with cholestatic jaundice and progresses to fulminant hepatic necrosis and (sometimes) death. The mechanism of this syndrome is not understood. Patients receiving ACE inhibitors who develop jaundice or marked elevations of hepatic enzymes should discontinue the ACE inhibitor and receive appropriate medical follow-up.

Hypotension Excessive hypotension is rare in patients with uncomplicated hypertension treated with Accumax alone. Patients with heart failure given Accumax commonly have some reduction in blood pressure, but discontinuation of therapy because of continuing symptomatic hypotension usually is not necessary when dosing instructions are followed. Caution should be observed when initiating therapy in patients with heart failure (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). In controlled studies, syncope was observed in 0.4% of patients (N=3203); this incidence was similar to that observed for captopril (1%) and enalapril (0.8%).

Patients at risk of excessive hypotension, sometimes associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotemia, and rarely with acute renal failure and/or death, include patients with the following conditions or characteristics: heart failure, hyponatremia, high dose diuretic therapy, recent intensive diuresis or increase in diuretic dose, renal dialysis, or severe volume and/or salt depletion of any etiology. It may be advisable to eliminate the diuretic (except in patients with heart failure), reduce the diuretic dose or cautiously increase salt intake (except in patients with heart failure) before initiating therapy with Accumax in patients at risk for excessive hypotension who are able to tolerate such adjustments.

In patients at risk of excessive hypotension, therapy with Accumax should be started under close medical supervision. Such patients should be followed closely for the first two weeks of treatment and whenever the dose of Accumax and/or diuretic is increased. Similar considerations may apply to patients with ischemic heart or cerebrovascular disease in whom an excessive fall in blood pressure could result in a myocardial infarction or a cerebrovascular accident.

If excessive hypotension occurs, the patient should be placed in the supine position and, if necessary, receive an intravenous infusion of normal saline. A transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication to further doses of Accumax, which usually can be given without difficulty once the blood pressure has stabilized. If symptomatic hypotension develops, a dose reduction or discontinuation of Accumax or concomitant diuretic may be necessary.

Neutropenia/Agranulocytosis

Another ACE inhibitor, captopril, has been shown to cause agranulocytosis and bone marrow depression rarely in patients with uncomplicated hypertension, but more frequently in patients with renal impairment, especially if they also have a collagen vascular disease, such as systemic lupus erythematosus or scleroderma. Agranulocytosis did occur during Accumax treatment in one patient with a history of neutropenia during previous captopril therapy. Available data from clinical trials of Accumax are insufficient to show that, in patients without prior reactions to other ACE inhibitors, Accumax does not cause agranulocytosis at similar rates. As with other ACE inhibitors, periodic monitoring of white blood cell counts in patients with collagen vascular disease and/or renal disease should be considered.

Fetal Toxicity

Pregnancy Category D

Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Accumax as soon as possible. These adverse outcomes are usually associated with use of these drugs in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. Appropriate management of maternal hypertension during pregnancy is important to optimize outcomes for both mother and fetus.

In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus. Perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue Accumax, unless it is considered life-saving for the mother. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of pregnancy. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to Accumax for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia (see PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use). No teratogenic effects of Accumax were seen in studies of pregnant rats and rabbits. On a mg/kg basis, the doses used were up to 180 times (in rats) and one time (in rabbits) the maximum recommended human dose.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Impaired Renal Function

As a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, changes in renal function may be anticipated in susceptible individuals. In patients with severe heart failure whose renal function may depend on the activity of the renin-angiotensinaldosterone system, treatment with ACE inhibitors, including Accumax, may be associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotemia and rarely acute renal failure and/or death.

In clinical studies in hypertensive patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine have been observed in some patients following ACE inhibitor therapy. These increases were almost always reversible upon discontinuation of the ACE inhibitor and/or diuretic therapy. In such patients, renal function should be monitored during the first few weeks of therapy.

Some patients with hypertension or heart failure with no apparent preexisting renal vascular disease have developed increases in blood urea and serum creatinine, usually minor and transient, especially when Accumax has been given concomitantly with a diuretic. This is more likely to occur in patients with preexisting renal impairment. Dosage reduction and/or discontinuation of any diuretic and/or Accumax may be required.

Evaluation of patients with hypertension or heart failure should always include assessment of renal function (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Hyperkalemia

In clinical trials, hyperkalemia (serum potassium ≥5.8 mmol/L) occurred in approximately 2% of patients receiving Accumax. In most cases, elevated serum potassium levels were isolated values which resolved despite continued therapy. Less than 0.1% of patients discontinued therapy due to hyperkalemia. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia include renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, and the concomitant use of other drugs that raise serum potassium levels. Monitor serum potassium in such patients (see PRECAUTIONS, DRUG INTERACTIONS).

Cough

Presumably due to the inhibition of the degradation of endogenous bradykinin, persistent non-productive cough has been reported with all ACE inhibitors, always resolving after discontinuation of therapy. ACE inhibitor-induced cough should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cough.

Surgery/Anesthesia

In patients undergoing major surgery or during anesthesia with agents that produce hypotension, Accumax will block angiotensin II formation secondary to compensatory renin release. If hypotension occurs and is considered to be due to this mechanism, it can be corrected by volume expansion.

Dual Blockade Of The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS)

Dual blockade of the RAS with angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. Most patients receiving the combination of two RAS inhibitors do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. In general, avoid combined use of RAS inhibitors. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function and electrolytes in patients on Accumax and other agents that affect the RAS.

Do not co-administer aliskiren with Accumax in patients with diabetes. Avoid concomitant use of aliskiren with Accumax in patients with renal impairment (GFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2).

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Quinapril hydrochloride was not carcinogenic in mice or rats when given in doses up to 75 or 100 mg/kg/day (50 to 60 times the maximum human daily dose, respectively, on an mg/kg basis and 3.8 to 10 times the maximum human daily dose when based on an mg/m2 basis) for 104 weeks. Female rats given the highest dose level had an increased incidence of mesenteric lymph node hemangiomas and skin/subcutaneous lipomas. Neither quinapril nor quinaprilat were mutagenic in the Ames bacterial assay with or without metabolic activation. Quinapril was also negative in the following genetic toxicology studies: in vitro mammalian cell point mutation, sister chromatid exchange in cultured mammalian cells, micronucleus test with mice, in vitro chromosome aberration with V79 cultured lung cells, and in anin vivo cytogenetic study with rat bone marrow. There were no adverse effects on fertility or reproduction in rats at doses up to 100 mg/kg/day (60 and 10 times the maximum daily human dose when based on mg/kg and mg/m2 , respectively).

Nursing Mothers

Because Accumax is secreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when this drug is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Neonates With A History Of In Utero Exposure To Accumax:

If oliguria or hypotension occurs, direct attention toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function. Removal of Accumax, which crosses the placenta, from the neonatal circulation is not significantly accelerated by these means.

The safety and effectiveness of Accumax in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Accumax did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

Elderly patients exhibited increased area under the plasma concentration time curve and peak levels for quinaprilat compared to values observed in younger patients; this appeared to relate to decreased renal function rather than to age itself.

Effects on ability to drive and use machines

The information provided in Effects on ability to drive and use machines of Accumax is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accumax of the medicine (Quinapril Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Effects on ability to drive and use machines in the instructions to the drug Accumax directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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There are no studies on the effect of this medicine on the ability to drive. The ability to engage in activities such as operating machinery or operating a motor vehicle may be impaired, especially when initiating Accumax therapy.

Undesirable effects

The information provided in Undesirable effects of Accumax is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accumax of the medicine (Quinapril Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Undesirable effects in the instructions to the drug Accumax directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet
Film coated

The following undesirable effects have been observed during treatment with Accumax and other ACE inhibitors with the following frequencies:

Very common (≥ 1/10)

Common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10),

Uncommon (≥ 1/1,000, to <1/100),

Rare (≥1/10,000 to < 1/1,000).

Very rare < 1/10,000,

Not known (cannot be estimated from the available data)

The most frequently reported adverse reactions found in controlled clinical trials were headache (7.2%), dizziness (5.5%), cough (3.9%), fatigue (3.5%), rhinitis (3.2%), nausea and/or vomiting (2.8%), and myalgia (2.2%).

System Organ Class

Frequency

Undesirable effects

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Not Known

Agranulocytosis, haemolytic anaemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia

Immune system disorders

Not Known

Anaphylactoid reaction

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Common

Hyperkalaemia

Psychiatric disorders

Common

Insomnia

Uncommon

Confusional state, depression, nervousness, sleep disorders

Nervous system disorders

Common

Dizziness, headache, paraesthesia

Uncommon

Transient ischaemic attack, somnolence

Rare

Balance disorder, syncope, neuropathy

Not known

Cerebrovascular accident

Eye disorders

Uncommon

Amblyopia

Very Rare

Vision blurred

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Uncommon

Vertigo, tinnitus

Cardiac disorders

Uncommon

Myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, tachycardia, asystole, palpitations

Rare

Cerebral haemorrhage

Vascular disorders

Common

Hypotension

Uncommon

Vasodilatation

Not known

Orthostatic hypotension

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Common

Dyspnoea, cough

Uncommon

Dry throat

Rare

Eosinophilic pneumonia, worsening of asthma

Very Rare

Allergic alveolitis, anaphylactoid reaction

Not known

Bronchospasm.

In individual cases, upper airways obstruction by angioedema (that may be fatal)

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common

Vomiting, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, nausea

Uncommon

Flatulence, dry mouth

Rare

Glossitis, constipation, dysgeusia, Ileus

Very Rare

Small bowel angioedema

Not Known

Pancreatitis*

Hepato-biliary disorders

Rare

Hepatic function disturbances

Not Known

Hepatitis, jaundice cholestatic

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Uncommon

Angioedema, rash, pruritus, hyperhidrosis, exanthema, increased perspiration

Rare

Erythema multiforme, pemphigus, urticaria, psoriasis like efflorescences

Very Rare

Dermatitis psoriasiform

Not Known

Stevens Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, exfoliative dermatitis, alopecia, photosensitivity reaction.

Skin disorders may be associated with pyrexia, muscle and joint pain (myalgia, arthralgia, arthritis), vascular inflammation (vasculitis), inflammation of serous tissues and certain changes in laboratory values (eosinophilia, leukocytosis and/or antinuclear antibody increased, red blood sedimentation rate increased).

Musculoskeletal, connective tissue and bone disorders

Common

Back pain, myalgia

Renal and urinary disorders

Uncommon

Renal impairment, proteinuria

Very Rare

Kidney failure

Reproductive system and breast disorders

Uncommon

Erectile dysfunction

General disorders and administration site conditions

Common

Fatigue, asthenia, chest pain

Uncommon

Generalised oedema, pyrexia, oedema peripheral, angioedema (with swelling of face, lips, tongue, pharynx)

Investigations

Common

Blood creatinine increased, blood urea increased**

Not Known

Haemoglobin decreased, haematocrit decreased, decreases in haematocrit and WCXC, hepatic enzyme increased, blood bilirubin increased. In patients with a congenital G-6-PDH deficiency, individual cases of haemolytic anaemia have been reported.

Infections and infestations

Common

Pharyngitis, rhinitis

Uncommon

Bronchitis, upper respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, sinusitis

* Pancreatitis has been reported rarely in patients treated with ACE inhibitors; in some cases this has proved fatal.

** Such increases are more likely to occur in patients receiving concomitant diuretic therapy than those on monotherapy with Accumax. These observed increases will often reverse on continued therapy.

Rare cases of agranulocytosis have been reported, and also a syndrome including fever, serositis, vasculitis, myalgia, arthralgia/arthritis, positive ANA-titre, SR-elevation, eosinophilia, and leukocytosis.

Gynaecomastia and vasculitis have been reported with other ACE-inhibitors and it cannot be excluded that these unwanted effects are class specific.

Laboratory values: Transient increases in serum creatinine and urea values have been reported, especially in association with concomitant therapy with diuretics. Slight decreases in haemoglobin and haematocrit values have been reported for other ACE-inhibitors. It cannot be excluded that these observations are group specific.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.

Hypertension

Accumax has been evaluated for safety in 4960 subjects and patients. Of these, 3203 patients, including 655 elderly patients, participated in controlled clinical trials. Accumax has been evaluated for long-term safety in over 1400 patients treated for 1 year or more.

Adverse experiences were usually mild and transient.

In placebo-controlled trials, discontinuation of therapy because of adverse events was required in 4.7% of patients with hypertension.

Adverse experiences probably or possibly related to therapy or of unknown relationship to therapy occurring in 1% or more of the 1563 patients in placebo-controlled hypertension trials who were treated with Accumax are shown below.

Adverse Events in Placebo-Controlled Trials

  Accumax
(N=585)
Incidence
(Discontinuance)
Placebo
(N=295)
Incidence
(Discontinuance)
Headache 5.6 (0.7) 10.9 (0.7)
Dizziness 3.9 (0.8) 2.6 (0.2)
Fatigue 2.6 (0.3) 1.0
Coughing 2.0 (0.5) 0.0
Nausea and/or Vomiting 1.4 (0.3) 1.9 (0.2)
Abdominal Pain 1.0 (0.2) 0.7

Heart Failure

Accumax has been evaluated for safety in 1222 Accumax treated patients. Of these, 632 patients participated in controlled clinical trials. In placebo-controlled trials, discontinuation of therapy because of adverse events was required in 6.8% of patients with congestive heart failure.

Adverse experiences probably or possibly related or of unknown relationship to therapy occurring in 1% or more of the 585 patients in placebo-controlled congestive heart failure trials who were treated with Accumax are shown below.

  Accumax
(N=585)
Incidence
(Discontinuance)
Placebo
(N=295)
Incidence
(Discontinuance)
Dizziness 7.7 (0.7) 5.1 (1.0)
Coughing 4.3 (0.3) 1.4
Fatigue 2.6 (0.2) 1.4
Nausea and/or Vomiting 2.4 (0.2) 0.7
Chest Pain 2.4 1.0
Hypotension 2.9 (0.5) 1.0
Dyspnea 1.9 (0.2) 2.0
Diarrhea 1.7 1.0
Headache 1.7 1.0 (0.3)
Myalgia 1.5 2.0
Rash 1.4 (0.2) 1.0
Back Pain 1.2 0.3

See PRECAUTIONS, Cough.

Hypertension And/Or Heart Failure

Clinical adverse experiences probably, possibly, or definitely related, or of uncertain relationship to therapy occurring in 0.5% to 1.0% (except as noted) of the patients with CHF or hypertension treated with Accumax (with or without concomitant diuretic) in controlled or uncontrolled trials (N=4847) and less frequent, clinically significant events seen in clinical trials or post-marketing experience (the rarer events are in italics) include (listed by body system):

General: back pain, malaise, viral infections, anaphylactoid reaction

Cardiovascular: palpitation, vasodilation, tachycardia, heart failure, hyperkalemia, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, hypertensive crisis, angina pectoris, orthostatic hypotension, cardiac rhythm disturbances, cardiogenic shock

Hematology: hemolytic anemia

Gastrointestinal: flatulence, dry mouth or throat, constipation, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, pancreatitis, abnormal liver function tests, dyspepsia

Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders: hyponatremia

Nervous/Psychiatric: somnolence, vertigo, syncope, nervousness, depression, insomnia, paresthesia

Integumentary: alopecia, increased sweating, pemphigus, pruritus, exfoliative dermatitis, photosensitivity reaction, dermatopolymyositis

Urogenital: urinary tract infection, impotence, acute renal failure, worsening renal failure

Respiratory: eosinophilic pneumonitis

Other: amblyopia, edema, arthralgia, pharyngitis, agranulocytosis, hepatitis, thrombocytopenia

Angioedema

Angioedema has been reported in patients receiving Accumax (0.1%). Angioedema associated with laryngeal edema may be fatal. If angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis, and/or larynx occurs, treatment with Accumax should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted immediately. (see WARNINGS.)

Clinical Laboratory Test Findings

Hematology: (See WARNINGS)

Hyperkalemia: (See PRECAUTIONS)

Creatinine and Blood Urea Nitrogen

Increases (>1.25 times the upper limit of normal) in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were observed in 2% and 2%, respectively, of all patients treated with Accumax alone. Increases are more likely to occur in patients receiving concomitant diuretic therapy than in those on Accumax alone. These increases often remit on continued therapy. In controlled studies of heart failure, increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were observed in 11% and 8%, respectively, of patients treated with Accumax; most often these patients were receiving diuretics with or without digitalis.

Overdose

The information provided in Overdose of Accumax is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accumax of the medicine (Quinapril Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Overdose in the instructions to the drug Accumax directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet
Film coated

The oral LD50 of Accumax in mice and rats ranges from 1440 to 4280 mg/kg.

No specific information is available on the treatment of overdosage with Accumax. The most likely clinical manifestation would be symptoms attributable to severe hypotension, which should normally be treated by intravenous volume expansion.

Haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis have little effect on the elimination of Accumax and Accumaxat.

Treatment is symptomatic and supportive consistent with established medical care.

Doses of 1440 to 4280 mg/kg of quinapril cause significant lethality in mice and rats.

No specific information is available on the treatment of overdosage with quinapril. The most likely clinical manifestation would be symptoms attributable to severe hypotension.

Laboratory determinations of serum levels of quinapril and its metabolites are not widely available, and such determinations have, in any event, no established role in the management of quinapril overdose.

No data are available to suggest physiological maneuvers (eg, maneuvers to change pH of the urine) that might accelerate elimination of quinapril and its metabolites.

Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis have little effect on the elimination of quinapril and quinaprilat. Angiotensin II could presumably serve as a specific antagonist-antidote in the setting of quinapril overdose, but angiotensin II is essentially unavailable outside of scattered research facilities. Because the hypotensive effect of quinapril is achieved through vasodilation and effective hypovolemia, it is reasonable to treat quinapril overdose by infusion of normal saline solution.

Pharmacodynamic properties

The information provided in Pharmacodynamic properties of Accumax is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accumax of the medicine (Quinapril Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacodynamic properties in the instructions to the drug Accumax directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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ATC code: C09AA06

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor.

Accumax is rapidly de-esterified to Accumaxat (Accumax diacid, the principal metabolite), which is a potent angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor.

ACE is a peptidyl dipeptidase that catalyses the conversion of angiotensin I to the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II which is involved in vascular control and function through many different mechanisms, including stimulation of aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex. The mode of action of Accumax in humans and animals is to inhibit circulating and tissue ACE activity, thereby decreasing vasopressor activity and aldosterone secretion.

In animal studies, the antihypertensive effect of Accumax outlasts its inhibitory effect on circulating ACE, whereas, tissue ACE inhibition more closely correlates with the duration of antihypertensive effects. Administration of 10-40 mg of Accumax to patients with mild to severe hypertension results in a reduction of both sitting and standing blood pressure with minimal effect on heart rate. Antihypertensive activity commences within one hour with peak effects usually achieved by two to four hours after dosing. Achievement of maximum blood pressure lowering effects may require two weeks of therapy in some patients. At the recommended doses, antihypertensive effects are maintained in most patients throughout the 24 hour dosing interval and continue during long term therapy.

In a randomised clinical trial using target doses of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg of Accumax, 112 children and adolescents with hypertension or high normal blood pressure over 8 weeks (2 weeks double blind and 6 weeks extension), failed to reach its primary objective of reduction of diastolic blood pressure after 2 weeks. For systolic blood pressure (secondary objective of efficacy) at Week 2 only there was a statistically significant linear dose response across treatments with a significant difference between the Accumax 20 mg QD and placebo treatment groups.

Long term effects of Accumax on growth, puberty and general development have not been studied.

Two large randomised, controlled trials (ONTARGET (ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial) and VA NEPHRON-D (The Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes)) have examined the use of the combination of an ACE-inhibitor with an angiotensin II receptor blocker.

ONTARGET was a study conducted in patients with a history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease, or type 2 diabetes mellitus accompanied by evidence of end-organ damage. VA NEPHRON-D was a study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy.

These studies have shown no significant beneficial effect on renal and/or cardiovascular outcomes and mortality, while an increased risk of hyperkalaemia, acute kidney injury and/or hypotension as compared to monotherapy was observed. Given their similar pharmacodynamic properties, these results are also relevant for other ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers.

ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers should therefore not be used concomitantly in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

ALTITUDE (Aliskiren Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardiovascular and Renal Disease Endpoints) was a study designed to test the benefit of adding aliskiren to a standard therapy of an ACE-inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, or both. The study was terminated early because of an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Cardiovascular death and stroke were both numerically more frequent in the aliskiren group than in the placebo group and adverse events and serious adverse events of interest (hyperkalaemia, hypotension and renal dysfunction) were more frequently reported in the aliskiren group than in the placebo group.

Pharmacokinetic properties

The information provided in Pharmacokinetic properties of Accumax is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accumax of the medicine (Quinapril Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacokinetic properties in the instructions to the drug Accumax directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Peak plasma Accumax tablets concentrations are observed within 1 hour of oral administration. The extent of absorption is approximately 60%, and is not influenced by food. Following absorption, Accumax is de-esterified to its major active metabolite, Accumaxat, and to minor inactive metabolites. Accumax tablets have an apparent half-life of approximately one hour. Peak plasma Accumaxat concentrations are observed approximately 2 hours following an oral dose of Accumax. Accumaxat is eliminated primarily by renal excretion and has an effective accumulation half-life of 3 hours. In patients with renal insufficiency and creatinine clearance of ≤40ml/min, peak and trough Accumaxat concentrations increase, time to peak concentration increases, apparent half-life increases, and time to steady state may be delayed. The elimination of Accumaxat is also reduced in elderly patients >65 years) and correlates well with the impaired renal function which frequently occurs in the elderly. Accumaxat concentrations are reduced in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis due to impaired de-esterification of Accumax tablets. Studies in rats indicate that Accumax tablets and its metabolites do not cross the blood-brain barrier.

The pharmacokinetics of Accumax has been studied in a single dose study (0.2 mg/kg) in 24 children aged 2.5 months to 6.8 years and a multiple dose study (0.016-0.468 mg/kg) in 38 children aged 5-16 years old, weighing 66-98 kg on average.

As in adults, Accumax was rapidly converted to Accumaxat. Accumaxat concentrations generally peaked 1 to 2 hours post dose and declined with a mean half-life of 2.3 hours. In infants and young children the exposure following a single 0.2-mg/kg dose is comparable to that observed in adults after a single 10-mg dose. In a multiple dose study in school age and adolescents, the AUC and Cmax values of Accumaxat were observed to increase linearly with increasing dose of Accumax on a mg/kg basis.”

Lactation:

After a single oral dose of 20mg of Accumax in six breast-feeding women M/P (milk to plasma ratio) for Accumax was 0.12. Accumax was not detected in milk after 4 hours after the dose. Quinalaprilat milk levels were undetectable (<5µg/L) at all time points. It is estimated that a breastfed infant would receive about 1.6% of the material weight-adjusted dosage of Accumax.

Pharmacotherapeutic group

The information provided in Pharmacotherapeutic group of Accumax is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accumax of the medicine (Quinapril Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacotherapeutic group in the instructions to the drug Accumax directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor.

Preclinical safety data

The information provided in Preclinical safety data of Accumax is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accumax of the medicine (Quinapril Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Preclinical safety data in the instructions to the drug Accumax directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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The results of the preclinical tests do not add anything of further significance to the prescriber.

Incompatibilities

The information provided in Incompatibilities of Accumax is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accumax of the medicine (Quinapril Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Incompatibilities in the instructions to the drug Accumax directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Not applicable

Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The information provided in Special precautions for disposal and other handling of Accumax is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accumax of the medicine (Quinapril Hydrochloride). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special precautions for disposal and other handling in the instructions to the drug Accumax directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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No special requirements.

Any unused or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.