Components:
Anastrozole
Method of action:
Antitumour, Endocrine Therapy, Inhibitor Of Estrogen Synthesis, Inhibitory Synthesis Of Estrogens
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Name of the medicinal product

Accord Anastrazole

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Anastrozole

Therapeutic indications

The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Accord Anastrazole is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accord Anastrazole of the medicine (Anastrozole). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Therapeutic indications in the instructions to the drug Accord Anastrazole directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Substance; Substance-powder
Gastro-resistant capsule, hard

Accord Anastrazole is indicated for the:

– Treatment of hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

Accord Anastrazole is indicated for the:

• Treatment of hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

• Adjuvant treatment of hormone receptor-positive early invasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

• Adjuvant treatment of hormone receptor-positive early invasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women who have received 2 to 3 years of adjuvant tamoxifen.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administration of Accord Anastrazole is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accord Anastrazole of the medicine (Anastrozole). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Accord Anastrazole directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Gastro-resistant capsule, hard

Posology

The recommended dose of Accord Anastrazole for adults including the elderly is one 1 mg tablet once a day.

For postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early invasive breast cancer, the recommended duration of adjuvant endocrine treatment is 5 years.

Special populations

Paediatric population

Accord Anastrazole is not recommended for use in children and adolescents due to insufficient data on safety and efficacy .

Renal impairment

No dose change is recommended in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment. In patients with severe renal impairment, administration of Accord Anastrazole should be performed with caution .

Hepatic impairment

No dose change is recommended in patients with mild hepatic disease. Caution is advised in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment .

Method of administration

Accord Anastrazole should be taken orally.

Posology

The recommended dose of Accord Anastrazole for adults including the elderly is one 1 mg tablet once a day.

For postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early invasive breast cancer, the recommended duration of adjuvant endocrine treatment is 5 years.

Special populations

Paediatric population

Accord Anastrazole is not recommended for use in children and adolescents due to insufficient data on safety and efficacy .

Renal impairment

No dose change is recommended in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment. In patients with severe renal impairment, administration of Accord Anastrazole should be performed with caution .

Hepatic impairment

No dose change is recommended in patients with mild hepatic disease. Caution is advised in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment .

Method of administration

Accord Anastrazole should be taken orally.

Contraindications

The information provided in Contraindications of Accord Anastrazole is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accord Anastrazole of the medicine (Anastrozole). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Accord Anastrazole directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Substance; Substance-powder
Gastro-resistant capsule, hard
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Accord Anastrazole is contraindicated in:

• Pregnant or breastfeeding women.

•

Special warnings and precautions for use

The information provided in Special warnings and precautions for use of Accord Anastrazole is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accord Anastrazole of the medicine (Anastrozole). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special warnings and precautions for use in the instructions to the drug Accord Anastrazole directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Substance; Substance-powder
Gastro-resistant capsule, hard

General

Accord Anastrazole should not be used in premenopausal women. The menopause should be defined biochemically (luteinizing-hormone [LH], follicle stimulating hormone [FSH], and/or estradiol levels) in any patient where there is doubt about menopausal status. There are no data to support the use of Accord Anastrazole with LHRH analogues.

Co-administration of tamoxifen or estrogen-containing therapies with Accord Anastrazole should be avoided as this may diminish its pharmacological action .

Effect on bone mineral density

As Accord Anastrazole lowers circulating estrogen levels it may cause a reduction in bone mineral density with a possible consequent increased risk of fracture .

Women with osteoporosis or at risk of osteoporosis, should have their bone mineral density formally assessed at the commencement of treatment and at regular intervals thereafter. Treatment or prophylaxis for osteoporosis should be initiated as appropriate and carefully monitored. The use of specific treatments, e.g., bisphosphonates, may stop further bone mineral loss caused by Accord Anastrazole in postmenopausal women and could be considered .

Hepatic impairment

Accord Anastrazole has not been investigated in breast cancer patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment. Exposure to Accord Anastrazole can be increased in subjects with hepatic impairment ; administration of Accord Anastrazole in patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment should be performed with caution . Treatment should be based on a benefit-risk evaluation for the individual patient.

Renal impairment

Accord Anastrazole has not been investigated in breast cancer patients with severe renal impairment.); in patients with severe renal impairment, administration of Accord Anastrazole should be performed with caution .

Paediatric population

Accord Anastrazole is not recommended for use in children as safety and efficacy have not been established in this group of patients .

Accord Anastrazole should not be used in boys with growth hormone deficiency in addition to growth hormone treatment. In the pivotal clinical trial, efficacy was not demonstrated and safety was not established . Since Accord Anastrazole reduces estradiol levels, Accord Anastrazole must not be used in girls with growth hormone deficiency in addition to growth hormone treatment. Long-term safety data in children and adolescents are not available.

Hypersensitivity to lactose

This product contains lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.

General

Accord Anastrazole should not be used in premenopausal women. The menopause should be defined biochemically (luteinizing-hormone [LH], follicle stimulating hormone [FSH], and/or estradiol levels) in any patient where there is doubt about menopausal status. There are no data to support the use of Accord Anastrazole with LHRH analogues.

Co-administration of tamoxifen or estrogen-containing therapies with Accord Anastrazole should be avoided as this may diminish its pharmacological action .

Effect on bone mineral density

As Accord Anastrazole lowers circulating estrogen levels it may cause a reduction in bone mineral density with a possible consequent increased risk of fracture .

Women with osteoporosis or at risk of osteoporosis, should have their bone mineral density formally assessed at the commencement of treatment and at regular intervals thereafter. Treatment or prophylaxis for osteoporosis should be initiated as appropriate and carefully monitored. The use of specific treatments, e.g. bisphosphonates, may stop further bone mineral loss caused by Accord Anastrazole in postmenopausal women and could be considered .

Hepatic impairment

Accord Anastrazole has not been investigated in breast cancer patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment. Exposure to anastrozole can be increased in subjects with hepatic impairment ; administration of Accord Anastrazole in patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment should be performed with caution . Treatment should be based on a benefit-risk evaluation for the individual patient.

Renal impairment

Accord Anastrazole has not been investigated in breast cancer patients with severe renal impairment.); in patients with severe renal impairment, administration of Accord Anastrazole should be performed with caution .

Paediatric population

Accord Anastrazole is not recommended for use in children and adolescents as safety and efficacy have not been established in this group of patients .

Accord Anastrazole should not be used in boys with growth hormone deficiency in addition to growth hormone treatment. In the pivotal clinical trial, efficacy was not demonstrated and safety was not established . Since anastrozole reduces estradiol levels, Accord Anastrazole must not be used in girls with growth hormone deficiency in addition to growth hormone treatment. Long-term safety data in children and adolescents are not available.

Hypersensitivity to lactose

This product contains lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.

Effects on ability to drive and use machines

The information provided in Effects on ability to drive and use machines of Accord Anastrazole is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accord Anastrazole of the medicine (Anastrozole). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Effects on ability to drive and use machines in the instructions to the drug Accord Anastrazole directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Accord Anastrazole has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines. However, asthenia and somnolence have been reported with the use of Accord Anastrazole and caution should be observed when driving or operating machinery while such symptoms persist.

Undesirable effects

The information provided in Undesirable effects of Accord Anastrazole is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accord Anastrazole of the medicine (Anastrozole). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Undesirable effects in the instructions to the drug Accord Anastrazole directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Substance; Substance-powder
Gastro-resistant capsule, hard

The following table presents adverse reactions from clinical trials, post-marketing studies or spontaneous reports. Unless specified, the frequency categories were calculated from the number of adverse events reported in a large phase III study conducted in 9366 postmenopausal women with operable breast cancer given adjuvant treatment for five years (the Accord Anastrazole, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination [ATAC] study).

Adverse reactions listed below are classified according to frequency and System Organ Class (SOC). Frequency groupings are defined according to the following convention: very common (≥ 1/10), common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100), rare (≥ 1/10,000 to <1/1,000), and very rare (<1/10,000). The most frequently reported adverse reactions were headache, hot flushes, nausea, rash, arthralgia, joint stiffness, arthritis, and asthenia.

Table 1. Adverse reactions by System Organ Class and frequency

System Organ Class

Frequency

Adverse reaction

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Common

Anorexia

Hypercholesterolaemia

Nervous system disorders

Very common

Headache

Common

Somnolence

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome*

Vascular disorders

Very common

Hot flushes

Gastrointestinal disorders

Very common

Nausea

Common

Diarrhoea

Vomiting

Hepatobiliary disorders

Common

Increases in alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase

Uncommon

Increases in gamma-GT and bilirubin

Hepatitis

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Very common

Rash

Common

Hair thinning (alopecia)

Allergic reactions

Uncommon

Urticaria

Rare

Erythema multiforme

Anaphylactoid reaction

Cutaneous vasculitis (including some reports of Henoch-Schönlein purpura)**

Very rare

Stevens-Johnson syndrome

Angioedema

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Very common

Arthralgia/joint stiffness

Arthritis

Osteoporosis

Common

Bone pain

Uncommon

Trigger finger

Reproductive system and breast disorders

Common

Vaginal dryness

Vaginal bleeding***

General disorders and administration site conditions

Very common

Asthenia

* Events of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome have been reported in patients receiving Accord Anastrazole treatment in clinical trials in greater numbers than those receiving treatment with tamoxifen. However, the majority of these events occurred in patients with identifiable risk factors for the development of the condition.

** Since cutaneous vasculitis and Henoch-Schönlein purpura was not observed in ATAC, the frequency category for these events can be considered as 'Rare' (≥ 0.01% and < 0.1%) based on the worst value of the point estimate.

*** Vaginal bleeding has been reported commonly, mainly in patients with advanced breast cancer during the first few weeks after changing from existing hormonal therapy to treatment with Accord Anastrazole. If bleeding persists, further evaluation should be considered.

The table below presents the frequency of pre-specified adverse events in the ATAC study after a median follow-up of 68 months, irrespective of causality, reported in patients receiving trial therapy and up to 14 days after cessation of trial therapy.

Table 2. ATAC study pre-specified adverse events

Adverse events

Accord Anastrazole (n=3092)

tamoxifen (n=3094)

Hot flushes

1104 (35.7%)

1264 (40.9%)

Joint pain/stiffness

1100 (35.6%)

911 (29.4%)

Mood disturbances

597 (19.3%)

554 (17.9%)

Fatigue/asthenia

575 (18.6%)

544 (17.6%)

Nausea and vomiting

393 (12.7%)

384 (12.4%)

Fractures

315 (10.2%)

209 (6.8%)

Fractures of the spine, hip or wrist/Colles

133 (4.3%)

91 (2.9%)

Wrist/Colles fractures

67 (2.2%)

50 (1.6%)

Spine fractures

43 (1.4%)

22 (0.7%)

Hip fractures

28 (0.9%)

26 (0.8%)

Cataracts

182 (5.9%)

213 (6.9%)

Vaginal bleeding

167 (5.4%)

317 (10.2%)

Ischaemic cardiovascular disease

127 (4.1%)

104 (3.4%)

Angina pectoris

71 (2.3%)

51 (1.6%)

Myocardial infarct

37 (1.2%)

34 (1.1%)

Coronary artery disorder

25 (0.8%)

23 (0.7%)

Myocardial ischaemia

22 (0.7%)

14 (0.5%)

Vaginal discharge

109 (3.5%)

408 (13.2%)

Any venous thromboembolic event

87 (2.8%)

140 (4.5%)

Deep venous thromboembolic events including PE

48 (1.6%)

74 (2.4%)

Ischaemic cerebrovascular events

62 (2.0%)

88 (2.8%)

Endometrial cancer

4 (0.2%)

13 (0.6%)

Fracture rates of 22 per 1000 patient-years and 15 per 1000 patient-years were observed for the Accord Anastrazole and tamoxifen groups, respectively, after a median follow-up of 68 months. The observed fracture rate for Accord Anastrazole is similar to the range reported in age-matched postmenopausal populations. The incidence of osteoporosis was 10.5% in patients treated with Accord Anastrazole and 7.3% in patients treated with tamoxifen.

It has not been determined whether the rates of fracture and osteoporosis seen in ATAC in patients on Accord Anastrazole treatment reflect a protective effect of tamoxifen, a specific effect of Accord Anastrazole, or both.

The following table presents adverse reactions from clinical trials, post-marketing studies or spontaneous reports. Unless specified, the frequency categories were calculated from the number of adverse events reported in a large phase III study conducted in 9,366 postmenopausal women with operable breast cancer given adjuvant treatment for five years (the Accord Anastrazole, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination [ATAC] study).

Adverse reactions listed below are classified according to frequency and System Organ Class (SOC). Frequency groupings are defined according to the following convention: very common (≥ 1/10), common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100), rare (≥ 1/10,000 to <1/1,000), and very rare (<1/10,000). The most frequently reported adverse reactions were headache, hot flushes, nausea, rash, arthralgia, joint stiffness, arthritis, and asthenia.

Table 1 Adverse reactions by System Organ Class and frequency

Adverse reactions by SOC and frequency

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Common

Anorexia

Hypercholesterolaemia

Uncommon

Hypercalcaemia (with or without an increase in parathyroid hormone)

Nervous system disorders

Very common

Headache

Common

Somnolence

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome*

Sensory disturbances (including paraesthesia, taste loss and taste perversion)

Vascular disorders

Very common

Hot flushes

Gastrointestinal disorders

Very common

Nausea

Common

Diarrhoea

Vomiting

Hepatobiliary disorders

Common

Increases in alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase

Uncommon

Increases in gamma-GT and bilirubin

Hepatitis

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Very common

Rash

Common

Hair thinning (alopecia)

Allergic reactions

Uncommon

Urticaria

Rare

Erythema multiforme

Anaphylactoid reaction

Cutaneous vasculitis (including some reports of Henoch-Schönlein purpura)**

Very rare

Stevens-Johnson syndrome Angioedema

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Very common

Arthralgia/joint stiffness

Arthritis

Osteoporosis

Common

Bone pain

Myalgia

Uncommon

Trigger finger

Reproductive system and breast disorders

Common

Vaginal dryness

Vaginal bleeding ***

General disorders and administration site conditions

Very common

Asthenia

*Events of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome have been reported in patients receiving Accord Anastrazole treatment in clinical trials in greater numbers than those receiving treatment with tamoxifen. However, the majority of these events occurred in patients with identifiable risk factors for the development of the condition.

**Since cutaneous vasculitis and Henoch-Schönlein purpura was not observed in ATAC, the frequency category for these events can be considered as 'Rare' (≥ 0.01% and < 0.1%) based on the worst value of the point estimate.

***Vaginal bleeding has been reported commonly, mainly in patients with advanced breast cancer during the first few weeks after changing from existing hormonal therapy to treatment with Accord Anastrazole. If bleeding persists, further evaluation should be considered.

The table below presents the frequency of pre-specified adverse events in the ATAC study after a median follow-up of 68 months, irrespective of causality, reported in patients receiving trial therapy and up to 14 days after cessation of trial therapy.

Table 2 ATAC study pre-specified adverse events

Adverse events

Accord Anastrazole

(N=3,092)

Tamoxifen

(N=3,094)

Hot flushes

1,104 (35.7%)

1,264 (40.9%)

Joint pain/stiffness

1,100 (35.6%)

911 (29.4%)

Mood disturbances

597 (19.3%)

554 (17.9%)

Fatigue/asthenia

575 (18.6%)

544 (17.6%)

Nausea and vomiting

393 (12.7%)

384 (12.4%)

Fractures

315 (10.2%)

209 (6.8%)

Fractures of the spine, hip, or wrist/Colles

133 (4.3%)

91 (2.9%)

Wrist/Colles fractures

67 (2.2%)

50 (1.6%)

Spine fractures

43 (1.4%)

22 (0.7%)

Hip fractures

28 (0.9%)

26 (0.8%)

Cataracts

182 (5.9%)

213 (6.9%)

Vaginal bleeding

167 (5.4%)

317 (10.2%)

Ischaemic cardiovascular disease

127 (4.1%)

104 (3.4%)

Angina pectoris

71 (2.3%)

51 (1.6%)

Myocardial infarct

37 (1.2%)

34 (1.1%)

Coronary artery disorder

25 (0.8%)

23 (0.7%)

Myocardial ischaemia

22 (0.7%)

14 (0.5%)

Vaginal discharge

109 (3.5%)

408 (13.2%)

Any venous thromboembolic event

87 (2.8%)

140 (4.5%)

Deep venous thromboembolic events including PE (pulmonary embolism)

48 (1.6%)

74 (2.4%)

Ischaemic cerebrovascular events

62 (2.0%)

88 (2.8%)

Endometrial cancer

4 (0.2%)

13 (0.6%)

Fracture rates of 22 per 1,000 patient-years and 15 per 1,000 patient-years were observed for the Accord Anastrazole and tamoxifen groups, respectively, after a median follow-up of 68 months. The observed fracture rate for Accord Anastrazole is similar to the range reported in age-matched postmenopausal populations. The incidence of osteoporosis was 10.5% in patients treated with Accord Anastrazole and 7.3% in patients treated with tamoxifen.

It has not been determined whether the rates of fracture and osteoporosis seen in ATAC in patients on Accord Anastrazole treatment reflect a protective effect of tamoxifen, a specific effect of Accord Anastrazole, or both.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.

Overdose

The information provided in Overdose of Accord Anastrazole is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accord Anastrazole of the medicine (Anastrozole). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Overdose in the instructions to the drug Accord Anastrazole directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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There is limited clinical experience of accidental overdose.

In animal studies, Accord Anastrazole demonstrated low acute toxicity.

Clinical trials have been conducted with various dosages of Accord Anastrazole, up to 60 mg in a single dose given to healthy male volunteers, and up to 10 mg daily given to postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer; these dosages were well tolerated. A single dose of Accord Anastrazole that results in life-threatening symptoms has not been established.

There is no specific antidote to overdose and treatment must be symptomatic.

In the management of an overdose, consideration should be given to the possibility that multiple agents may have been taken. Vomiting may be induced if the patient is alert. Dialysis may be helpful because Accord Anastrazole is not highly protein-bound. General supportive care, including frequent monitoring of vital signs and close observation of the patient, is indicated.

There is limited clinical experience of accidental overdose. In animal studies, anastrozole demonstrated low acute toxicity. Clinical trials have been conducted with various dosages of Accord Anastrazole, up to 60 mg in a single dose given to healthy male volunteers and up to 10 mg daily given to postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer; these dosages were well tolerated. A single dose of Accord Anastrazole that results in life-threatening symptoms has not been established. There is no specific antidote to overdose and treatment must be symptomatic.

In the management of an overdose, consideration should be given to the possibility that multiple agents may have been taken. Vomiting may be induced if the patient is alert. Dialysis may be helpful because Accord Anastrazole is not highly protein bound. General supportive care, including frequent monitoring of vital signs and close observation of the patient, is indicated.

Pharmacodynamic properties

The information provided in Pharmacodynamic properties of Accord Anastrazole is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accord Anastrazole of the medicine (Anastrozole). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacodynamic properties in the instructions to the drug Accord Anastrazole directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Pharmacotherapeutic group: Enzyme inhibitors

ATC Code: L02B G03

Mechanism of action and pharmacodynamic effects

Accord Anastrazole is a potent and highly selective non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor. In postmenopausal women, estradiol is produced primarily by the conversion of androstenedione to estrone through the aromatase enzyme complex in peripheral tissues. Estrone is subsequently converted to estradiol. Reducing circulating estradiol levels has been shown to produce a beneficial effect in women with breast cancer.

In postmenopausal women, Accord Anastrazole at a daily dose of 1 mg produced estradiol suppression of greater than 80% using a highly sensitive assay.

Accord Anastrazole does not possess any progestogenic, androgenic or estrogenic activity.

Daily doses of Accord Anastrazole up to 10 mg do not have any effect on cortisol or aldosterone secretion, measured before or after standard adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) challenge testing. Corticoid supplements are therefore not needed.

Clinical efficacy and safety

Advanced breast cancer

First-line therapy in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer

Two double-blind, controlled clinical studies of similar design (Study 1033IL/0030 and Study 1033IL/0027) were conducted to assess the efficacy of Accord Anastrazole compared with tamoxifen as first-line therapy for hormone receptor-positive or hormone receptor-unknown locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women. A total of 1,021 patients were randomised to receive 1 mg of Accord Anastrazole once daily or 20 mg of tamoxifen once daily. The primary endpoints for both trials were time to tumour progression, objective tumour response rate, and safety.

For the primary endpoints, Study 1033IL/0030 showed that Accord Anastrazole had a statistically significant advantage over tamoxifen for time to tumour progression (Hazard ratio (HR) 1.42, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [1.11, 1.82], Median time to progression 11.1 and 5.6 months for Accord Anastrazole and tamoxifen respectively, p=0.006); objective tumour response rates were similar for Accord Anastrazole and tamoxifen. Study 1033IL/0027 showed that Accord Anastrazole and tamoxifen had similar objective tumour response rates and time to tumour progression. Results from the secondary endpoints were supportive of the results of the primary efficacy endpoints. There were too few deaths occurring across treatment groups of both trials to draw conclusions on overall survival differences.

Second-line therapy in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer

Accord Anastrazole was studied in two controlled clinical trials (Study 0004 and Study 0005) in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer who had disease progression following tamoxifen therapy for either advanced or early breast cancer. A total of 764 patients were randomised to receive either a single daily dose of 1 mg or 10 mg of Accord Anastrazole or megestrol acetate 40 mg four times a day. Time to progression and objective response rates were the primary efficacy variables. The rate of prolonged (more than 24 weeks) stable disease, the rate of progression, and survival were also calculated. In both studies there were no significant differences between treatment arms with respect to any of the efficacy parameters.

Bone mineral density (BMD)

In the phase III/IV study (Study of Accord Anastrazole with the Bisphosphonate Risedronate [SABRE]), 234 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer scheduled for treatment with Accord Anastrazole 1 mg/day were stratified to low, moderate and high risk groups according to their existing risk of fragility fracture. The primary efficacy parameter was the analysis of lumbar spine bone mass density using DEXA scanning. All patients received treatment with vitamin D and calcium. Patients in the low risk group received Accord Anastrazole alone (N=42), those in the moderate group were randomised to Accord Anastrazole plus risedronate 35 mg once a week (N=77) or Accord Anastrazole plus placebo (N=77) and those in the high risk group received Accord Anastrazole plus risedronate 35 mg once a week (N=38). The primary endpoint was change from baseline in lumbar spine bone mass density at 12 months.

The 12-month main analysis has shown that patients already at moderate to high risk of fragility fracture showed no decrease in their bone mass density (assessed by lumbar spine bone mineral density using DEXA scanning) when managed by using Accord Anastrazole 1 mg/day in combination with risedronate 35 mg once a week.

In addition, a decrease in BMD which was not statistically significant was seen in the low risk group treated with Accord Anastrazole 1 mg/day alone. These findings were mirrored in the secondary efficacy variable of change from baseline in total hip BMD at 12 months.

This study provides evidence that the use of bisphosphonates could be considered in the management of possible bone mineral loss in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer scheduled to be treated with Accord Anastrazole.

Paediatric population

Accord Anastrazole is not indicated for use in children and adolescents.).

The European Medicines Agency has waived the obligation to submit the results of studies with Accord Anastrazole in one or several subsets of the paediatric population in short stature due to growth hormone deficiency (GHD), testotoxicosis, gynaecomastia, and McCune-Albright syndrome .

Short stature due to Growth Hormone Deficiency

A randomised, double-blind, multi-centre study evaluated 52 pubertal boys (aged 11 to 16 years inclusive) with GHD treated for 12 to 36 months with Accord Anastrazole 1 mg/day or placebo in combination with growth hormone. Only 14 subjects on Accord Anastrazole completed 36 months.

No statistically significant difference from placebo was observed for the growth related parameters of predicted adult height, height, height SDS (standard deviation score), and height velocity. Final height data were not available. While the number of children treated was too limited to draw any reliable conclusions on safety, there was an increased fracture rate and a trend towards reduced bone mineral density in the Accord Anastrazole arm compared to placebo.

Testotoxicosis

An open-label, non-comparative, multi-centre study evaluated 14 male patients (aged 2 to 9 years) with familial male-limited precocious puberty, also known as testotoxicosis, treated with combination of Accord Anastrazole and bicalutamide. The primary objective was to assess the efficacy and safety of this combination regimen over 12 months. Thirteen out of the 14 patients enrolled completed 12 months of combination treatment (one patient was lost to follow-up). There was no significant difference in growth rate after 12 months of treatment, relative to the growth rate during the 6 months prior to entering the study.

Gynaecomastia studies

Trial 0006 was a randomised, double-blind, multi-centre study of 82 pubertal boys (aged 11-18 years inclusive) with gynaecomastia of greater than 12 months duration treated with Accord Anastrazole 1 mg/day or placebo daily for up to 6 months. No significant difference in the number of patients who had a 50% or greater reduction in total breast volume after 6 months of treatment was observed between the Accord Anastrazole 1 mg treated group and the placebo group.

Trial 0001 was an open-label, multiple-dose pharmacokinetic study of Accord Anastrazole 1 mg/day in 36 pubertal boys with gynaecomastia of less than 12 months duration. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the proportion of patients with reductions from baseline in the calculated volume of gynaecomastia of both breasts combined of at least 50% between day 1 and after 6 months of study treatment, and patient tolerability and safety. A decrease in 50% or more of total breast volume was seen in 56% (20/36) of the boys after 6 months.

McCune-Albright Syndrome study

Trial 0046 was an international, multi-centre, open-label exploratory trial of Accord Anastrazole in 28 girls (aged 2 to ≤ 10 years) with McCune-Albright Syndrome (MAS). The primary objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Accord Anastrazole 1 mg/day in patients with MAS. The efficacy of study treatment was based on the proportion of patients fulfilling defined criteria relating to vaginal bleeding, bone age, and growth velocity.

No statistically significant change in the frequency of vaginal bleeding days on treatment was observed. There were no clinically significant changes in Tanner staging, mean ovarian volume, or mean uterine volume. No statistically significant change in the rate of increase in bone age on treatment compared to the rate during baseline was observed. Growth rate (in cm/year) was significantly reduced (p<0.05) from pre-treatment through month 0 to month 12, and from pre-treatment to the second 6 months (month 7 to month 12).

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Enzyme inhibitors, ATC code: L02B G03

Mechanism of action and pharmacodynamic effects

Accord Anastrazole is a potent and highly selective non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor. In postmenopausal women, estradiol is produced primarily from the conversion of androstenedione to estrone through the aromatase enzyme complex in peripheral tissues. Estrone is subsequently converted to estradiol. Reducing circulating estradiol levels has been shown to produce a beneficial effect in women with breast cancer. In postmenopausal women, Accord Anastrazole at a daily dose of 1 mg produced estradiol suppression of greater than 80% using a highly sensitive assay.

Accord Anastrazole does not possess any progestogenic, androgenic, or estrogenic activity.

Daily doses of Accord Anastrazole up to 10 mg do not have any effect on cortisol or aldosterone secretion, measured before or after standard adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) challenge testing. Corticoid supplements are therefore not needed.

Clinical efficacy and safety

Advanced breast cancer

First-line therapy in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer

Two double-blind, controlled clinical studies of similar design (Study 1033IL/0030 and Study 1033IL/0027) were conducted to assess the efficacy of Accord Anastrazole compared with tamoxifen as first-line therapy for hormone receptor-positive or hormone receptor-unknown locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women. A total of 1,021 patients were randomised to receive 1 mg of Accord Anastrazole once daily or 20 mg of tamoxifen once daily. The primary endpoints for both trials were time to tumour progression, objective tumour response rate, and safety.

For the primary endpoints, Study 1033IL/0030 showed that Accord Anastrazole had a statistically significant advantage over tamoxifen for time to tumour progression (Hazard ratio (HR) 1.42, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [1.11, 1.82], Median time to progression 11.1 and 5.6 months for Accord Anastrazole and tamoxifen respectively, p=0.006); objective tumour response rates were similar for Accord Anastrazole and tamoxifen. Study 1033IL/0027 showed that Accord Anastrazole and tamoxifen had similar objective tumour response rates and time to tumour progression. Results from the secondary endpoints were supportive of the results of the primary efficacy endpoints. There were too few deaths occurring across treatment groups of both trials to draw conclusions on overall survival differences.

Second-line therapy in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer

Accord Anastrazole was studied in two controlled clinical trials (Study 0004 and Study 0005) in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer who had disease progression following tamoxifen therapy for either advanced or early breast cancer. A total of 764 patients were randomised to receive either a single daily dose of 1 mg or 10 mg of Accord Anastrazole or megestrol acetate 40 mg four times a day. Time to progression and objective response rates were the primary efficacy variables. The rate of prolonged (more than 24 weeks) stable disease, the rate of progression, and survival were also calculated. In both studies there were no significant differences between treatment arms with respect to any of the efficacy parameters.

Adjuvant treatment of early invasive breast cancer for hormone receptor-positive patients

In a large phase III study conducted in 9,366 postmenopausal women with operable breast cancer treated for 5 years (see below), Accord Anastrazole was shown to be statistically superior to tamoxifen in disease-free survival. A greater magnitude of benefit was observed for disease-free survival in favour of Accord Anastrazole versus tamoxifen for the prospectively defined hormone receptor-positive population.

Table 3 ATAC endpoint summary: 5-year treatment completion analysis

Efficacy endpoints

Number of events (frequency)

Intention-to-treat population

Hormone receptor-positive tumour status

Accord Anastrazole

(N=3,125)

Tamoxifen

(N=3,116)

Accord Anastrazole

(N=2,618)

Tamoxifen

(N=2,598)

Disease-free survivala

575 (18.4)

651 (20.9)

424 (16.2)

497 (19.1)

Hazard ratio

0.87

0.83

2-sided 95% CI

0.78 to 0.97

0.73 to 0.94

p-value

0.0127

0.0049

Distant disease-free survivalb

500 (16.0)

530 (17.0)

370 (14.1)

394 (15.2)

Hazard ratio

0.94

0.93

2-sided 95% CI

0.83 to 1.06

0.80 to 1.07

p-value

0.2850

0.2838

Time to recurrencec

402 (12.9)

498 (16.0)

282 (10.8)

370 (14.2)

Hazard ratio

0.79

0.74

2-sided 95% CI

0.70 to 0.90

0.64 to 0.87

p-value

0.0005

0.0002

Time to distant recurrenced

324 (10.4)

375 (12.0)

226 (8.6)

265 (10.2)

Hazard ratio

0.86

0.84

2-sided 95% CI

0.74 to 0.99

0.70 to 1.00

p-value

0.0427

0.0559

Contralateral breast primary

35 (1.1)

59 (1.9)

26 (1.0)

54 (2.1)

Odds ratio

0.59

0.47

2-sided 95% CI

0.39 to 0.89

0.30 to 0.76

p-value

0.0131

0.0018

Overall survival e

411 (13.2)

420 (13.5)

296 (11.3)

301 (11.6)

Hazard ratio

0.97

0.97

2-sided 95% CI

0.85 to 1.12

0.83 to 1.14

p-value

0.7142

0.7339

a Disease-free survival includes all recurrence events and is defined as the first occurrence of loco-regional recurrence, contralateral new breast cancer, distant recurrence or death (for any reason).

b Distant disease-free survival is defined as the first occurrence of distant recurrence or death (for any reason).

c Time to recurrence is defined as the first occurrence of loco-regional recurrence, contralateral new breast cancer, distant recurrence or death due to breast cancer.

d Time to distant recurrence is defined as the first occurrence of distant recurrence or death due to breast cancer.

e Number (%) of patients who had died.

The combination of Accord Anastrazole and tamoxifen did not demonstrate any efficacy benefits in comparison with tamoxifen in all patients as well as in the hormone receptor-positive population. This treatment arm was discontinued from the study.

With an updated follow-up at a median of 10 years, long-term comparison of the treatment effects of Accord Anastrazole relative to tamoxifen were shown to be consistent with previous analyses.

Adjuvant treatment of early invasive breast cancer for hormone receptor-positive patients being treated with adjuvant tamoxifen

In a phase III trial (Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group [ABCSG] 8) conducted in 2,579 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer who had received surgery with or without radiotherapy and no chemotherapy (see below), switching to Accord Anastrazole after 2 years adjuvant treatment with tamoxifen was statistically superior in disease-free survival when compared to remaining on tamoxifen, after a median follow-up of 24 months.

Table 4 ABCSG 8 trial endpoint and results summary

Efficacy endpoints

Number of events (frequency)

Accord Anastrazole

(N=1,297)

Tamoxifen

(N=1,282)

Disease-free survival

65 (5.0)

93 (7.3)

Hazard ratio

0.67

2-sided 95% CI

0.49 to 0.92

p-value

0.014

Time to any recurrence

36 (2.8)

66 (5.1)

Hazard ratio

0.53

2-sided 95% CI

0.35 to 0.79

p-value

0.002

Time to distant recurrence

22 (1.7)

41 (3.2)

Hazard ratio

0.52

2-sided 95% CI

0.31 to 0.88

p-value

0.015

New contralateral breast cancer

7 (0.5)

15 (1.2)

Odds ratio

0.46

2-sided 95% CI

0.19 to 1.13

p-value

0.090

Overall survival

43 (3.3)

45 (3.5)

Hazard ratio

0.96

2-sided 95% CI

0.63 to 1.46

p-value

0.840

Two further similar trials (GABG/ARNO 95 and ITA), in one of which patients had received surgery and chemotherapy, as well as a combined analysis of ABCSG 8 and GABG/ARNO 95, supported these results.

The Accord Anastrazole safety profile in these 3 studies was consistent with the known safety profile established in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer.

Bone mineral density (BMD)

In the phase III/IV study (Study of Anastrozole with the Bisphosphonate Risedronate [SABRE]), 234 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer scheduled for treatment with Accord Anastrazole 1 mg/day were stratified to low, moderate and high risk groups according to their existing risk of fragility fracture. The primary efficacy parameter was the analysis of lumbar spine bone mass density using DEXA scanning. All patients received treatment with vitamin D and calcium. Patients in the low risk group received Accord Anastrazole alone (N=42), those in the moderate group were randomised to Accord Anastrazole plus risedronate 35 mg once a week (N=77) or Accord Anastrazole plus placebo (N=77) and those in the high risk group received Accord Anastrazole plus risedronate 35 mg once a week (N=38). The primary endpoint was change from baseline in lumbar spine bone mass density at 12 months.

The 12-month main analysis has shown that patients already at moderate to high risk of fragility fracture showed no decrease in their bone mass density (assessed by lumbar spine bone mineral density using DEXA scanning) when managed by using Accord Anastrazole 1 mg/day in combination with risedronate 35 mg once a week. In addition, a decrease in BMD which was not statistically significant was seen in the low risk group treated with Accord Anastrazole 1 mg/day alone. These findings were mirrored in the secondary efficacy variable of change from baseline in total hip BMD at 12 months.

This study provides evidence that the use of bisphosphonates could be considered in the management of possible bone mineral loss in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer scheduled to be treated with Accord Anastrazole.

Paediatric population

Accord Anastrazole is not indicated for use in children and adolescents.).

The European Medicines Agency has waived the obligation to submit the results of studies with Accord Anastrazole in one or several subsets of the paediatric population in short stature due to growth hormone deficiency (GHD), testotoxicosis, gynaecomastia, and McCune-Albright syndrome .

Short stature due to Growth Hormone Deficiency

A randomised, double-blind, multi-centre study evaluated 52 pubertal boys (aged 11 to 16 years inclusive) with GHD treated for 12 to 36 months with Accord Anastrazole 1 mg/day or placebo in combination with growth hormone. Only 14 subjects on Accord Anastrazole completed 36 months.

No statistically significant difference from placebo was observed for the growth related parameters of predicted adult height, height, height SDS (standard deviation score), and height velocity. Final height data were not available. While the number of children treated was too limited to draw any reliable conclusions on safety, there was an increased fracture rate and a trend towards reduced bone mineral density in the Accord Anastrazole arm compared to placebo.

Testotoxicosis

An open-label, non-comparative, multi-centre study evaluated 14 male patients (aged 2 to 9 years) with familial male-limited precocious puberty, also known as testotoxicosis, treated with combination of Accord Anastrazole and bicalutamide. The primary objective was to assess the efficacy and safety of this combination regimen over 12 months. Thirteen out of the 14 patients enrolled completed 12 months of combination treatment (one patient was lost to follow-up). There was no significant difference in growth rate after 12 months of treatment, relative to the growth rate during the 6 months prior to entering the study.

Gynaecomastia studies

Trial 0006 was a randomised, double-blind, multi-centre study of 82 pubertal boys (aged 11-18 years inclusive) with gynaecomastia of greater than 12 months duration treated with Accord Anastrazole 1 mg/day or placebo daily for up to 6 months. No significant difference in the number of patients who had a 50% or greater reduction in total breast volume after 6 months of treatment was observed between the Accord Anastrazole 1 mg treated group and the placebo group.

Trial 0001 was an open-label, multiple-dose pharmacokinetic study of Accord Anastrazole 1 mg/day in 36 pubertal boys with gynaecomastia of less than 12 months duration. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the proportion of patients with reductions from baseline in the calculated volume of gynaecomastia of both breasts combined of at least 50% between day 1 and after 6 months of study treatment, and patient tolerability and safety. A decrease in 50% or more of total breast volume was seen in 56% (20/36) of the boys after 6 months.

McCune-Albright Syndrome study

Trial 0046 was an international, multi-centre, open-label exploratory trial of Accord Anastrazole in 28 girls (aged 2 to ≤10 years) with McCune-Albright Syndrome (MAS). The primary objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Accord Anastrazole 1 mg/day in patients with MAS. The efficacy of study treatment was based on the proportion of patients fulfilling defined criteria relating to vaginal bleeding, bone age, and growth velocity.

No statistically significant change in the frequency of vaginal bleeding days on treatment was observed. There were no clinically significant changes in Tanner staging, mean ovarian volume, or mean uterine volume. No statistically significant change in the rate of increase in bone age on treatment compared to the rate during baseline was observed. Growth rate (in cm/year) was significantly reduced (p<0.05) from pre-treatment through month 0 to month 12, and from pre-treatment to the second 6 months (month 7 to month 12).

Pharmacokinetic properties

The information provided in Pharmacokinetic properties of Accord Anastrazole is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accord Anastrazole of the medicine (Anastrozole). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacokinetic properties in the instructions to the drug Accord Anastrazole directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Absorption of Accord Anastrazole is rapid and maximum plasma concentrations typically occur within two hours of dosing (under fasted conditions).

Food slightly decreases the rate but not the extent of absorption. The small change in the rate of absorption is not expected to result in a clinically significant effect on steady-state plasma concentrations during once daily dosing of Accord Anastrazole 1 mg tablets. Approximately 90% to 95% of plasma Accord Anastrazole steady-state concentrations are attained after 7 daily doses, and accumulation is 3- to 4-fold. There is no evidence of time or dose-dependency of Accord Anastrazole pharmacokinetic parameters.

Accord Anastrazole pharmacokinetics are independent of age in postmenopausal women.

Accord Anastrazole is only 40% bound to plasma proteins.

Accord Anastrazole is eliminated slowly with a plasma elimination half-life of 40 to 50 hours. Accord Anastrazole is extensively metabolised by postmenopausal women with less than 10% of the dose excreted in the urine unchanged within 72 hours of dosing. Metabolism of Accord Anastrazole occurs by N-dealkylation, hydroxylation and glucuronidation. The metabolites are excreted primarily via the urine. Triazole, a major metabolite in plasma and urine, does not inhibit aromatase.

Renal or hepatic impairment

The apparent clearance (CL/F) of Accord Anastrazole, following oral administration, was approximately 30% lower in volunteers with stable hepatic cirrhosis than in matched controls (Study 1033IL/0014). However, plasma Accord Anastrazole concentrations in the volunteers with hepatic cirrhosis were within the range of concentrations seen in normal subjects in other trials. Plasma Accord Anastrazole concentrations observed during long-term efficacy trials in patients with hepatic impairment were within the range of plasma Accord Anastrazole concentrations seen in patients without hepatic impairment.

The apparent clearance (CL/F) of Accord Anastrazole, following oral administration, was not altered in volunteers with severe renal impairment (GFR <30ml/min) in Study 1033IL/0018, consistent with the fact that Accord Anastrazole is eliminated primarily by metabolism. Plasma Accord Anastrazole concentrations observed during long-term efficacy trials in patients with renal impairment were within the range of plasma Accord Anastrazole concentrations seen in patients without renal impairment. In patients with severe renal impairment, administration of Accord Anastrazole should be performed with caution .

Paediatric population

In boys with pubertal gynaecomastia (10-17 years), Accord Anastrazole was rapidly absorbed, was widely distributed, and was eliminated slowly with a half-life of approximately 2 days. Clearance of Accord Anastrazole was lower in girls (3-10 years) than in the older boys and exposure higher. Accord Anastrazole in girls was widely distributed and slowly eliminated.

Absorption

Absorption of anastrozole is rapid and maximum plasma concentrations typically occur within two hours of dosing (under fasted conditions). Food slightly decreases the rate but not the extent of absorption. The small change in the rate of absorption is not expected to result in a clinically significant effect on steady-state plasma concentrations during once daily dosing of Accord Anastrazole tablets. Approximately 90 to 95% of plasma anastrozole steady-state concentrations are attained after 7 daily doses, and accumulation is 3- to 4-fold. There is no evidence of time or dose-dependency of anastrozole pharmacokinetic parameters.

Anastrozole pharmacokinetics are independent of age in postmenopausal women.

Distribution

Anastrozole is only 40% bound to plasma proteins.

Elimination

Anastrozole is eliminated slowly with a plasma elimination half-life of 40 to 50 hours. Anastrozole is extensively metabolised by postmenopausal women with less than 10% of the dose excreted in the urine unchanged within 72 hours of dosing. Metabolism of anastrozole occurs by N-dealkylation, hydroxylation and glucuronidation. The metabolites are excreted primarily via the urine. Triazole, the major metabolite in plasma, does not inhibit aromatase.

Renal or hepatic impairment

The apparent clearance (CL/F) of anastrozole, following oral administration, was approximately 30% lower in volunteers with stable hepatic cirrhosis than in matched controls (Study 1033IL/0014). However, plasma anastrozole concentrations in the volunteers with hepatic cirrhosis were within the range of concentrations seen in normal subjects in other trials. Plasma anastrozole concentrations observed during long-term efficacy trials in patients with hepatic impairment were within the range of plasma anastrozole concentrations seen in patients without hepatic impairment.

The apparent clearance (CL/F) of anastrozole, following oral administration, was not altered in volunteers with severe renal impairment (GFR <30ml/min) in Study 1033IL/0018, consistent with the fact that anastrozole is eliminated primarily by metabolism. Plasma anastrozole concentrations observed during long-term efficacy trials in patients with renal impairment were within the range of plasma anastrozole concentrations seen in patients without renal impairment. In patients with severe renal impairment, administration of Accord Anastrazole should be performed with caution .

Paediatric population

In boys with pubertal gynaecomastia (10-17 years), anastrozole was rapidly absorbed, was widely distributed, and was eliminated slowly with a half-life of approximately 2 days. Clearance of anastrozole was lower in girls (3-10 years) than in the older boys and exposure higher. Anastrozole in girls was widely distributed and slowly eliminated.

Pharmacotherapeutic group

The information provided in Pharmacotherapeutic group of Accord Anastrazole is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accord Anastrazole of the medicine (Anastrozole). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacotherapeutic group in the instructions to the drug Accord Anastrazole directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Enzyme inhibitors
Enzyme inhibitors, ATC code: L02B G03

Preclinical safety data

The information provided in Preclinical safety data of Accord Anastrazole is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accord Anastrazole of the medicine (Anastrozole). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Preclinical safety data in the instructions to the drug Accord Anastrazole directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential, toxicity to reproduction for the indicated population.

Acute toxicity

In animal studies toxicity was only seen at high doses. In acute toxicity studies in rodents, the median lethal dose of Accord Anastrazole was greater than 100 mg/kg/day by the oral route and greater than 50 mg/kg/day by the intraperitoneal route. In an oral acute toxicity study in the dog, the median lethal dose was greater than 45 mg/kg/day.

Chronic toxicity

In animal studies adverse effects were only seen at high doses. Multiple dose toxicity studies utilized rats and dogs. No no-effect levels were established for Accord Anastrazole in the toxicity studies, but those effects that were observed at the low doses (1 mg/kg/day) and mid doses (dog 3 mg/kg/day; rat 5 mg/kg/day) were related to either the pharmacological or enzyme inducing properties of Accord Anastrazole and were unaccompanied by significant toxic or degenerative changes.

Mutagenicity

Genetic toxicology studies with Accord Anastrazole show that it is not a mutagen or a clastogen.

Reproductive toxicology

In a fertility study weanling male rats were dosed orally with 50 or 400 mg/l Accord Anastrazole via their drinking water for 10 weeks. Measured mean plasma concentrations were 44.4 (±14.7) ng/ml and 165 (±90) ng/ml respectively. Mating indices were adversely affected in both dose groups, whilst a reduction in fertility was evident only at the 400 mg/l dose level. The reduction was transient as all mating and fertility parameters were similar to control group values following a 9 week treatment-free recovery period.

Oral administration of Accord Anastrazole to female rats produced a high incidence of infertility at 1 mg/kg/day and increased pre-implantation loss at 0.02 mg/kg/day. These effects occurred at clinically relevant doses. An effect in man cannot be excluded. These effects were related to the pharmacology of the compound and were completely reversed after a 5-week compound withdrawal period.

Oral administration of Accord Anastrazole to pregnant rats and rabbits caused no teratogenic effects at doses up to 1.0 and 0.2 mg/kg/day respectively. Those effects that were seen (placental enlargement in rats and pregnancy failure in rabbits) were related to the pharmacology of the compound.

The survival of litters born to rats given Accord Anastrazole at 0.02 mg/kg/day and above (from Day 17 of pregnancy to Day 22 post-partum) was compromised. These effects were related to the pharmacological effects of the compound on parturition. There were no adverse effects on behaviour or reproductive performance of the first generation offspring attributable to maternal treatment with Accord Anastrazole.

Carcinogenicity

A two-year rat oncogenicity study resulted in an increase in incidence of hepatic neoplasms and uterine stromal polyps in females and thyroid adenomas in males at the high dose (25 mg/kg/day) only. These changes occurred at a dose which represents 100-fold greater exposure than occurs at human therapeutic doses, and are considered not to be clinically relevant to the treatment of patients with Accord Anastrazole.

A two-year mouse oncogenicity study resulted in the induction of benign ovarian tumours and a disturbance in the incidence of lymphoreticular neoplasms (fewer histiocytic sarcomas in females and more deaths as a result of lymphomas). These changes are considered to be mouse-specific effects of aromatase inhibition and not clinically relevant to the treatment of patients with Accord Anastrazole.

Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential, toxicity to reproduction for the indicated population.

Acute toxicity

In animal studies toxicity was only seen at high doses. In acute toxicity studies in rodents, the median lethal dose of anastrozole was greater than 100 mg/kg/day by the oral route and greater than 50 mg/kg/day by the intraperitoneal route. In an oral acute toxicity study in the dog, the median lethal dose was greater than 45 mg/kg/day.

Chronic toxicity

In animal studies adverse effects were only seen at high doses. Multiple dose toxicity studies utilised rats and dogs. No no-effect levels were established for anastrozole in the toxicity studies, but those effects that were observed at the low doses (1 mg/kg/day) and mid doses (dog 3 mg/kg/day; rat 5 mg/kg/day) were related to either the pharmacological or enzyme inducing properties of anastrozole and were unaccompanied by significant toxic or degenerative changes.

Mutagenicity

Genetic toxicology studies with anastrozole show that it is not a mutagen or a clastogen.

Reproductive toxicology

In a fertility study weanling male rats were dosed orally with 50 or 400 mg/l anastrozole via their drinking water for 10 weeks. Measured mean plasma concentrations were 44.4 (± 14.7) ng/ml and 165 (±90) ng/ml respectively. Mating indices were adversely affected in both dose groups, whilst a reduction in fertility was evident only at the 400 mg/l dose level. The reduction was transient as all mating and fertility parameters were similar to control group values following a 9-week treatment-free recovery period.

Oral administration of anastrozole to female rats produced a high incidence of infertility at 1 mg/kg/day and increased pre-implantation loss at 0.02 mg/kg/day. These effects occurred at clinically relevant doses. An effect in man cannot be excluded. These effects were related to the pharmacology of the compound and were completely reversed after a 5-week compound withdrawal period.

Oral administration of anastrozole to pregnant rats and rabbits caused no teratogenic effects at doses up to 1.0 and 0.2 mg/kg/day respectively. Those effects that were seen (placental enlargement in rats and pregnancy failure in rabbits) were related to the pharmacology of the compound.

The survival of litters born to rats given anastrozole at 0.02 mg/kg/day and above (from Day 17 of pregnancy to Day 22 post-partum) was compromised. These effects were related to the pharmacological effects of the compound on parturition. There were no adverse effects on behaviour or reproductive performance of the first generation offspring attributable to maternal treatment with anastrozole.

Carcinogenicity

A two-year rat oncogenicity study resulted in an increase in incidence of hepatic neoplasms and uterine stromal polyps in females and thyroid adenomas in males at the high dose (25 mg/kg/day) only. These changes occurred at a dose which represents 100-fold greater exposure than occurs at human therapeutic doses, and are considered not to be clinically relevant to the treatment of patients with anastrozole.

A two-year mouse oncogenicity study resulted in the induction of benign ovarian tumours and a disturbance in the incidence of lymphoreticular neoplasms (fewer histiocytic sarcomas in females and more deaths as a result of lymphomas). These changes are considered to be mouse-specific effects of aromatase inhibition and not clinically relevant to the treatment of patients with anastrozole.

Incompatibilities

The information provided in Incompatibilities of Accord Anastrazole is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accord Anastrazole of the medicine (Anastrozole). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Incompatibilities in the instructions to the drug Accord Anastrazole directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Not applicable.

Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The information provided in Special precautions for disposal and other handling of Accord Anastrazole is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Accord Anastrazole of the medicine (Anastrozole). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special precautions for disposal and other handling in the instructions to the drug Accord Anastrazole directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Substance; Substance-powder
Gastro-resistant capsule, hard

No special requirements.

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.