Components:
Olmesartan Medoxomil
Olmesartan Medoxomil
Method of action:
Agents Acting In The Renin-Angiotensin System, Antihypertensive
Agents Acting In The Renin-Angiotensin System, Antihypertensive
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Name of the medicinal product

Abetis

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Olmesartan Medoxomil

Therapeutic indications

The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Therapeutic indications in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Treatment of essential hypertension.

Treatment of hypertension in children and adolescents from 6 to less than 18 years of age.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administration of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Posology

Adults

The recommended starting dose of Abetis is 10 mg once daily. In patients whose blood pressure is not adequately controlled at this dose, the dose of Abetis may be increased to 20 mg once daily as the optimal dose. If additional blood pressure reduction is required, Abetis dose may be increased to a maximum of 40 mg daily or hydrochlorothiazide therapy may be added.

The antihypertensive effect of Abetis is substantially present within 2 weeks of initiating therapy and is maximal by about 8 weeks after initiating therapy. This should be borne in mind when considering changing the dose regimen for any patient.

Elderly (65 years or older)

No adjustment of dosage is generally required in older people (see below for dose recommendations in patients with renal impairment). If up-titration to the maximum dose of 40mg daily is required, blood pressure should be closely monitored.

Renal impairment

The maximum dose in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance of 20 – 60 mL/min) is 20 mg Abetis once daily, owing to limited experience of higher dosages in this patient group. The use of Abetis in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 20 mL/min) is not recommended, since there is only limited experience in this patient group .

Hepatic impairment

No adjustment of dosage recommendations is required for patients with mild hepatic impairment. In patients with moderate hepatic impairment, an initial dose of 10 mg Abetis once daily is recommended and the maximum dose should not exceed 20 mg once daily. Close monitoring of blood pressure and renal function is advised in hepatically-impaired patients who are already receiving diuretics and/or other antihypertensive agents. There is no experience of Abetis in patients with severe hepatic impairment, therefore use is not recommended in this patient group . Abetis should not be used in patients with biliary obstruction .

Paediatric population

Children and adolescents from 6 to less than 18 years of age

The recommended starting dose of Abetis in children from 6 to less than 18 years of age is 10 mg Abetis once daily. In children whose blood pressure is not adequately controlled at this dose, the dose of Abetis may be increased to 20 mg once daily. If additional blood pressure reduction is required, in children who weigh > 35 kg, the Abetis dose may be increased to a maximum of 40 mg. In children who weigh < 35 kg, the daily dose should not exceed 20 mg.

Other paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of Abetis in children and aged 1 to 5 years old have not yet been established.1 and 5.2 but no recommendation on a posology can be made.

Abetis should not be used in children below 1 years of age because of safety concerns and lack of data in this age group.

Method of administration:

In order to assist compliance, it is recommended that Abetis be taken at about the same time each day, with or without food, for example at breakfast time. The tablet should be swallowed with a sufficient amount of fluid (e.g. one glass of water). The tablet should not be chewed.

Contraindications

The information provided in Contraindications of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Second and third trimesters of pregnancy .

Biliary obstruction .

The concomitant use of Abetis with aliskiren-containing products is contraindicated in patients with diabetes mellitus or renal impairment (GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) .

Special warnings and precautions for use

The information provided in Special warnings and precautions for use of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special warnings and precautions for use in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Intravascular volume depletion:

Symptomatic hypotension, especially after the first dose, may occur in patients who are volume and/or sodium depleted by vigorous diuretic therapy, dietary salt restriction, diarrhoea or vomiting. Such conditions should be corrected before the administration of Abetis.

Other conditions with stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

In patients whose vascular tone and renal function depend predominantly on the activity of the renin-angiotensinaldosterone system (e.g. patients with severe congestive heart failure or underlying renal disease, including renal artery stenosis), treatment with other drugs that affect this system has been associated with acute hypotension, azotaemia, oliguria or, rarely, acute renal failure. The possibility of similar effects cannot be excluded with angiotensin II receptor antagonists.

Renovascular hypertension:

There is an increased risk of severe hypotension and renal insufficiency when patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis or stenosis of the artery to a single functioning kidney are treated with medicinal products that affect the renin-angiotensinaldosterone system.

Renal impairment and kidney transplantation:

When Abetis is used in patients with impaired renal function, periodic monitoring of serum potassium and creatinine levels is recommended. Use of Abetis is not recommended in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 20 mL/min) . There is no experience of the administration of Abetis in patients with a recent kidney transplant or in patients with end-stage renal impairment (ie creatinine clearance <12 mL/min).

Hepatic impairment:

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Hyperkalaemia

The use of medicinal products that affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system may cause hyperkalaemia.

The risk, that may be fatal, is increased in older people, in patients with renal insufficiency and in diabetic patients, in patients concomitantly treated with other medicinal products that may increase potassium levels, and/or in patients with intercurrent events.

Before considering the concomitant use of medicinal products that affect the rennin angiotensin - aldosterone system, the benefit risk ratio should be evaluated and other alternatives considered. (see also below section “Dual blockade of the reninangiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)”).

The main risk factors for hyperkalaemia to be considered are:

- Diabetes, renal impairment, age (> 70 years)

- Combination with one or more other medicinal products that affect the renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system and/or potassium supplements. Some medicinal products or therapeutic class of medicinal products may provoke a hyperkalaemia: salt substitutes containing potassium, potassium-sparing diuretics, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptors antagonists, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (including selective COX-2 inhibitors), heparin, immunosuppressor as ciclosporin or tacrolimus, trimethoprim.

- Intercurrent events, in particular dehydration, acute cardiac decompensation, metabolic acidosis, worsening of renal function, sudden worsening of the renal condition (e.g. infectious diseases), cellular lysis (e.g, acute limb ischemia, rhabdomyolysis, extended trauma).

Close-monitoring of serum potassium in at risk patients is recommended .

Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS):

There is evidence that the concomitant use of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren increases the risk of hypotension, hyperkalaemia and decreased renal function (including acute renal failure). Dual blockade of RAAS through the combined use of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren is therefore not recommended .

If dual blockade therapy is considered absolutely necessary, this should only occur under specialist supervision and subject to frequent close monitoring of renal function, electrolytes and blood pressure.

ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers should not be used concomitantly in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

Lithium:

As with other angiotensin-II receptor antagonists, the combination of lithium and Abetis is not recommended .

Aortic or mitral valve stenosis; obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy:

As with other vasodilators, special caution is indicated in patients suffering from aortic or mitral valve stenosis, or obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Primary aldosteronism:

Patients with primary aldosteronism generally will not respond to antihypertensive drugs acting through inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore, the use of Abetis is not recommended in such patients.

Sprue-like enteropathy:

In very rare cases severe, chronic diarrhoea with substantial weight loss has been reported in patients taking Olmesartan few months to years after drug initiation, possibly caused by a localized delayed hypersensitivity reaction. Intestinal biopsies of patients often demonstrated villous atrophy. If a patient develops these symptoms during treatment with olmesartan, and in the absence of other apparent etiologies, olmesartan treatment should be immediately discontinued and should not be restarted. If diarrhoea does not improve during the week after the discontinuation, further specialist (e.g. a gastro-enterologist) advice should be considered.

Ethnic differences:

As with all other angiotensin II antagonists, the blood pressure lowering effect of Abetis is somewhat less in black patients than in non-black patients, possibly because of a higher prevalence of low-renin status in the black hypertensive population.

Pregnancy:

Angiotensin II antagonists should not be initiated during pregnancy. Unless continued angiotensin II antagonists therapy is considered essential, patients planning pregnancy should be changed to alternative anti-hypertensive treatments which have an established safety profile for use in pregnancy. When pregnancy is diagnosed, treatment with angiotensin II antagonists should be stopped immediately and, if appropriate, alternative therapy should be started .

Other:

As with any antihypertensive agent, excessive blood pressure decrease in patients with ischaemic heart disease or ischaemic cerebrovascular disease could result in a myocardial infarction or stroke.

This medicinal product contains lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp-lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicinal product.

Effects on ability to drive and use machines

The information provided in Effects on ability to drive and use machines of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Effects on ability to drive and use machines in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Abetis has minor or moderate influence on the ability to drive and use machines. Dizziness or fatigue may occasionally occur in patients taking antihypertensive therapy, which may impair the ability to react.

Undesirable effects

The information provided in Undesirable effects of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Undesirable effects in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Summary of the safety profile:

The most commonly reported adverse reactions during treatment with Abetis Tablets are headache (7.7%), influenza-like symptoms (4.0%) and dizziness (3.7%).

In placebo-controlled monotherapy studies, the only adverse drug reaction that was unequivocally related to treatment was dizziness (2.5% incidence on Abetis and 0.9% on placebo).

The incidence was also somewhat higher on Abetis compared with placebo for hypertriglyceridaemia (2.0% versus 1.1%) and for raised creatine phosphokinase (1.3% versus 0.7%).

Tabulated list of adverse reactions:

Adverse reactions from Abetis in clinical trials, post-authorisation safety studies and spontaneous reporting are summarized in the below table.

The following terminologies have been used in order to classify the occurrence of adverse reactionsvery common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100, <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000, <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000, <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000).

MedDRA

System Organ Class

Adverse reactions

Frequency

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Thrombocytopenia

Uncommon

Immune system disorders

Anaphylactic reaction

Uncommon

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Hypertriglyceridaemia

Common

Hyperuricaemia

Common

Hyperkalaemia

Rare

Nervous system disorders

Dizziness

Common

Headache

Common

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Vertigo

Uncommon

Cardiac disorders

Angina pectoris

Uncommon

Vascular disorders

Hypotension

Rare

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Bronchitis

Common

Pharyngitis

Common

Cough

Common

Rhinitis

Common

Gastrointestinal disorders

Gastroenteritis

Common

Diarrhoea

Common

Abdominal pain

Common

Nausea

Common

Dyspepsia

Common

Vomiting

Uncommon

Sprue-like enteropathy

Very rare

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Exanthema

Uncommon

Allergic dermatitis

Uncommon

Urticaria

Uncommon

Rash

Uncommon

Pruritus

Uncommon

Angioedema

Rare

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Arthritis

Common

Back pain

Common

Skeletal pain

Common

Myalgia

Uncommon

Muscle spasm

Rare

Renal and urinary disorders

Haematuria

Common

Urinary tract infection

Common

Acute renal failure

Rare

Renal insufficiency

Rare

General disorders and administration site conditions

Pain

Common

Chest pain

Common

Peripheral oedema

Common

Influenza-like symptoms

Common

Fatigue

Common

Face oedema

Uncommon

Asthenia

Uncommon

Malaise

Uncommon

Lethargy

Rare

Investigations

Hepatic enzymes increased

Common

Blood urea increased

Common

Blood creatine phosphokinase increased

Common

Blood creatinine increased

Rare

Single cases of rhabdomyolysis have been reported in temporal association with the intake of angiotensin II receptor blockers.

Additional information on special populations

Paediatric population

The safety of olmesartan was monitored in 361 children and adolescents, aged 1-17 years old during 2 clinical trials. Whilst the nature and severity of the adverse events are similar to that of the adults, the frequency of the following is higher in the children:

• Epistaxis is a common adverse event in children (i.e. ≥ 1/100 to < 1/10) that has not been reported in adults.

• During the 3 weeks of double blind study, the incidence of treatment emergent dizziness and headache nearly doubled in children 6-17 years of age in the high olmesartan dose group.

The overall safety profile for olmesartan in paediatric patients does not differ significantly from the safety profile in adults.

Elderly (age 65 years or over)

In elderly people the frequency of hypotension is slightly increased from rare to uncommon.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product.

Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system Yellow Card Scheme Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard

Overdose

The information provided in Overdose of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Overdose in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Only limited information is available regarding overdosage in humans. The most likely effect of overdosage is hypotension. In the event of overdosage, the patient should be carefully monitored and treatment should be symptomatic and supportive.

No information is available regarding the dialysability of Olmesartan.

Pharmacodynamic properties

The information provided in Pharmacodynamic properties of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacodynamic properties in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Pharmacotherapeutic group: Angiotensin II antagonists, ATC code: C09CA08

Mechanism of action / Pharmacodynamic effects

Abetis is a potent, orally active, selective angiotensin II receptor (type AT1) antagonist. It is expected to block all actions of angiotensin II mediated by the AT1 receptor, regardless of the source or route of synthesis of angiotensin II. The selective antagonism of the angiotensin II (AT1) receptors results in increases in plasma renin levels and angiotensin I and II concentrations, and some decrease in plasma aldosterone concentrations.

Angiotensin II is the primary vasoactive hormone of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of hypertension via the type 1 (AT1) receptor.

Clinical efficacy and safety

In hypertension, Abetis causes a dose-dependent, long-lasting reduction in arterial blood pressure. There has been no evidence of first-dose hypotension, of tachyphylaxis during long-term treatment, or of rebound hypertension after cessation of therapy.

Once daily dosing with Abetis provides an effective and smooth reduction in blood pressure over the 24 hour dose interval. Once daily dosing produced similar decreases in blood pressure as twice daily dosing at the same total daily dose.

With continuous treatment, maximum reductions in blood pressure are achieved by 8 weeks after the initiation of therapy, although a substantial proportion of the blood pressure lowering effect is already observed after 2 weeks of treatment. When used together with hydrochlorothiazide, the reduction in blood pressure is additive and co administration is well tolerated.

The effect of Olmesartan on mortality and morbidity is not yet known.

The Randomised Olmesartan and Diabetes Microalbuminuria Prevention (ROADMAP) study in 4447 patients with type 2 diabetes, normo-albuminuria and at least one additional cardiovascular risk factor, investigated whether treatment with olmesartan could delay the onset of microalbuminuria. During the median follow-up duration of 3.2 years, patients received either olmesartan or placebo in addition to other antihypertensive agents, except ACE inhibitors or ARBs.

For the primary endpoint, the study demonstrated a significant risk reduction in the time to onset of microalbuminuria, in favour of olmesartan. After adjustment for BP differences this risk reduction was no longer statistically significant. 8.2% (178 of 2160) of the patients in the olmesartan group and 9.8% (210 of 2139) in the placebo group developed microalbuminuria.

For the secondary endpoints, cardiovascular events occurred in 96 patients (4.3%) with olmesartan and in 94 patients (4.2%) with placebo. The incidence of cardiovascular mortality was higher with olmesartan compared to placebo treatment (15 patients (0.7%) vs. 3 patients (0.1%)), despite similar rates for non-fatal stroke (14 patients (0.6%) vs. 8 patients (0.4%)), non-fatal myocardial infarction (17 patients (0.8%) vs. 26 patients (1.2%)) and non cardiovascular mortality (11 patients (0.5%) vs. 12 patients (0.5%)). Overall mortality with olmesartan was numerically increased (26 patients (1.2%) vs. 15 patients (0.7%)), which was mainly driven by a higher number of fatal cardiovascular events.

The Olmesartan Reducing Incidence of End-stage Renal Disease in Diabetic Nephropathy Trial (ORIENT) investigated the effects of olmesartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in 577 randomized Japanese and Chinese type 2 diabetic patients with overt nephropathy. During a median follow-up of 3.1 years, patients received either olmesartan or placebo in addition to other antihypertensive agents including ACE inhibitors.

The primary composite endpoint (time to first event of the doubling of serum creatinine, end-stage renal disease, allcause death) occurred in 116 patients in the olmesartan group (41.1%) and 129 patients in the placebo group (45.4%) (HR 0.97 (95% CI 0.75 to 1.24); p=0.791). The composite secondary cardiovascular endpoint occurred in 40 olmesartan-treated patients (14.2%) and 53 placebo-treated patients (18.7%). This composite cardiovascular endpoint included cardiovascular death in 10 (3.5%) patients receiving olmesartan versus 3 (1.1%) receiving placebo, overall mortality 19 (6.7%) versus 20 (7.0%), non-fatal stroke 8 (2.8%) versus 11 (3.9%) and non-fatal myocardial infarction 3 (1.1%) versus 7 (2.5%), respectively.

Paediatric population

The antihypertensive effects of Abetis in the paediatric population were evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 302 hypertensive patients aged 6 to 17 years. The study population consisted of an all black cohort of 112 patients and a mixed racial cohort of 190 patients, including 38 blacks. The aetiology of the hypertension was predominantly essential hypertension (87% of the black cohort and 67% of the mixed cohort). Patients who weighed 20 to <35 kg were randomized to 2.5 mg (low dose) or 20 mg (high dose) of Abetis once daily and patients who weighed ≥35 kg were randomized to 5 mg (low dose) or 40 mg (high dose)of Abetis once daily. Abetis significantly reduced both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a weight-adjusted dose-dependent manner. Abetis at both low and high doses significantly reduced systolic blood pressure by 6.6 and 11.9 mmHg from the baseline, respectively. This effect was also observed during the 2 weeks randomized withdrawal phase, whereby both mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures demonstrated a statistically significant rebound in the placebo group compared to olmesartan group. The treatment was effective in both, paediatric patients with primary and secondary hypertension. As observed in adult populations, the blood pressure reductions were smaller in black patients.

In the same study, 59 patients aged 1 to 5 years who weighed ≥5 kg received 0.3 mg/kg of Abetis once daily for three weeks in an open label phase and then were randomized to receiving Abetis or placebo in a double-blind phase. At the end of the second week of withdrawal, the mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure at trough was 3/3 mmHg lower in the group randomized to Abetis; this difference in blood pressure was not statistically significant (95% C.I. -2 to 7/-1 to 7).

Other information:

Two large randomised, controlled trials (ONTARGET (ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial) and VA NEPHRON-D (The Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes)) have examined the use of the combination of an ACE-inhibitor with an angiotensin II receptor blocker.

ONTARGET was a study conducted in patients with a history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease, or type 2 diabetes mellitus accompanied by evidence of end-organ damage. VA NEPHRON-D was a study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy.

These studies have shown no significant beneficial effect on renal and/or cardiovascular outcomes and mortality, while an increased risk of hyperkalaemia, acute kidney injury and/or hypotension as compared to monotherapy was observed. Given their similar pharmacodynamic properties, these results are also relevant for other ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers.

ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers should therefore not be used concomitantly in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

ALTITUDE (Aliskiren Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardiovascular and Renal Disease Endpoints) was a study designed to test the benefit of adding aliskiren to a standard therapy of an ACE-inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, or both. The study was terminated early because of an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Cardiovascular death and stroke were both numerically more frequent in the aliskiren group than in the placebo group and adverse events and serious adverse events of interest (hyperkalaemia, hypotension and renal dysfunction) were more frequently reported in the aliskiren group than in the placebo group.

Pharmacokinetic properties

The information provided in Pharmacokinetic properties of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacokinetic properties in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Absorption and distribution

Abetis is a prodrug. It is rapidly converted to the pharmacologically active metabolite, olmesartan, by esterases in the gut mucosa and in portal blood during absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.

No intact Abetis or intact side chain medoxomil moiety have been detected in plasma or excreta. The mean absolute bioavailability of Olmesartan from a tablet formulation was 25.6%.

The mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of Olmesartan is reached within about 2 hours after oral dosing with Abetis, and olmesartan plasma concentrations increase approximately linearly with increasing single oral doses up to about 80 mg.

Food had minimal effect on the bioavailability of Olmesartan and therefore Abetis may be administered with or without food.

No clinically relevant gender-related differences in the pharmacokinetics of Olmesartan have been observed.

Olmesartan is highly bound to plasma protein (99.7%), but the potential for clinically significant protein binding displacement interactions between olmesartan and other highly bound coadministered drugs is low (as confirmed by the lack of a clinically significant interaction between Abetis and warfarin). The binding of olmesartan to blood cells is negligible. The mean volume of distribution after intravenous dosing is low (16 – 29L).

Biotransformation and elimination

Total plasma clearance was typically 1.3 L/h (CV, 19%) and was relatively slow compared to hepatic blood flow (ca 90 L/h). Following a single oral dose of 14C-labelled Abetis, 10 - 16% of the administered radioactivity was excreted in the urine (the vast majority within 24 hours of dose administration) and the remainder of the recovered radioactivity was excreted in the faeces. Based on the systemic availability of 25.6%, it can be calculated that absorbed olmesartan is cleared by both renal excretion (ca 40%) and hepato-biliary excretion (ca 60%). All recovered radioactivity was identified as olmesartan. No other significant metabolite was detected. Enterohepatic recycling of olmesartan is minimal. Since a large proportion of olmesartan is excreted via the biliary route, use in patients with biliary obstruction is contraindicated .

The terminal elimination half life of olmesartan varied between 10 and 15 hours after multiple oral dosing. Steady state was reached after the first few doses and no further accumulation was evident after 14 days of repeated dosing. Renal clearance was approximately 0.5 – 0.7 L/h and was independent of dose.

Pharmacokinetics in special populations

Paediatric population:

The pharmacokinetics of olmesartan was studied in paediatric hypertensive patients aged 1 to 16 years. The clearance of olmesartan in paediatric patients was similar to that in adult patients when adjusted by the body weight.

There is no pharmacokinetic information available in renally impaired paediatric subjects.

Elderly (age 65 years or older):

In hypertensive patients, the AUC at steady state was increased by ca 35% in elderly patients (65 – 75 years old) and by ca 44% in very elderly patients (≥ 75 years old) compared with the younger age group. This may be at least in part related to a mean decrease in renal function in this group of patients.

Renal impairment:

In renally impaired patients, the AUC at steady state increased by 62%, 82% and 179% in patients with mild, moderate and severe renal impairment, respectively, compared to healthy controls .

Hepatic impairment:

After single oral administration, olmesartan AUC values were 6% and 65% higher in mildly and moderately hepatically impaired patients, respectively, than in their corresponding matched healthy controls. The unbound fraction of olmesartan at 2 hours post-dose in healthy subjects, in patients with mild hepatic impairment and in patients with moderate hepatic impairment was 0.26%, 0.34% and 0.41%, respectively. Following repeated dosing in patients with moderate hepatic impairment, olmesartan mean AUC was again about 65% higher than in matched healthy controls. olmesartan mean Cmax values were similar in hepatically-impaired and healthy subjects. Abetis has not been evaluated in patients with severe hepatic impairment .

Drug interactions

Bile acid sequestering agent colesevelam:

Concomitant administration of 40 mg Abetis and 3750 mg colesevelam hydrochloride in healthy subjects resulted in 28% reduction in Cmax and 39% reduction in AUC of olmesartan. Lesser effects, 4% and 15% reduction in Cmax and AUC respectively, were observed when Abetis was administered 4 hours prior to colesevelam hydrochloride. Elimination half life of olmesartan was reduced by 50 – 52% irrespectively of whether administered concomitantly or 4 hours prior to colesevelam hydrochloride .

Pharmacotherapeutic group

The information provided in Pharmacotherapeutic group of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacotherapeutic group in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Angiotensin II antagonists, ATC code: C09CA08

Preclinical safety data

The information provided in Preclinical safety data of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Preclinical safety data in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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In chronic toxicity studies in rats and dogs, Abetis showed similar effects to other AT1 receptor antagonists and ACE inhibitors: raised blood urea (BUN) and creatinine (through functional changes to the kidneys caused by blocking AT1 receptors); reduction in heart weight; a reduction of red cell parameters (erythrocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit); histological indications of renal damage (regenerative lesions of the renal epithelium, thickening of the basal membrane, dilatation of the tubules). These adverse effects caused by the pharmacological action of Abetis have also occurred in preclinical trials on other AT1 receptor antagonists and ACE inhibitors and can be reduced by simultaneous oral administration of sodium chloride.

In both species, increased plasma renin activity and hypertrophy/hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney were observed. These changes, which are a typical effect of the class of ACE inhibitors and other AT1 receptor antagonists, would appear to have no clinical relevance.

Like other AT1 receptor antagonists Abetis was found to increase the incidence of chromosome breaks in cell cultures in vitro. No relevant effects were observed in several in vivo studies using Abetis at very high oral doses of up to 2000 mg/kg. The overall data of a comprehensive genotoxicity testing suggest that Olmesartan is very unlikely to exert genotoxic effects under conditions of clinical use.

Abetis was not carcinogenic, neither in rats in a 2 year study nor in mice when tested in two 6 month carcinogenicity studies using transgenic models.

In reproductive studies in rats, Abetis did not affect fertility and there was no evidence of a teratogenic effect. In common with other angiotensin II antagonists, survival of offspring was reduced following exposure to Abetis and pelvic dilatation of the kidney was seen after exposure of the dams in late pregnancy and lactation. In common with other antihypertensive agents, Abetis was shown to be more toxic to pregnant rabbits than to pregnant rats, however, there was no indication of a fetotoxic effect.

Incompatibilities

The information provided in Incompatibilities of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Incompatibilities in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Not applicable

Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The information provided in Special precautions for disposal and other handling of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special precautions for disposal and other handling in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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No special requirements for disposal.

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

Name of the medicinal product
Abetis
Qualitative and quantitative composition
Olmesartan Medoxomil
Therapeutic indications
The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Therapeutic indications in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Treatment of essential hypertension.

Treatment of hypertension in children and adolescents from 6 to less than 18 years of age.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration
The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administration of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Posology

Adults

The recommended starting dose of Abetis is 10 mg once daily. In patients whose blood pressure is not adequately controlled at this dose, the dose of Abetis may be increased to 20 mg once daily as the optimal dose. If additional blood pressure reduction is required, Abetis dose may be increased to a maximum of 40 mg daily or hydrochlorothiazide therapy may be added.

The antihypertensive effect of Abetis is substantially present within 2 weeks of initiating therapy and is maximal by about 8 weeks after initiating therapy. This should be borne in mind when considering changing the dose regimen for any patient.

Elderly (65 years or older)

No adjustment of dosage is generally required in older people (see below for dose recommendations in patients with renal impairment). If up-titration to the maximum dose of 40mg daily is required, blood pressure should be closely monitored.

Renal impairment

The maximum dose in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance of 20 – 60 mL/min) is 20 mg Abetis once daily, owing to limited experience of higher dosages in this patient group. The use of Abetis in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 20 mL/min) is not recommended, since there is only limited experience in this patient group .

Hepatic impairment

No adjustment of dosage recommendations is required for patients with mild hepatic impairment. In patients with moderate hepatic impairment, an initial dose of 10 mg Abetis once daily is recommended and the maximum dose should not exceed 20 mg once daily. Close monitoring of blood pressure and renal function is advised in hepatically-impaired patients who are already receiving diuretics and/or other antihypertensive agents. There is no experience of Abetis in patients with severe hepatic impairment, therefore use is not recommended in this patient group . Abetis should not be used in patients with biliary obstruction .

Paediatric population

Children and adolescents from 6 to less than 18 years of age

The recommended starting dose of Abetis in children from 6 to less than 18 years of age is 10 mg Abetis once daily. In children whose blood pressure is not adequately controlled at this dose, the dose of Abetis may be increased to 20 mg once daily. If additional blood pressure reduction is required, in children who weigh > 35 kg, the Abetis dose may be increased to a maximum of 40 mg. In children who weigh < 35 kg, the daily dose should not exceed 20 mg.

Other paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of Abetis in children and aged 1 to 5 years old have not yet been established.1 and 5.2 but no recommendation on a posology can be made.

Abetis should not be used in children below 1 years of age because of safety concerns and lack of data in this age group.

Method of administration:

In order to assist compliance, it is recommended that Abetis be taken at about the same time each day, with or without food, for example at breakfast time. The tablet should be swallowed with a sufficient amount of fluid (e.g. one glass of water). The tablet should not be chewed.

Contraindications
The information provided in Contraindications of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Second and third trimesters of pregnancy .

Biliary obstruction .

The concomitant use of Abetis with aliskiren-containing products is contraindicated in patients with diabetes mellitus or renal impairment (GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) .

Special warnings and precautions for use
The information provided in Special warnings and precautions for use of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special warnings and precautions for use in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Intravascular volume depletion:

Symptomatic hypotension, especially after the first dose, may occur in patients who are volume and/or sodium depleted by vigorous diuretic therapy, dietary salt restriction, diarrhoea or vomiting. Such conditions should be corrected before the administration of Abetis.

Other conditions with stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

In patients whose vascular tone and renal function depend predominantly on the activity of the renin-angiotensinaldosterone system (e.g. patients with severe congestive heart failure or underlying renal disease, including renal artery stenosis), treatment with other drugs that affect this system has been associated with acute hypotension, azotaemia, oliguria or, rarely, acute renal failure. The possibility of similar effects cannot be excluded with angiotensin II receptor antagonists.

Renovascular hypertension:

There is an increased risk of severe hypotension and renal insufficiency when patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis or stenosis of the artery to a single functioning kidney are treated with medicinal products that affect the renin-angiotensinaldosterone system.

Renal impairment and kidney transplantation:

When Abetis is used in patients with impaired renal function, periodic monitoring of serum potassium and creatinine levels is recommended. Use of Abetis is not recommended in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 20 mL/min) . There is no experience of the administration of Abetis in patients with a recent kidney transplant or in patients with end-stage renal impairment (ie creatinine clearance <12 mL/min).

Hepatic impairment:

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Hyperkalaemia

The use of medicinal products that affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system may cause hyperkalaemia.

The risk, that may be fatal, is increased in older people, in patients with renal insufficiency and in diabetic patients, in patients concomitantly treated with other medicinal products that may increase potassium levels, and/or in patients with intercurrent events.

Before considering the concomitant use of medicinal products that affect the rennin angiotensin - aldosterone system, the benefit risk ratio should be evaluated and other alternatives considered. (see also below section “Dual blockade of the reninangiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)”).

The main risk factors for hyperkalaemia to be considered are:

- Diabetes, renal impairment, age (> 70 years)

- Combination with one or more other medicinal products that affect the renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system and/or potassium supplements. Some medicinal products or therapeutic class of medicinal products may provoke a hyperkalaemia: salt substitutes containing potassium, potassium-sparing diuretics, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptors antagonists, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (including selective COX-2 inhibitors), heparin, immunosuppressor as ciclosporin or tacrolimus, trimethoprim.

- Intercurrent events, in particular dehydration, acute cardiac decompensation, metabolic acidosis, worsening of renal function, sudden worsening of the renal condition (e.g. infectious diseases), cellular lysis (e.g, acute limb ischemia, rhabdomyolysis, extended trauma).

Close-monitoring of serum potassium in at risk patients is recommended .

Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS):

There is evidence that the concomitant use of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren increases the risk of hypotension, hyperkalaemia and decreased renal function (including acute renal failure). Dual blockade of RAAS through the combined use of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren is therefore not recommended .

If dual blockade therapy is considered absolutely necessary, this should only occur under specialist supervision and subject to frequent close monitoring of renal function, electrolytes and blood pressure.

ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers should not be used concomitantly in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

Lithium:

As with other angiotensin-II receptor antagonists, the combination of lithium and Abetis is not recommended .

Aortic or mitral valve stenosis; obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy:

As with other vasodilators, special caution is indicated in patients suffering from aortic or mitral valve stenosis, or obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Primary aldosteronism:

Patients with primary aldosteronism generally will not respond to antihypertensive drugs acting through inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore, the use of Abetis is not recommended in such patients.

Sprue-like enteropathy:

In very rare cases severe, chronic diarrhoea with substantial weight loss has been reported in patients taking Olmesartan few months to years after drug initiation, possibly caused by a localized delayed hypersensitivity reaction. Intestinal biopsies of patients often demonstrated villous atrophy. If a patient develops these symptoms during treatment with olmesartan, and in the absence of other apparent etiologies, olmesartan treatment should be immediately discontinued and should not be restarted. If diarrhoea does not improve during the week after the discontinuation, further specialist (e.g. a gastro-enterologist) advice should be considered.

Ethnic differences:

As with all other angiotensin II antagonists, the blood pressure lowering effect of Abetis is somewhat less in black patients than in non-black patients, possibly because of a higher prevalence of low-renin status in the black hypertensive population.

Pregnancy:

Angiotensin II antagonists should not be initiated during pregnancy. Unless continued angiotensin II antagonists therapy is considered essential, patients planning pregnancy should be changed to alternative anti-hypertensive treatments which have an established safety profile for use in pregnancy. When pregnancy is diagnosed, treatment with angiotensin II antagonists should be stopped immediately and, if appropriate, alternative therapy should be started .

Other:

As with any antihypertensive agent, excessive blood pressure decrease in patients with ischaemic heart disease or ischaemic cerebrovascular disease could result in a myocardial infarction or stroke.

This medicinal product contains lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp-lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicinal product.

Effects on ability to drive and use machines
The information provided in Effects on ability to drive and use machines of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Effects on ability to drive and use machines in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Abetis has minor or moderate influence on the ability to drive and use machines. Dizziness or fatigue may occasionally occur in patients taking antihypertensive therapy, which may impair the ability to react.

Undesirable effects
The information provided in Undesirable effects of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Undesirable effects in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Summary of the safety profile:

The most commonly reported adverse reactions during treatment with Abetis Tablets are headache (7.7%), influenza-like symptoms (4.0%) and dizziness (3.7%).

In placebo-controlled monotherapy studies, the only adverse drug reaction that was unequivocally related to treatment was dizziness (2.5% incidence on Abetis and 0.9% on placebo).

The incidence was also somewhat higher on Abetis compared with placebo for hypertriglyceridaemia (2.0% versus 1.1%) and for raised creatine phosphokinase (1.3% versus 0.7%).

Tabulated list of adverse reactions:

Adverse reactions from Abetis in clinical trials, post-authorisation safety studies and spontaneous reporting are summarized in the below table.

The following terminologies have been used in order to classify the occurrence of adverse reactionsvery common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100, <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000, <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000, <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000).

MedDRA

System Organ Class

Adverse reactions

Frequency

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Thrombocytopenia

Uncommon

Immune system disorders

Anaphylactic reaction

Uncommon

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Hypertriglyceridaemia

Common

Hyperuricaemia

Common

Hyperkalaemia

Rare

Nervous system disorders

Dizziness

Common

Headache

Common

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Vertigo

Uncommon

Cardiac disorders

Angina pectoris

Uncommon

Vascular disorders

Hypotension

Rare

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Bronchitis

Common

Pharyngitis

Common

Cough

Common

Rhinitis

Common

Gastrointestinal disorders

Gastroenteritis

Common

Diarrhoea

Common

Abdominal pain

Common

Nausea

Common

Dyspepsia

Common

Vomiting

Uncommon

Sprue-like enteropathy

Very rare

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Exanthema

Uncommon

Allergic dermatitis

Uncommon

Urticaria

Uncommon

Rash

Uncommon

Pruritus

Uncommon

Angioedema

Rare

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Arthritis

Common

Back pain

Common

Skeletal pain

Common

Myalgia

Uncommon

Muscle spasm

Rare

Renal and urinary disorders

Haematuria

Common

Urinary tract infection

Common

Acute renal failure

Rare

Renal insufficiency

Rare

General disorders and administration site conditions

Pain

Common

Chest pain

Common

Peripheral oedema

Common

Influenza-like symptoms

Common

Fatigue

Common

Face oedema

Uncommon

Asthenia

Uncommon

Malaise

Uncommon

Lethargy

Rare

Investigations

Hepatic enzymes increased

Common

Blood urea increased

Common

Blood creatine phosphokinase increased

Common

Blood creatinine increased

Rare

Single cases of rhabdomyolysis have been reported in temporal association with the intake of angiotensin II receptor blockers.

Additional information on special populations

Paediatric population

The safety of olmesartan was monitored in 361 children and adolescents, aged 1-17 years old during 2 clinical trials. Whilst the nature and severity of the adverse events are similar to that of the adults, the frequency of the following is higher in the children:

• Epistaxis is a common adverse event in children (i.e. ≥ 1/100 to < 1/10) that has not been reported in adults.

• During the 3 weeks of double blind study, the incidence of treatment emergent dizziness and headache nearly doubled in children 6-17 years of age in the high olmesartan dose group.

The overall safety profile for olmesartan in paediatric patients does not differ significantly from the safety profile in adults.

Elderly (age 65 years or over)

In elderly people the frequency of hypotension is slightly increased from rare to uncommon.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product.

Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system Yellow Card Scheme Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard

Overdose
The information provided in Overdose of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Overdose in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Only limited information is available regarding overdosage in humans. The most likely effect of overdosage is hypotension. In the event of overdosage, the patient should be carefully monitored and treatment should be symptomatic and supportive.

No information is available regarding the dialysability of Olmesartan.

Pharmacodynamic properties
The information provided in Pharmacodynamic properties of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacodynamic properties in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Pharmacotherapeutic group: Angiotensin II antagonists, ATC code: C09CA08

Mechanism of action / Pharmacodynamic effects

Abetis is a potent, orally active, selective angiotensin II receptor (type AT1) antagonist. It is expected to block all actions of angiotensin II mediated by the AT1 receptor, regardless of the source or route of synthesis of angiotensin II. The selective antagonism of the angiotensin II (AT1) receptors results in increases in plasma renin levels and angiotensin I and II concentrations, and some decrease in plasma aldosterone concentrations.

Angiotensin II is the primary vasoactive hormone of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of hypertension via the type 1 (AT1) receptor.

Clinical efficacy and safety

In hypertension, Abetis causes a dose-dependent, long-lasting reduction in arterial blood pressure. There has been no evidence of first-dose hypotension, of tachyphylaxis during long-term treatment, or of rebound hypertension after cessation of therapy.

Once daily dosing with Abetis provides an effective and smooth reduction in blood pressure over the 24 hour dose interval. Once daily dosing produced similar decreases in blood pressure as twice daily dosing at the same total daily dose.

With continuous treatment, maximum reductions in blood pressure are achieved by 8 weeks after the initiation of therapy, although a substantial proportion of the blood pressure lowering effect is already observed after 2 weeks of treatment. When used together with hydrochlorothiazide, the reduction in blood pressure is additive and co administration is well tolerated.

The effect of Olmesartan on mortality and morbidity is not yet known.

The Randomised Olmesartan and Diabetes Microalbuminuria Prevention (ROADMAP) study in 4447 patients with type 2 diabetes, normo-albuminuria and at least one additional cardiovascular risk factor, investigated whether treatment with olmesartan could delay the onset of microalbuminuria. During the median follow-up duration of 3.2 years, patients received either olmesartan or placebo in addition to other antihypertensive agents, except ACE inhibitors or ARBs.

For the primary endpoint, the study demonstrated a significant risk reduction in the time to onset of microalbuminuria, in favour of olmesartan. After adjustment for BP differences this risk reduction was no longer statistically significant. 8.2% (178 of 2160) of the patients in the olmesartan group and 9.8% (210 of 2139) in the placebo group developed microalbuminuria.

For the secondary endpoints, cardiovascular events occurred in 96 patients (4.3%) with olmesartan and in 94 patients (4.2%) with placebo. The incidence of cardiovascular mortality was higher with olmesartan compared to placebo treatment (15 patients (0.7%) vs. 3 patients (0.1%)), despite similar rates for non-fatal stroke (14 patients (0.6%) vs. 8 patients (0.4%)), non-fatal myocardial infarction (17 patients (0.8%) vs. 26 patients (1.2%)) and non cardiovascular mortality (11 patients (0.5%) vs. 12 patients (0.5%)). Overall mortality with olmesartan was numerically increased (26 patients (1.2%) vs. 15 patients (0.7%)), which was mainly driven by a higher number of fatal cardiovascular events.

The Olmesartan Reducing Incidence of End-stage Renal Disease in Diabetic Nephropathy Trial (ORIENT) investigated the effects of olmesartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in 577 randomized Japanese and Chinese type 2 diabetic patients with overt nephropathy. During a median follow-up of 3.1 years, patients received either olmesartan or placebo in addition to other antihypertensive agents including ACE inhibitors.

The primary composite endpoint (time to first event of the doubling of serum creatinine, end-stage renal disease, allcause death) occurred in 116 patients in the olmesartan group (41.1%) and 129 patients in the placebo group (45.4%) (HR 0.97 (95% CI 0.75 to 1.24); p=0.791). The composite secondary cardiovascular endpoint occurred in 40 olmesartan-treated patients (14.2%) and 53 placebo-treated patients (18.7%). This composite cardiovascular endpoint included cardiovascular death in 10 (3.5%) patients receiving olmesartan versus 3 (1.1%) receiving placebo, overall mortality 19 (6.7%) versus 20 (7.0%), non-fatal stroke 8 (2.8%) versus 11 (3.9%) and non-fatal myocardial infarction 3 (1.1%) versus 7 (2.5%), respectively.

Paediatric population

The antihypertensive effects of Abetis in the paediatric population were evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 302 hypertensive patients aged 6 to 17 years. The study population consisted of an all black cohort of 112 patients and a mixed racial cohort of 190 patients, including 38 blacks. The aetiology of the hypertension was predominantly essential hypertension (87% of the black cohort and 67% of the mixed cohort). Patients who weighed 20 to <35 kg were randomized to 2.5 mg (low dose) or 20 mg (high dose) of Abetis once daily and patients who weighed ≥35 kg were randomized to 5 mg (low dose) or 40 mg (high dose)of Abetis once daily. Abetis significantly reduced both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a weight-adjusted dose-dependent manner. Abetis at both low and high doses significantly reduced systolic blood pressure by 6.6 and 11.9 mmHg from the baseline, respectively. This effect was also observed during the 2 weeks randomized withdrawal phase, whereby both mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures demonstrated a statistically significant rebound in the placebo group compared to olmesartan group. The treatment was effective in both, paediatric patients with primary and secondary hypertension. As observed in adult populations, the blood pressure reductions were smaller in black patients.

In the same study, 59 patients aged 1 to 5 years who weighed ≥5 kg received 0.3 mg/kg of Abetis once daily for three weeks in an open label phase and then were randomized to receiving Abetis or placebo in a double-blind phase. At the end of the second week of withdrawal, the mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure at trough was 3/3 mmHg lower in the group randomized to Abetis; this difference in blood pressure was not statistically significant (95% C.I. -2 to 7/-1 to 7).

Other information:

Two large randomised, controlled trials (ONTARGET (ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial) and VA NEPHRON-D (The Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes)) have examined the use of the combination of an ACE-inhibitor with an angiotensin II receptor blocker.

ONTARGET was a study conducted in patients with a history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease, or type 2 diabetes mellitus accompanied by evidence of end-organ damage. VA NEPHRON-D was a study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy.

These studies have shown no significant beneficial effect on renal and/or cardiovascular outcomes and mortality, while an increased risk of hyperkalaemia, acute kidney injury and/or hypotension as compared to monotherapy was observed. Given their similar pharmacodynamic properties, these results are also relevant for other ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers.

ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers should therefore not be used concomitantly in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

ALTITUDE (Aliskiren Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardiovascular and Renal Disease Endpoints) was a study designed to test the benefit of adding aliskiren to a standard therapy of an ACE-inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, or both. The study was terminated early because of an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Cardiovascular death and stroke were both numerically more frequent in the aliskiren group than in the placebo group and adverse events and serious adverse events of interest (hyperkalaemia, hypotension and renal dysfunction) were more frequently reported in the aliskiren group than in the placebo group.

Pharmacokinetic properties
The information provided in Pharmacokinetic properties of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacokinetic properties in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Absorption and distribution

Abetis is a prodrug. It is rapidly converted to the pharmacologically active metabolite, olmesartan, by esterases in the gut mucosa and in portal blood during absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.

No intact Abetis or intact side chain medoxomil moiety have been detected in plasma or excreta. The mean absolute bioavailability of Olmesartan from a tablet formulation was 25.6%.

The mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of Olmesartan is reached within about 2 hours after oral dosing with Abetis, and olmesartan plasma concentrations increase approximately linearly with increasing single oral doses up to about 80 mg.

Food had minimal effect on the bioavailability of Olmesartan and therefore Abetis may be administered with or without food.

No clinically relevant gender-related differences in the pharmacokinetics of Olmesartan have been observed.

Olmesartan is highly bound to plasma protein (99.7%), but the potential for clinically significant protein binding displacement interactions between olmesartan and other highly bound coadministered drugs is low (as confirmed by the lack of a clinically significant interaction between Abetis and warfarin). The binding of olmesartan to blood cells is negligible. The mean volume of distribution after intravenous dosing is low (16 – 29L).

Biotransformation and elimination

Total plasma clearance was typically 1.3 L/h (CV, 19%) and was relatively slow compared to hepatic blood flow (ca 90 L/h). Following a single oral dose of 14C-labelled Abetis, 10 - 16% of the administered radioactivity was excreted in the urine (the vast majority within 24 hours of dose administration) and the remainder of the recovered radioactivity was excreted in the faeces. Based on the systemic availability of 25.6%, it can be calculated that absorbed olmesartan is cleared by both renal excretion (ca 40%) and hepato-biliary excretion (ca 60%). All recovered radioactivity was identified as olmesartan. No other significant metabolite was detected. Enterohepatic recycling of olmesartan is minimal. Since a large proportion of olmesartan is excreted via the biliary route, use in patients with biliary obstruction is contraindicated .

The terminal elimination half life of olmesartan varied between 10 and 15 hours after multiple oral dosing. Steady state was reached after the first few doses and no further accumulation was evident after 14 days of repeated dosing. Renal clearance was approximately 0.5 – 0.7 L/h and was independent of dose.

Pharmacokinetics in special populations

Paediatric population:

The pharmacokinetics of olmesartan was studied in paediatric hypertensive patients aged 1 to 16 years. The clearance of olmesartan in paediatric patients was similar to that in adult patients when adjusted by the body weight.

There is no pharmacokinetic information available in renally impaired paediatric subjects.

Elderly (age 65 years or older):

In hypertensive patients, the AUC at steady state was increased by ca 35% in elderly patients (65 – 75 years old) and by ca 44% in very elderly patients (≥ 75 years old) compared with the younger age group. This may be at least in part related to a mean decrease in renal function in this group of patients.

Renal impairment:

In renally impaired patients, the AUC at steady state increased by 62%, 82% and 179% in patients with mild, moderate and severe renal impairment, respectively, compared to healthy controls .

Hepatic impairment:

After single oral administration, olmesartan AUC values were 6% and 65% higher in mildly and moderately hepatically impaired patients, respectively, than in their corresponding matched healthy controls. The unbound fraction of olmesartan at 2 hours post-dose in healthy subjects, in patients with mild hepatic impairment and in patients with moderate hepatic impairment was 0.26%, 0.34% and 0.41%, respectively. Following repeated dosing in patients with moderate hepatic impairment, olmesartan mean AUC was again about 65% higher than in matched healthy controls. olmesartan mean Cmax values were similar in hepatically-impaired and healthy subjects. Abetis has not been evaluated in patients with severe hepatic impairment .

Drug interactions

Bile acid sequestering agent colesevelam:

Concomitant administration of 40 mg Abetis and 3750 mg colesevelam hydrochloride in healthy subjects resulted in 28% reduction in Cmax and 39% reduction in AUC of olmesartan. Lesser effects, 4% and 15% reduction in Cmax and AUC respectively, were observed when Abetis was administered 4 hours prior to colesevelam hydrochloride. Elimination half life of olmesartan was reduced by 50 – 52% irrespectively of whether administered concomitantly or 4 hours prior to colesevelam hydrochloride .

Pharmacotherapeutic group
The information provided in Pharmacotherapeutic group of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacotherapeutic group in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Angiotensin II antagonists, ATC code: C09CA08
Preclinical safety data
The information provided in Preclinical safety data of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Preclinical safety data in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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In chronic toxicity studies in rats and dogs, Abetis showed similar effects to other AT1 receptor antagonists and ACE inhibitors: raised blood urea (BUN) and creatinine (through functional changes to the kidneys caused by blocking AT1 receptors); reduction in heart weight; a reduction of red cell parameters (erythrocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit); histological indications of renal damage (regenerative lesions of the renal epithelium, thickening of the basal membrane, dilatation of the tubules). These adverse effects caused by the pharmacological action of Abetis have also occurred in preclinical trials on other AT1 receptor antagonists and ACE inhibitors and can be reduced by simultaneous oral administration of sodium chloride.

In both species, increased plasma renin activity and hypertrophy/hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney were observed. These changes, which are a typical effect of the class of ACE inhibitors and other AT1 receptor antagonists, would appear to have no clinical relevance.

Like other AT1 receptor antagonists Abetis was found to increase the incidence of chromosome breaks in cell cultures in vitro. No relevant effects were observed in several in vivo studies using Abetis at very high oral doses of up to 2000 mg/kg. The overall data of a comprehensive genotoxicity testing suggest that Olmesartan is very unlikely to exert genotoxic effects under conditions of clinical use.

Abetis was not carcinogenic, neither in rats in a 2 year study nor in mice when tested in two 6 month carcinogenicity studies using transgenic models.

In reproductive studies in rats, Abetis did not affect fertility and there was no evidence of a teratogenic effect. In common with other angiotensin II antagonists, survival of offspring was reduced following exposure to Abetis and pelvic dilatation of the kidney was seen after exposure of the dams in late pregnancy and lactation. In common with other antihypertensive agents, Abetis was shown to be more toxic to pregnant rabbits than to pregnant rats, however, there was no indication of a fetotoxic effect.

Incompatibilities
The information provided in Incompatibilities of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Incompatibilities in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Not applicable

Special precautions for disposal and other handling
The information provided in Special precautions for disposal and other handling of Abetis is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Abetis of the medicine (Olmesartan Medoxomil). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special precautions for disposal and other handling in the instructions to the drug Abetis directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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No special requirements for disposal.

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

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