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Components:
Sevelamer
Method of action:
All Other Therapeutic Products, Hypophosphatemic
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Medically reviewed by Fedorchenko Olga Valeryevna, Pharmacy-Provisor. Last updated on 2020.04.01

Name of the medicinal product

Sevelamer Mylan

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Sevelamer

Therapeutic indications

The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Sevelamer Mylan is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Sevelamer Mylan of the medicine (Sevelamer). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Therapeutic indications in the instructions to the drug Sevelamer Mylan directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Powder for oral suspension; Solution for haemodialysis
Powder for concentrate for solution for infusion

Sevelamer Mylan is indicated for the control of hyperphosphataemia in adult patients receiving haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.

Sevelamer Mylan is also indicated for the control of hyperphosphataemia in adult patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis with serum phosphorus > 1.78 mmol/l.

Sevelamer Mylan is indicated for the control of hyperphosphataemia in paediatric patients (>6 years of age and a Body Surface Area (BSA) of >0.75 m2) with chronic kidney disease.

Sevelamer Mylan should be used within the context of a multiple therapeutic approach, which could include calcium supplement, 1,25-dihydroxy Vitamin D3 or one of its analogues to control the development of renal bone disease.

Sevelamer Mylan is indicated for the control of hyperphosphataemia in adult patients receiving haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Sevelamer Mylan should be used within the context of a multiple therapeutic approach, which could include calcium supplements, 1,25-dihydroxy Vitamin D3 or one of its analogues to control the development of renal bone disease.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administration of Sevelamer Mylan is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Sevelamer Mylan of the medicine (Sevelamer). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Sevelamer Mylan directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Powder for oral suspension; Solution for haemodialysis
Powder for concentrate for solution for infusion

Posology:

Starting dose

Adults

The recommended starting dose of sevelamer carbonate for adults is 2.4 g or 4.8 g per day based on clinical needs and serum phosphorus level. Sevelamer Mylan powder for oral suspension must be taken three times per day with meals.

Serum phosphorus level in patients

Total daily dose of sevelamer carbonate to be taken over 3 meals per day

1.78 - 2.42 mmol/l (5.5 - 7.5 mg/dl)

2.4 g*

> 2.42 mmol/l (> 7.5 mg/dl)

4.8 g*

*Plus subsequent titrating as per instructions

Children/adolescents (>6 years of age and a body surface area (BSA) of >0.75m2)

The recommended starting dose of sevelamer carbonate for children is between 2.4 g and 4.8 g per day based on the patient's body surface area (BSA) category. Sevelamer Mylan must be taken three times per day with meals or snacks.

BSA (m2)

Total daily dose of sevelamer carbonate to be taken over 3 meals/snacks per day

>0.75 to <1.2

2.4 g**

>1.2

4.8 g**

**Plus subsequent titrating as per instructions

For patients previously on phosphate binders (sevelamer hydrochloride or calcium based), Sevelamer Mylan should be given on a gram for gram basis with monitoring of serum phosphorus levels to ensure optimal daily doses.

Titration and maintenance

*Adults

For adult patients, serum phosphorus must be monitored and the dose of sevelamer carbonate titrated by 0.8 g three times per day (2.4 g/day) increments every 2-4 weeks until an acceptable serum phosphorus level is reached, with regular monitoring thereafter.

In clinical practice, treatment will be continuous based on the need to control serum phosphorus levels and the daily adult dose is expected to be an average of approximately 6 g per day.

**Children and adolescents (>6 years of age and a body surface area (BSA) of >0.75m2)

For paediatric patients, serum phosphorus levels must be monitored and the dose of sevelamer carbonate titrated in increments based on patient's BSA, three times per day every 2-4 weeks until an acceptable serum phosphorus level is reached, with regular monitoring thereafter.

Paediatric dosage based on body surface area (BSA) (m2)

BSA (m2)

Starting dose

Titration increases/decreases

>0.75 to <1.2

0.8 g three times daily

Titrate up/down by 0.4 g three times daily

>1.2

1.6 g three times daily

Titrate up/down by 0.8 g three times daily

Patients taking Sevelamer Mylan should adhere to their prescribed diets.

Paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of Sevelamer Mylan have not been established in children below the age of 6 years or in children with a BSA below 0.75 m2.

For paediatric patients with a <1.2 BSA (m2), the oral suspension should be administered, as tablet formulations were not tested in this population and therefore are not appropriate for this population.

Method of administration

For oral use.

Each sachet of 2.4 g of powder is to be dispersed in 60 mL of water prior to administration. The suspension should be ingested within 30 minutes after being prepared. Sevelamer Mylan should be taken with food and not on an empty stomach.

As an alternative to water, the powder may be pre-mixed with a small amount of beverage or food (e.g. 100grams/120 ml) and consumed within 30 minutes. Do not heat Sevelamer Mylan powder (e.g. microwave) or add to heated foods or liquids.

To achieve the correct dose, a 2.4 g sachet of Sevelamer Mylan powder may be divided. The Sevelamer Mylan powder may be measured by volume (mL) using a measuring scoop or measuring spoon. Further instructions are detailed in the Patient Leaflet.

Sevelamer carbonate dose (g)

Volume (mL)

0.4 g (400 mg)

1.0 mL

0.8 g (800 mg)

2.0 mL

1.2 g (1200 mg)

3.0 mL

1.6 g (1600 mg)

4.0 mL

Posology

Starting dose

The recommended starting dose of sevelamer hydrochloride is 2.4 g or 4.8 g per day based on clinical needs and serum phosphorus level. Sevelamer Mylan must be taken three times per day with meals.

Serum phosphate level in patients not on phosphate binders

Starting dose of Sevelamer Mylan 800 mg tablets

1.76 - 2.42 mmol/L (5.5-7.5 mg/dl)

1 tablet, 3 times per day

> 2.42 mmol/L (>7.5 mg/dl)

2 tablets, 3 times per day

For patients previously on phosphate binders, Sevelamer Mylan should be given on a gram for gram basis with monitoring of serum phosphorus levels to ensure optimal daily doses.

Titration and maintenance

Serum phosphate levels should be closely monitored and the dose of sevelamer hydrochloride titrated by 0.8 g three times per day (2.4 g/day) increments with the goal of lowering serum phosphate to 1.76 mmol/L (5.5 mg/dl) or less. Serum phosphate should be tested every two to three weeks until a stable serum phosphate level is reached and on a regular basis thereafter.

The dose range may vary between 1 and 5 tablets of 800 mg per meal. The average actual daily dose used in the chronic phase of a one year clinical study was 7 grams of sevelamer.

Paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of this product have not been established in patients below the age of 18 years.

Renal impairment

The safety and efficacy of this product have not been established in predialysis patients.

Method of administration

For oral use

Patients should take Sevelamer Mylan with meals and adhere to their prescribed diets. The tablets must be swallowed whole. Do not crush, chew or break into pieces prior to administration.

Contraindications

The information provided in Contraindications of Sevelamer Mylan is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Sevelamer Mylan of the medicine (Sevelamer). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Sevelamer Mylan directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Powder for oral suspension; Solution for haemodialysis
Powder for concentrate for solution for infusion

-

- Hypophosphataemia

- Bowel obstruction.

-

- Hypophosphataemia

- Bowel obstruction.

Special warnings and precautions for use

The information provided in Special warnings and precautions for use of Sevelamer Mylan is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Sevelamer Mylan of the medicine (Sevelamer). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special warnings and precautions for use in the instructions to the drug Sevelamer Mylan directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Powder for oral suspension; Solution for haemodialysis
Powder for concentrate for solution for infusion

The safety and efficacy of Sevelamer Mylan have not been established in adult patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis with serum phosphorus < 1.78 mmol/l. Therefore Sevelamer Mylan is currently not recommended for use in these patients.

The safety and efficacy of Sevelamer Mylan have not been established in patients with the following disorders:

- dysphagia

- swallowing disorders

- severe gastrointestinal motility disorders including untreated or severe gastroparesis, retention of gastric contents and abnormal or irregular bowel motion

- active inflammatory bowel disease

- major gastrointestinal tract surgery

Therefore caution should be exercised when Sevelamer Mylan is used in these patients.

Intestinal obstruction and ileus/subileus

In very rare cases, intestinal obstruction and ileus/subileus have been observed in patients during treatment with sevelamer hydrochloride (capsules/tablets), which contains the same active moiety as sevelamer carbonate. Constipation may be a preceding symptom. Patients who are constipated should be monitored carefully while being treated with Sevelamer Mylan. Sevelamer Mylan treatment should be re-evaluated in patients who develop severe constipation or other severe gastrointestinal symptoms.

Fat-soluble vitamins

Patients with CKD may develop low levels of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, depending on dietary intake and the severity of their disease. It cannot be excluded that Sevelamer Mylan can bind fat-soluble vitamins contained in ingested food. In patients not taking supplemental vitamins but on sevelamer, serum vitamin A, D, E and K status should be assessed regularly. It is recommended that vitamin supplements be given if necessary. It is recommended that CKD patients not on dialysis are given vitamin D supplements (approximately 400 IU of native vitamin D daily) which can be part of a multivitamin preparation to be taken apart from their dose of Sevelamer Mylan. In patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis additional monitoring of fat-soluble vitamins and folic acid is recommended, since vitamin A, D, E and K levels were not measured in a clinical study in these patients.

Folate deficiency

There is at present insufficient data to exclude the possibility of folate deficiency during long term Sevelamer Mylan treatment.

Hypocalcaemia/hypercalcaemia

Patients with CKD may develop hypocalcaemia or hypercalcaemia. Sevelamer Mylan does not contain any calcium. Serum calcium levels should therefore be monitored at regular intervals and elemental calcium should be given as a supplement if required.

Metabolic acidosis

Patients with chronic kidney disease are predisposed to developing metabolic acidosis. As part of good clinical practice, monitoring of serum bicarbonate levels is therefore recommended.

Peritonitis

Patients receiving dialysis are subject to certain risks for infection specific to dialysis modality. Peritonitis is a known complication in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis and in a clinical study with sevelamer hydrochloride, a greater number of peritonitis cases were reported in the sevelamer group than in the control group. Patients on peritoneal dialysis should be closely monitored to ensure the correct use of appropriate aseptic technique with the prompt recognition and management of any signs and symptoms associated with peritonitis.

Swallowing and choking difficulties

Uncommon reports of difficulty swallowing the Sevelamer Mylan tablet have been reported. Many of these cases involved patients with co-morbid conditions including swallowing disorders or oroesophageal abnormalities. Caution should be exercised when Sevelamer Mylan is used in patients with difficulty swallowing. The use of Sevelamer Mylan powder for oral suspension in patients with a history of difficulty swallowing should be considered.

Hypothyroidism

Closer monitoring of patients with hypothyroidism co-administered with sevelamer carbonate and levothyroxine is recommended.

Long-term chronic treatment

In a clinical trial of one year, no evidence of accumulation of sevelamer was seen. However the potential absorption and accumulation of sevelamer during long-term chronic treatment (> one year) cannot be totally excluded.

Hyperparathyroidism

Sevelamer Mylan is not indicated for the control of hyperparathyroidism. In patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism Sevelamer Mylan should be used within the context of a multiple therapeutic approach, which could include calcium as supplements, 1,25 - dihydroxy Vitamin D3 or one of its analogues to lower the intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels.

Inflammatory Gastrointestinal Disorders

Cases of serious inflammatory disorders of different parts of the gastrointestinal tract (including serious complications such as bleeding, perforation, ulceration, necrosis, colitis, …) associated with the presence of sevelamer crystals have been reported in literature. However, the causality of the sevelamer crystals in initiating such disorders has not been demonstrated. Sevelamer carbonate treatment should be re-evaluated in patients who develop severe gastrointestinal symptoms.

Efficacy and safety of Sevelamer Mylan has not been studied in patients with:

- swallowing disorders

- active inflammatory bowel disease

- gastrointestinal motility disorders including untreated or severe gastroparesis, diverticulosis retention of gastric contents and abnormal or irregular bowel motion

- patients with a history of major gastrointestinal surgery

Therefore caution should be exercised when Sevelamer Mylan is used in patients with these disorders.

Intestinal obstruction and ileus/subileus

In very rare cases, intestinal obstruction and ileus/subileus have been observed in patients during treatment with sevelamer hydrochloride. Constipation may be a preceding symptom. Patients who are constipated should be monitored carefully while being treated with sevelamer hydrochloride. Sevelamer Mylan treatment should be re-evaluated in patients who develop severe constipation or other severe gastrointestinal symptoms.

Fat-soluble vitamins

Depending on diet intake and the nature of end stage renal failure, dialysis patients may develop low vitamin A, D, E and K levels. It cannot be excluded that Sevelamer Mylan can bind fat-soluble vitamins contained in ingested food. Therefore, in patients not taking these vitamins, monitoring vitamin A, D and E levels and assessing vitamin K status through the measurement of thromboplastin time should be considered and the vitamins should be supplemented if necessary. Additional monitoring of vitamins and folic acid is recommended in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis, since in the clinical study, vitamin A, D, E and K levels were not measured in these patients.

Folate deficiency

There is at present insufficient data to exclude the possibility of folate deficiency during long term Sevelamer Mylan treatment.

Hypocalcaemia/hypercalcaemia

Patients with renal insufficiency may develop hypocalcaemia or hypercalcaemia. Sevelamer Mylan does not contain calcium. Serum calcium levels should be monitored as is done in normal follow-up of a dialysis patient. Elemental calcium should be given as a supplement in case of hypocalcaemia.

Metabolic acidosis

Patients with chronic renal failure are predisposed to developing metabolic acidosis. Worsening of acidosis has been reported upon switching from other phosphate binders to sevelamer in a number of studies where lower bicarbonate levels in the sevelamer-treated patients compared to patients treated with calcium-based binders were observed. Closer monitoring of serum bicarbonate levels is therefore recommended.

Peritonitis

Patients receiving dialysis are subject to certain risks for infection specific to the dialysis modality. Peritonitis is a known complication in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD) and in a clinical study with Sevelamer Mylan, a number of peritonitis cases were reported. Therefore, patients on PD should be closely monitored to ensure the reliable use of appropriate aseptic technique with the prompt recognition and management of any signs and symptoms associated with peritonitis.

Swallowing and choking difficulties

Uncommon reports of difficulty swallowing the Sevelamer Mylan tablet have been reported. Many of these cases involved patients with co-morbid conditions including swallowing disorders or oesophageal abnormalities. Caution should be exercised when Sevelamer Mylan is used in patients with difficulty swallowing.

Hypothyroidism

Closer monitoring of patients with hypothyroidism co-administered with sevelamer hydrochloride and levothyroxine is recommended.

Long term chronic treatment

As data on the chronic use of sevelamer for over one year are not yet available, potential absorption and accumulation of sevelamer during long-term chronic treatment cannot be totally excluded.

Hyperparathyroidism

Sevelamer Mylan alone is not indicated for the control of hyperparathyroidism. In patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism Sevelamer Mylan should be used within the context of a multiple therapeutic approach, which could include calcium supplements, 1,25-dihydroxy Vitamin D3 or one of its analogues to lower the intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels.

Serum chloride

Serum chloride may increase during Sevelamer Mylan treatment as chloride may be exchanged for phosphorus in the intestinal lumen. Although no clinically significant serum chloride increase has been observed in the clinical studies, serum chloride should be monitored as is done in the routine follow-up of a dialysis patient. One gram of Sevelamer Mylan contains approximately 180 mg (5.1 mEq) chloride.

Inflammatory Gastrointestinal Disorders

Cases of serious inflammatory disorders of different parts of the gastrointestinal tract (including serious complications such as bleeding, perforation, ulceration, necrosis, colitis,...) associated with the presence of sevelamer crystals have been reported in literature. However, the causality of the sevelamer crystals in initiating such disorders has not been demonstrated. Sevelamer hydrochloride treatment should be re-evaluated in patients who develop severe gastrointestinal symptoms.

Effects on ability to drive and use machines

The information provided in Effects on ability to drive and use machines of Sevelamer Mylan is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Sevelamer Mylan of the medicine (Sevelamer). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Effects on ability to drive and use machines in the instructions to the drug Sevelamer Mylan directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Sevelamer has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.

Undesirable effects

The information provided in Undesirable effects of Sevelamer Mylan is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Sevelamer Mylan of the medicine (Sevelamer). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Undesirable effects in the instructions to the drug Sevelamer Mylan directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Powder for oral suspension; Solution for haemodialysis
Powder for concentrate for solution for infusion

Summary of the safety profile

The most frequently occurring (> 5% of patients) adverse reactions were all in the gastrointestinal disorders system organ class. Most of these adverse reactions were mild to moderate in intensity.

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

The safety of sevelamer (as either carbonate and hydrochloride salts) has been investigated in numerous clinical trials involving a total of 969 haemodialysis patients with treatment duration of 4 to 50 weeks (724 patients treated with sevelamer hydrochloride and 245 with sevelamer carbonate), 97 peritoneal dialysis patients with treatment duration of 12 weeks (all treated with sevelamer hydrochloride) and 128 patients with CKD not on dialysis with treatment duration of 8 to 12 weeks (79 patients treatment with sevelamer hydrochloride and 49 with sevelamer carbonate).

Adverse reactions that occurred during clinical studies or that were spontaneously reported from post-marketing experience are listed by frequency in the table below. The reporting rate is classified as very common (>1/10), common (>1/100 to <1/10), uncommon (>1/1,000 to <1/100), rare (>1/10,000 to <1/1,000), very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

MedDRA System Organ Class

Very Common

Common

Very Rare

Not known

Immune system disorders

Hypersensitivity*

Gastrointestinal disorders

Nausea, vomiting, upper abdominal pain, constipation

Diarrhoea, dyspepsia, flatulence, abdominal pain

Intestinal obstruction, ileus/subileus, intestinal perforation

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Pruritus, rash

*post-marketing experience

Paediatric population

In general, the safety profile for children and adolescents (6 to 18 years of age) is similar to the safety profile for adults.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.

Summary of the safety profile

The most frequently occurring (>5% of patients) adverse reactions were all in the gastrointestinal disorders system organ class.

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

In parallel design studies involving 244 haemodialysis patients with treatment duration of up to 54 weeks and 97 peritoneal dialysis patients with treatment duration of 12 weeks were conducted.

Adverse reactions from these studies (299 patients), from uncontrolled clinical trials (384 patients), and that were spontaneously reported from post-marketing experience are listed by frequency in the table below. The reporting rate is classified as very common (>1/10), common (>1/100 to <1/10), uncommon (>1/1,000 to <1/100), rare (>1/10,000 to <1/1,000), very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated form the available data).

MedDRA System Organ Class

Very Common

Common

Uncommon

Very Rare

Not known

Immune system disorders

Hypersensitivity*

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Acidosis, increased serum chloride levels

Gastrointestinal disorders

Nausea, vomiting

Diarrhoea, dyspepsia, flatulence, upper abdominal pain, constipation

Abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, ileus/subileus, diverticulitis, intestinal perforation

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Pruritus, rash

*post-marketing experience

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.

Overdose

The information provided in Overdose of Sevelamer Mylan is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Sevelamer Mylan of the medicine (Sevelamer). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Overdose in the instructions to the drug Sevelamer Mylan directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Powder for oral suspension; Solution for haemodialysis
Powder for concentrate for solution for infusion

Sevelamer hydrochloride, which contains the same active moiety as sevelamer carbonate, has been given to normal healthy volunteers in doses of up to 14 grams per day for eight days with no undesirable effects. In CKD patients, the maximum average daily dose studied was 14.4 grams of sevelamer carbonate in a single daily dose.

Sevelamer Mylan has been given to normal healthy volunteers in doses up to 14 grams, the equivalent of seventeen 800 mg tablets per day for eight days with no undesirable effects.

Pharmacodynamic properties

The information provided in Pharmacodynamic properties of Sevelamer Mylan is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Sevelamer Mylan of the medicine (Sevelamer). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacodynamic properties in the instructions to the drug Sevelamer Mylan directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Powder for oral suspension; Solution for haemodialysis
Powder for concentrate for solution for infusion

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Treatment of hyperphosphataemia. ATC code: V03A E02.

Sevelamer Mylan contains sevelamer, a non-absorbed phosphate binding crosslinked polymer, free of metal and calcium. Sevelamer contains multiple amines separated by one carbon from the polymer backbone which become protonated in the stomach. These protonated amines bind negatively charged ions such as dietary phosphate in the intestine. By binding phosphate in the gastrointestinal tract and decreasing absorption, sevelamer lowers the phosphorus concentration in the serum. Regular monitoring of serum phosphorus levels is always necessary during phosphate binder administration.

In two randomised, cross over clinical studies, sevelamer carbonate has been shown to be therapeutically equivalent to sevelamer hydrochloride and therefore effective in controlling serum phosphorus in CKD patients on haemodialysis. These also demonstrated that sevelamer carbonate in both tablet and powder formulations are therapeutically equivalent to sevelamer hydrochloride.

The first study demonstrated that sevelamer carbonate tablets dosed three times per day was equivalent to sevelamer hydrochloride tablets dosed three times per day in 79 haemodialysis patients treated over two randomised 8 week treatment periods (mean serum phosphorus time-weighted averages were 1.5 ± 0.3 mmol/l for both sevelamer carbonate and sevelamer hydrochloride). The second study demonstrated that sevelamer carbonate powder dosed three times per day was equivalent to sevelamer hydrochloride tablets dosed three times per day in 31 hyperphosphataemic (defined as serum phosphorus levels > 1.78 mmol/l) haemodialysis patients over two randomised 4 week treatment periods (mean serum phosphorus time-weighted averages were 1.6 ± 0.5 mmol/l for sevelamer carbonate powder and 1.7 ± 0.4 mmol/l for sevelamer hydrochloride tablets).

In the clinical studies in haemodialysis patients, sevelamer alone did not have a consistent and clinically significant effect on serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH). In a 12 week study involving peritoneal dialysis patients however, similar iPTH reductions were seen compared with patients receiving calcium acetate. In patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism Sevelamer Mylan should be used within the context of a multiple therapeutic approach, which could include calcium as supplements, 1,25 - dihydroxy Vitamin D3 or one of its analogues to lower the intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels.

Sevelamer has been shown to bind bile acids in vitro and in vivo in experimental animal models. Bile acid binding by ion exchange resins is a well-established method of lowering blood cholesterol. In clinical trials of sevelamer, both the mean total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol declined by 15-39%. The decrease in cholesterol has been observed after 2 weeks of treatment and is maintained with long-term treatment. Triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and albumin levels did not change following sevelamer treatment.

Because sevelamer binds bile acids, it may interfere with the absorption of fat soluble vitamins such as A, D, E and K.

Sevelamer does not contain calcium and decreases the incidence of hypercalcaemic episodes as compared to patients using calcium based phosphate binders alone. The effects of sevelamer on phosphorus and calcium were proven to be maintained throughout a study with one year follow-up. This information was obtained from studies in which sevelamer hydrochloride was used.

The safety and effectiveness of sevelamer carbonate in hyperphosphatemic paediatric patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) was evaluated in a multicenter study with a 2-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, Fixed Dose Period (FDP) followed by a 6-month, single-arm, open-label, Dose Titration Period (DTP). A total of 101 patients (6 to 18 years old with a BSA range of 0.8 m2 to 2.4 m2) were randomized in the study. Forty-nine (49) patients received sevelamer carbonate and 51 received placebo during the 2 week FDP. Thereafter all patients received sevelamer carbonate for the 26-week DTP. The study met its primary endpoint, meaning Sevelamer carbonate reduced serum phosphorus by an LS mean difference of -0.90 mg/dL compared to placebo, and secondary efficacy endpoints. In paediatric patients with hyperphosphatemia secondary to CKD, sevelamer carbonate significantly reduced serum phosphorus levels compared to placebo during a 2-week FDP. The treatment response was maintained in the paediatric patients who received sevelamer carbonate during the 6-month open-label DTP. 27% of paediatric patients reached their age appropriate serum phosphorus level at end of treatment. These figures were 23% and 15% in the subgroup of patients on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, respectively. The treatment response during the 2-week FDP was not affected by body surface area (BSA), in contrast however, no treatment response was observed in pediatric patients with qualifying phosphorus levels <7.0 mg/dL. Most of AEs reported as related, or possibly related, to sevelamer carbonate were gastrointestinal in nature. No new risks or safety signals were identified with the use of sevelamer carbonate during the study.

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Treatment of hyperphosphatemia. ATC code: V03AE02.

Sevelamer Mylan contains sevelamer, a non-absorbed phosphate binding poly (allylamine hydrochloride) polymer, free of metal and calcium. It contains multiple amines separated by one carbon from the polymer backbone. These amines become partially protonated in the intestine and interact with phosphate molecules through ionic and hydrogen bonding. By binding phosphate in the gastrointestinal tract, sevelamer lowers the phosphate concentration in the serum.

In clinical trials, sevelamer has been shown to be effective in reducing serum phosphorus in patients receiving haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.

Sevelamer decreases the incidence of hypercalcaemic episodes as compared to patients using calcium based phosphate binders alone, probably because the product itself does not contain calcium. The effects on phosphate and calcium were proven to be maintained throughout a study with one year follow-up.

Sevelamer has been shown to bind bile acids in vitro and in vivo in experimental animal models. Bile acid binding by ion exchange resins is a well-established method of lowering blood cholesterol. In clinical trials mean total and LDL cholesterol declined by 15-31%. This effect is observed after 2 weeks is maintained with long-term treatment. Triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and albumin did not change.

In the clinical studies in haemodialysis patients, sevelamer alone did not have a consistent and clinically significant effect on serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH). In the 12 week study involving peritoneal dialysis patients however, similar iPTH reductions were seen compared with patients receiving calcium acetate. In patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism Sevelamer Mylan should be used within the context of a multiple therapeutic approach, which could include calcium supplements, 1,25-dihydroxy Vitamin D3 or one of its analogues to lower the iPTH levels.

In a clinical trial of one-year duration, Sevelamer Mylan had no adverse effect on bone turnover or mineralisation compared to calcium carbonate.

Pharmacokinetic properties

The information provided in Pharmacokinetic properties of Sevelamer Mylan is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Sevelamer Mylan of the medicine (Sevelamer). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacokinetic properties in the instructions to the drug Sevelamer Mylan directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Powder for oral suspension; Solution for haemodialysis
Powder for concentrate for solution for infusion

Pharmacokinetic studies have not been carried out with sevelamer carbonate. Sevelamer hydrochloride, which contains the same active moiety as sevelamer carbonate, is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, as confirmed by an absorption study in healthy volunteers.

Sevelamer Mylan is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract according to a single dose pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers. Pharmacokinetic studies have not been carried out in renal failure patients.

Pharmacotherapeutic group

The information provided in Pharmacotherapeutic group of Sevelamer Mylan is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Sevelamer Mylan of the medicine (Sevelamer). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacotherapeutic group in the instructions to the drug Sevelamer Mylan directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Powder for oral suspension; Solution for haemodialysis
Powder for concentrate for solution for infusion
Treatment of hyperphosphataemia. ATC code: V03A E02.
Treatment of hyperphosphatemia. ATC code: V03AE02.

Preclinical safety data

The information provided in Preclinical safety data of Sevelamer Mylan is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Sevelamer Mylan of the medicine (Sevelamer). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Preclinical safety data in the instructions to the drug Sevelamer Mylan directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Powder for oral suspension; Solution for haemodialysis
Powder for concentrate for solution for infusion

Non-clinical data with sevelamer reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity or genotoxicity.

Carcinogenicity studies with oral sevelamer hydrochloride were conducted in mice (doses of up to 9 g/kg/day) and rats (0.3, 1, or 3 g/kg/day). There was an increased incidence of urinary bladder transitional cell papilloma in male rats of the high dose group (human equivalent dose twice the maximum clinical trial dose of 14.4 g). There was no increased incidence of tumors observed in mice (human equivalent dose 3 times the maximum clinical trial dose).

In an in vitro mammalian cytogenetic test with metabolic activation, sevelamer hydrochloride caused a statistically significant increase in the number of structural chromosome aberrations. Sevelamer hydrochloride was not mutagenic in the Ames bacterial mutation assay.

In rats and dogs, sevelamer reduced absorption of fat soluble vitamins D, E and K (coagulation factors), and folic acid.

Deficits in skeletal ossification were observed in several locations in foetuses of female rats dosed with sevelamer at intermediate and high doses (human equivalent dose less than the maximum clinical trial dose of 14.4 g). The effects may be secondary to vitamin D depletion.

In pregnant rabbits given oral doses of sevelamer hydrochloride by gavage during organogenesis, an increase of early resorptions occurred in the high-dose group (human equivalent dose twice the maximum clinical trial dose).

Sevelamer hydrochloride did not impair the fertility of male or female rats in a dietary administration study in which the females were treated from 14 days prior to mating through gestation and the males were treated for 28 days prior to mating. The highest dose in this study was 4.5 g/kg/day (human equivalent dose 2 times the maximum clinical trial dose of 13 g/day, based on a comparison of relative body surface area).

In preclinical studies in rats and dogs, Sevelamer Mylan at a dose of 10 times the maximum human doses reduced absorption of fat soluble vitamins D, E and K, and folic acid.

In a study in rats, administering sevelamer in 15-30 x the human dose, an increase in serum copper was detected. This was not confirmed in a dog study or in clinical trials.

Currently, no formal carcinogenicity data are available. However, in vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that Sevelamer Mylan does not have genotoxic potential. Also the medicinal product is not absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract.

In reproduction studies there was no evidence that sevelamer induced embryolethality, foetotoxicity or teratogenicity at the doses tested (up to 1 g/kg/day in rabbits and up to 4.5 g/kg/day in rats). Deficits in skeletal ossification were observed in several locations in fetuses of female rats dosed with sevelamer at 8-20 times the maximum human dose of 200 mg/kg. The effects may be secondary to vitamin D and/or vitamin K depletion at these high doses.

Incompatibilities

The information provided in Incompatibilities of Sevelamer Mylan is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Sevelamer Mylan of the medicine (Sevelamer). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Incompatibilities in the instructions to the drug Sevelamer Mylan directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Powder for oral suspension; Solution for haemodialysis
Powder for concentrate for solution for infusion

Not applicable.

Not applicable

Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The information provided in Special precautions for disposal and other handling of Sevelamer Mylan is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Sevelamer Mylan of the medicine (Sevelamer). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special precautions for disposal and other handling in the instructions to the drug Sevelamer Mylan directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
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Film-coated tablet; Powder for oral suspension; Solution for haemodialysis
Powder for concentrate for solution for infusion

The powder should be dispersed in 60 mL of water per sachet prior to administration. The suspension powder is pale yellow with a citrus flavour.

The powder may also be pre-mixed with cold beverage or unheated food (see 4.2). Sevelamer Mylan powder should not be heated (e.g. microwave).

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

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