×
Components:
Hydrochlorothiazide, Valsartan
Method of action:
Agents Acting In The Renin-Angiotensin System, Antihypertensive, Diuretic, Hypotensive
Available in countries
See all
close
Medically reviewed by Fedorchenko Olga Valeryevna, Pharmacy-Provisor. Last updated on 2019.12.14

Name of the medicinal product

Kylotan Plus H

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Hydrochlorothiazide; Valsartan

Therapeutic indications

The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Kylotan Plus H is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kylotan Plus H of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Valsartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Therapeutic indications in the instructions to the drug Kylotan Plus H directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close

Treatment of essential hypertension in adults.

Kylotan Plus H fixed-dose combination is indicated in patients whose blood pressure is not adequately controlled on valsartan or hydrochlorothiazide monotherapy.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administration of Kylotan Plus H is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kylotan Plus H of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Valsartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Kylotan Plus H directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close

Posology

The recommended dose of Kylotan Plus H 80/12.5mg is one film-coated tablet once daily. Dose titration with the individual components is recommended. In each case, up-titration of individual components to the next dose should be followed in order to reduce the risk of hypotension and other adverse events.

When clinically appropriate direct change from monotherapy to the fixed combination may be considered in patients whose blood pressure is not adequately controlled on valsartan or hydrochlorothiazide monotherapy, provided the recommended dose titration sequence for the individual components is followed.

The clinical response to Kylotan Plus H should be evaluated after initiating therapy and if blood pressure remains uncontrolled, the dose may be increased by increasing either one of the components to a maximum dose of Kylotan Plus H 320 mg/25 mg.

The antihypertensive effect is substantially present within 2 weeks.

In most patients, maximal effects are observed within 4 weeks. However, in some patients, 4-8 weeks treatment may be required. This should be taken into account during dose titration.

Method of administration

Kylotan Plus H can be taken with or without food and should be administered with water.

Special populations

Patients with renal impairment

No dose adjustment is required for patients with mild to moderate renal impairment (Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) > 30 ml/min). Due to the hydrochlorothiazide component, Kylotan Plus H is contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment (GFR < 30 mL/min) and anuria.

Patients with hepatic impairment

In patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment without cholestasis the dose of valsartan should not exceed 80 mg. No adjustment of the hydrochlorothiazide dose is required for patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment. Due to the valsartan component, Kylotan Plus H is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment or with biliary cirrhosis and cholestasis.

Older people

No dose adjustment is required in elderly patients.

Paediatric patients

Kylotan Plus H is not recommended for use in children below the age of 18 years due to a lack of data on safety and efficacy.

Contraindications

The information provided in Contraindications of Kylotan Plus H is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kylotan Plus H of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Valsartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Kylotan Plus H directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close
<

− Severe hepatic impairment, biliary cirrhosis and cholestasis.

− Severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min), anuria.

− Refractory hypokalaemia, hyponatraemia, hypercalcaemia, and symptomatic hyperuricaemia.

− Concomitant use of Kylotan Plus H with aliskiren containing products in patients with diabetes mellitus or renal impairment (GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m2).

Special warnings and precautions for use

The information provided in Special warnings and precautions for use of Kylotan Plus H is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kylotan Plus H of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Valsartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special warnings and precautions for use in the instructions to the drug Kylotan Plus H directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close

Serum electrolyte changes

Valsartan

Concomitant use with potassium supplements, potassium-sparing diuretics, salt substitutes containing potassium, or other agents that may increase potassium levels (heparin, etc.) is not recommended. Monitoring of potassium should be undertaken as appropriate.

Hydrochlorothiazide

Hypokalaemia has been reported under treatment with thiazide diuretics, including hydrochlorothiazide. Frequent monitoring of serum potassium is recommended.

Treatment with thiazide diuretics, including hydrochlorothiazide, has been associated with hyponatraemia and hypochloraemic alkalosis. Thiazides, including hydrochlorothiazide, increase the urinary excretion of magnesium, which may result in hypomagnesaemia. Calcium excretion is decreased by thiazide diuretics. This may result in hypercalcaemia.

As for any patient receiving diuretic therapy, periodic determination of serum electrolytes should be performed at appropriate intervals.

Sodium and/or volume-depleted patients

Patients receiving thiazide diuretics, including hydrochlorothiazide, should be observed for clinical signs of fluid or electrolyte imbalance.

In severely sodium-depleted and/or volume-depleted patients, such as those receiving high doses of diuretics, symptomatic hypotension may occur in rare cases after initiation of therapy with Kylotan Plus H. Sodium and/or volume depletion should be corrected before starting treatment with Kylotan Plus H.

Patients with severe chronic heart failure or other conditions with stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system

In patients whose renal function may depend on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (e.g. patients with severe congestive heart failure), treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors has been associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotaemia, and in rare cases with acute renal failure and/or death. Evaluation of patients with heart failure or post-myocardial infarction should always include assessment of renal function. The use of Kylotan Plus H in patients with severe chronic heart failure has not been established.

Hence it cannot be excluded that because of the inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system the application of Kylotan Plus H as well may be associated with impairment of the renal function. Kylotan Plus H should not be used in these patients.

Renal artery stenosis

Kylotan Plus H should not be used to treat hypertension in patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis or stenosis of the artery to a solitary kidney, since blood urea and serum creatinine may increase in such patients.

Primary hyperaldosteronism

Patients with primary hyperaldosteronism should not be treated with Kylotan Plus H as their renin-angiotensin system is not activated.

Aortic and mitral valve stenosis, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

As with all other vasodilators, special caution is indicated in patients suffering from aortic or mitral stenosis, or hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM).

Renal impairment

No dosage adjustment is required for patients with renal impairment with a creatinine clearance >30 ml/min. Periodic monitoring of serum potassium, creatinine and uric acid levels is recommended when Kylotan Plus H is used in patients with renal impairment.

Kidney transplantation

There is currently no experience on the safe use of Kylotan Plus H in patients who have recently undergone kidney transplantation.

Hepatic impairment

In patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment without cholestasis, Kylotan Plus H should be used with caution . Thiazides should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease, since minor alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance may precipitate hepatic coma.

History of angioedema

Angioedema, including swelling of the larynx and glottis, causing airway obstruction and/or swelling of the face, lips, pharynx, and/or tongue has been reported in patients treated with valsartan; some of these patients previously experienced angioedema with other drugs including ACE inhibitors. Kylotan Plus H should be immediately discontinued in patients who develop angioedema, and Kylotan Plus H should not be re-administered.

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Thiazide diuretics, including hydrochlorothiazide, have been reported to exacerbate or activate systemic lupus erythematosus.

Other metabolic disturbances

Thiazide diuretics, including hydrochlorothiazide, may alter glucose tolerance and raise serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid. In diabetic patients dosage adjustments of insulin or oral hypoglycaemic agents may be required.

Thiazides may reduce urinary calcium excretion and cause an intermittent and slight elevation of serum calcium in the absence of known disorders of calcium metabolism. Marked hypercalcaemia may be evidence of underlying hyperparathyroidism. Thiazides should be discontinued before carrying out tests for parathyroid function.

Photosensitivity

Cases of photosensitivity reactions have been reported with thiazide diuretics. If photosensitivity reaction occurs during treatment, it is recommended to stop the treatment. If a re-administration of the diuretic is deemed necessary, it is recommended to protect exposed areas to the sun or to artificial UVA.

Pregnancy

Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists (AIIRAs) should not be initiated during pregnancy. Unless continued AIIRAs therapy is considered essential, patients planning pregnancy should be changed to alternative anti-hypertensive treatments which have an established safety profile for use in pregnancy. When pregnancy is diagnosed, treatment with AIIRAs should be stopped immediately, and, if appropriate, alternative therapy should be started.

General

Caution should be exercised in patients who have shown prior hypersensitivity to other angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Hypersensitivity reactions to hydrochlorothiazide are more likely in patients with allergy and asthma.

Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma

Hydrochlorothiazide, a sulfonamide, has been associated with an idiosyncratic reaction resulting in acute transient myopia and acute angle-closure glaucoma. Symptoms include acute onset of decreased visual acuity or ocular pain and typically occur within hours to week of a drug initiation. Untreated acute-angle closure glaucoma can lead to permanent vision loss.

The primary treatment is to discontinue hydrochlorothiazide as rapidly as possible. Prompt medical or surgical treatment may need to be considered if the intraocular pressure remains uncontrolled. Risk factors for developing acute angle closure glaucoma may include a history of sulfonamide or penicillin allergy.

Dual Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS)

There is evidence that the concomitant use of ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren increases the risk of hypotension, hyperkalaemia, and decreased renal function (including acute renal failure). Dual blockade of the RAAS through the combined use of ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren is therefore not recommended.

If dual blockade therapy is considered absolutely necessary, this should only occur under specialist supervision and subject to frequent close monitoring of renal function, electrolytes and blood pressure. ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers should not be used concomitantly in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

Effects on ability to drive and use machines

The information provided in Effects on ability to drive and use machines of Kylotan Plus H is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kylotan Plus H of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Valsartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Effects on ability to drive and use machines in the instructions to the drug Kylotan Plus H directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close

No studies on the effect of Kylotan Plus H, on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. When driving vehicles or operating machines it should be taken into account that occasionally dizziness or weariness may occur.

Undesirable effects

The information provided in Undesirable effects of Kylotan Plus H is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kylotan Plus H of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Valsartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Undesirable effects in the instructions to the drug Kylotan Plus H directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close

Adverse drug reactions reported in clinical trials and laboratory findings occurring more frequently with valsartan plus hydrochlorothiazide versus placebo and individual postmarketing reports are presented below according to system organ class. Adverse drug reactions known to occur with each component given individually but which have not been seen in clinical trials may occur during treatment with valsartan/ hydrochlorothiazide.

Adverse Drug Reactions

Adverse drug reactions are ranked by frequency, the most frequent first, using the following convention: very common (> 1/10); common (> 1/100 to < 1/10); uncommon (> 1/1,000 to < 1/100); rare (> 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000); very rare (< 1/10,000); not known (frequency cannot be estimated from the available data).

Within each frequency grouping, adverse drug reactions are ranked in order of decreasing seriousness.

Table 1. Frequency of adverse reactions with valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Uncommon

Dehydration

Nervous system disorders

Very rare

Dizziness

Uncommon

Paraesthesia

Not known

Syncope

Eye disorders

Uncommon

Vision blurred

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Uncommon

Tinnitus

Vascular disorders

Uncommon

Hypotension

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Uncommon

Cough

Not known

Non cardiogenic pulmonary oedema

Gastrointestinal disorders

Very rare

Diarrhoea

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Uncommon

Myalgia

Very rare

Arthralgia

Renal and urinary disorders

Not known

Impaired renal function

General disorders and administration site conditions

Uncommon

Fatigue

Investigations

Not known

Serum uric acid increased, Serum bilirubin and Serum creatinine increased, Hypokalaemia, Hyponatraemia, Elevation of Blood Urea Nitrogen, Neutropenia

Additional information on the individual components

Adverse reactions previously reported with one of the individual components may be potential undesirable effects with Kylotan Plus H as well, even if not observed in clinical trials or during postmarketing period.

Table 2. Frequency of adverse reactions with valsartan

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Not known

Decrease in haemoglobin, decrease in haematocrit, thrombocytopenia

Immune system disorders

Not known

Other hypersensitivity/allergic reactions including serum sickness

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Not known

Increase of serum potassium, hyponatraemia

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Uncommon

Vertigo

Vascular disorders

Not known

Vasculitis

Gastrointestinal disorders

Uncommon

Abdominal pain

Hepatobiliary disorders

Not known

Elevation of liver function values

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Not known

Angioedema, dermatitis bullous, rash, pruritus

Renal and urinary disorders

Not known

Renal failure

Table 3. Frequency of adverse reactions with hydrochorothiazide

Hydrochlorothiazide has been extensively prescribed for many years, frequently in higher doses than those administered with Kylotan Plus H. The following adverse reactions have been reported in patients treated with monotherapy of thiazide diuretics, including hydrochlorothiazide:

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Rare

Thrombocytopenia sometimes with purpura

Very rare

Agranulocytosis, leucopenia, haemolytic anaemia, bone marrow failure

Not known

Aplastic anemia

Immune system disorders

Very rare

Hypersensitivity reactions

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Very common

Hypokalaemia, blood lipids increased (mainly at higher doses)

Common

Hyponatraemia, hypomagnesaemia, hyperuricaemia

Rare

Hypercalcaemia, hyperglycaemia, glycosuria and worsening of diabetic metabolic state

Very rare

Hypochloraemic alkalosis

Psychiatric disorders

Rare

Depression, sleep disturbances

Nervous system disorders

Rare

Headache, dizziness, paraesthesia

Eye disorders

Rare

Visual impairment

Not known

Acute angle-closure glaucoma

Cardiac disorders

Rare

Cardiac arrhythmias

Vascular disorders

Common

Postural hypotension

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Very rare

Respiratory distress including pneumonitis and pulmonary oedema

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common

Loss of appetite, mild nausea and vomiting

Rare

Constipation, gastrointestinal discomfort, diarrhoea

Very rare

Pancreatitis

Hepatobiliary disorders

Rare

Intrahepatic cholestasis or jaundice

Renal and urinary disorders

Not known

Renal dysfunction, acute renal failure

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Common

Urticaria and other forms of rash

Rare

Photosensitisation

Very rare

Necrotising vasculitis and toxic epidermal necrolysis, cutaneous lupus erythematosus-like reactions, reactivation of cutaneous lupus erythematosus

Not known

Erythema multiforme

General disorders and administration site conditions

Not known

Pyrexia, asthenia

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Not known

Muscle spasm

Reproductive system and breast disorders

Common

Impotence

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.

Overdose

The information provided in Overdose of Kylotan Plus H is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kylotan Plus H of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Valsartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Overdose in the instructions to the drug Kylotan Plus H directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close

Symptoms

Overdose with valsartan may result in marked hypotension, which could lead to depressed level of consciousness, circulatory collapse and/or shock. In addition, the following signs and symptoms may occur due to an overdose of the hydrochlorothiazide component: nausea, somnolence, hypovolaemia, and electrolyte disturbances associated with cardiac arrhythmias and muscle spasms.

Treatment

The therapeutic measures depend on the time of ingestion and the type and severity of the symptoms, stabilisation of the circulatory condition being of prime importance.

If hypotension occurs, the patient should be placed in the supine position and salt and volume supplementation should be given rapidly.

Valsartan cannot be eliminated by means of haemodialysis because of its strong plasma binding behaviour whereas clearance of hydrochlorothiazide will be achieved by dialysis.

Pharmacodynamic properties

The information provided in Pharmacodynamic properties of Kylotan Plus H is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kylotan Plus H of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Valsartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacodynamic properties in the instructions to the drug Kylotan Plus H directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Angiotensin II antagonists and diuretics, valsartan and diuretics; ATC code: C09D A03

Valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide

Kylotan Plus H 80/12.5 mg Tablets only:

In a double-blind, randomised, active-controlled trial in patients not adequately controlled on hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg, significantly greater mean systolic/diastolic BP reductions were observed with the combination of valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide 80/12.5 mg (14.9/11.3 mmHg) compared to hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (5.2/2.9 mmHg) and hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg (6.8/5.7 mmHg). In addition, a significantly greater percentage of patients responded (diastolic BP <90 mmHg or reduction >10 mmHg) with valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide 80/12.5 mg (60%) compared to hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (25%) and hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg (27%).

In a double-blind, randomised, active-controlled trial in patients not adequately controlled on valsartan 80 mg, significantly greater mean systolic/diastolic BP reductions were observed with the combination of valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide 80/12.5 mg (9.8/8.2 mmHg) compared to valsartan 80 mg (3.9/5.1 mmHg) and valsartan 160 mg (6.5/6.2 mmHg). In addition, a significantly greater percentage of patients responded (diastolic BP <90 mmHg or reduction >10 mmHg) with valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide 80/12.5 mg (51%) compared to valsartan 80 mg (36%) and valsartan 160 mg (37%).

In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, factorial design trial comparing various dose combinations of valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide to their respective components, significantly greater mean systolic/diastolic BP reductions were observed with the combination of valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide 80/12.5 mg (16.5/11.8 mmHg) compared to placebo (1.9/4.1 mmHg) and both hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (7.3/7.2 mmHg) and valsartan 80 mg (8.8/8.6 mmHg). In addition, a significantly greater percentage of patients responded (diastolic BP <90 mmHg or reduction >10 mmHg) with valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide 80/12.5 mg (64%) compared to placebo (29%) and hydrochlorothiazide (41%).

Kylotan Plus H 160/12.5 mg and 160/25mg Tablets only:

In a double-blind, randomised, active-controlled trial in patients not adequately controlled on hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg, significantly greater mean systolic/diastolic BP reductions were observed with the combination of valsartan/ hydrochlorothiazide 160/12.5 mg (12.4/7.5 mmHg) compared to hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg (5.6/2.1 mmHg). In addition, a significantly greater percentage of patients responded (BP <140/90 mmHg or SBP reduction >20 mmHg or DBP reduction >10 mmHg) with valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide 160/12.5 mg (50%) compared to hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg (25%).

In a double-blind, randomised, active-controlled trial in patients not adequately controlled on valsartan 160 mg, significantly greater mean systolic/diastolic BP reductions were observed with both the combination of valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide 160/25 mg (14.6/11.9 mmHg) and valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide 160/12.5 mg (12.4/10.4 mmHg) compared to valsartan 160 mg (8.7/8.8 mmHg). The difference in BP reductions between the 160/25 mg and 160/12.5 mg doses also reached statistical significance. In addition, a significantly greater percentage of patients responded (diastolic BP <90 mmHg or reduction >10 mmHg) with valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide 160/25 mg (68%) and 160/12.5 mg (62%) compared to valsartan 160 mg (49%).

In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, factorial design trial comparing various dose combinations of valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide to their respective components, significantly greater mean systolic/diastolic BP reductions were observed with the combination of valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide 160/12.5 mg (17.8/13.5 mmHg) and 160/25 mg (22.5/15.3 mmHg) compared to placebo (1.9/4.1 mmHg) and the respective monotherapies, i.e., hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (7.3/7.2 mmHg), hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg (12.7/9.3 mmHg) and valsartan 160 mg (12.1/9.4 mmHg). In addition, a significantly greater percentage of patients responded (diastolic BP <90 mmHg or reduction >10 mmHg) with valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide 160/25 mg (81%) and valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide 160/12.5 mg (76%) compared to placebo (29%) and the respective monotherapies, i.e., hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (41%), hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg (54%), and valsartan 160 mg (59%).

Kylotan Plus H 80/12.5mg, 160/12.5 mg and 160/25mg Tablets:

Dose-dependent decreases in serum potassium occurred in controlled clinical studies with valsartan + hydrochlorothiazide. Reduction in serum potassium occurred more frequently in patients given 25 mg hydrochlorothiazide than in those given 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide. In controlled clinical trials with valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide the potassium lowering effect of hydrochlorothiazide was attenuated by the potassium-sparing effect of valsartan.

Beneficial effects of valsartan in combination with hydrochlorothiazide on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity are currently unknown.

Epidemiological studies have shown that long-term treatment with hydrochlorothiazide reduces the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity.

Valsartan

Valsartan is an orally active and specific angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor antagonist. It acts selectively on the AT1 receptor subtype, which is responsible for the known actions of angiotensin II. The increased plasma levels of Ang II following AT1 receptor blockade with valsartan may stimulate the unblocked AT2 receptor, which appears to counterbalance the effect of the AT1 receptor. Valsartan does not exhibit any partial agonist activity at the AT1 receptor and has much (about 20,000 fold) greater affinity for the AT1 receptor than for the AT2 receptor. Valsartan is not known to bind to or block other hormone receptors or ion channels known to be important in cardiovascular regulation.

Valsartan does not inhibit ACE, also known as kininase II, which converts Ang I to Ang II and degrades bradykinin. Since there is no effect on ACE and no potentiation of bradykinin or substance P, angiotensin II antagonists are unlikely to be associated with coughing. In clinical trials where valsartan was compared with an ACE inhibitor, the incidence of dry cough was significantly (P <0.05) lower in patients treated with valsartan than in those treated with an ACE inhibitor (2.6% versus 7.9% respectively). In a clinical trial of patients with a history of dry cough during ACE inhibitor therapy, 19.5% of trial subjects receiving valsartan and 19.0% of those receiving a thiazide diuretic experienced cough compared to 68.5% of those treated with an ACE inhibitor (P <0.05).

Administration of valsartan to patients with hypertension results in reduction of blood pressure without affecting pulse rate. In most patients, after administration of a single oral dose, onset of antihypertensive activity occurs within 2 hours, and the peak reduction of blood pressure is achieved within 4-6 hours. The antihypertensive effect persists over 24 hours after dosing. During repeated dosing, the maximum reduction in blood pressure with any dose is generally attained within 2-4 weeks and is sustained during long-term therapy. Combined with hydrochlorothiazide, a significant additional reduction in blood pressure is achieved.

Abrupt withdrawal of valsartan has not been associated with rebound hypertension or other adverse clinical events.

In hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria, valsartan has been shown to reduce the urinary excretion of albumin. The MARVAL (Micro Albuminuria Reduction with Valsartan) study assessed the reduction in urinary albumin excretion (UAE) with valsartan (80-160 mg/od) versus amlodipine (5-10 mg/od), in 332 type 2 diabetic patients (mean age: 58 years; 265 men) with microalbuminuria (valsartan: 58 µg/min; amlodipine: 55.4 µg/min), normal or high blood pressure and with preserved renal function (blood creatinine <120 µmol/l). At 24 weeks, UAE was reduced (p <0.001) by 42% (-24.2 µg/min; 95% CI: -40.4 to -19.1) with valsartan and approximately 3% (-1.7 µg/min; 95% CI: -5.6 to 14.9) with amlodipine despite similar rates of blood pressure reduction in both groups. The Diovan Reduction of Proteinuria (DROP) study further examined the efficacy of valsartan in reducing UAE in 391 hypertensive patients (BP=150/88 mmHg) with type 2 diabetes, albuminuria (mean=102 µg/min; 20-700 µg/min) and preserved renal function (mean serum creatinine = 80 µmol/l). Patients were randomised to one of 3 doses of valsartan (160, 320 and 640 mg/od) and treated for 30 weeks. The purpose of the study was to determine the optimal dose of valsartan for reducing UAE in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. At 30 weeks, the percentage change in UAE was significantly reduced by 36% from baseline with valsartan 160 mg (95%CI: 22 to 47%), and by 44% with valsartan 320 mg (95%CI: 31 to 54%). It was concluded that 160-320 mg of valsartan produced clinically relevant reductions in UAE in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes.

Other: dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)

Two large randomised, controlled trials (ONTARGET (ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial) and VA NEPHRON-D (The Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes)) have examined the use of the combination of an ACE-inhibitor with an angiotensin II receptor blocker.

ONTARGET was a study conducted in patients with a history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease, or type 2 diabetes mellitus accompanied by evidence of end-organ damage. VA NEPHRON-D was a study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy.

These studies have shown no significant beneficial effect on renal and/or cardiovascular outcomes and mortality, while an increased risk of hyperkalaemia, acute kidney injury and/or hypotension as compared to monotherapy was observed. Given their similar pharmacodynamic properties, these results are also relevant for other ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers.

ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers should therefore not be used concomitantly in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

ALTITUDE (Aliskiren Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardiovascular and Renal Disease Endpoints) was a study designed to test the benefit of adding aliskiren to a standard therapy of an ACE inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, or both. The study was terminated early because of an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Cardiovascular death and stroke were both numerically more frequent in the aliskiren group than in the placebo group and adverse events and serious adverse events of interest (hyperkalaemia, hypotension and renal dysfunction) were more frequently reported in the aliskiren group than in the placebo group.

Hydrochlorothiazide

The site of action of thiazide diuretics is primarily in the renal distal convoluted tubule. It has been shown that there is a high-affinity receptor in the renal cortex as the primary binding site for the thiazide diuretic action and inhibition of NaCl transport in the distal convoluted tubule. The mode of action of thiazides is through inhibition of the Na+Cl- symporter perhaps by competing for the Cl- site, thereby affecting electrolyte reabsorption mechanisms:directly increasing sodium and chloride excretion to an approximately equal extent, and indirectly by this diuretic action reducing plasma volume, with consequent increases in plasma renin activity, aldosterone secretion and urinary potassium loss, and a decrease in serum potassium. The renin-aldosterone link is mediated by angiotensin II, so with co-administration of valsartan the reduction in serum potassium is less pronounced as observed under monotherapy with hydrochlorothiazide.

Pharmacokinetic properties

The information provided in Pharmacokinetic properties of Kylotan Plus H is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kylotan Plus H of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Valsartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacokinetic properties in the instructions to the drug Kylotan Plus H directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close

Valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide

The systemic availability of hydrochlorothiazide is reduced by about 30% when co-administered with valsartan. The kinetics of valsartan are not markedly affected by the co-administration of hydrochlorothiazide. This observed interaction has no impact on the combined use of valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide, since controlled clinical trials have shown a clear anti-hypertensive effect, greater than that obtained with either active substance given alone, or placebo.

Valsartan

Absorption

Following oral administration of valsartan alone, peak plasma concentrations of valsartan are reached in 2-4 hours. Mean absolute bioavailability is 23%. Food decreases exposure (as measured by AUC) to valsartan by about 40% and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) by about 50%, although from about 8 h post dosing plasma valsartan concentrations are similar for the fed and fasted groups. This reduction in AUC is not, however, accompanied by a clinically significant reduction in the therapeutic effect, and valsartan can therefore be given either with or without food.

Distribution

The steady-state volume of distribution of valsartan after intravenous administration is about 17 litres, indicating that valsartan does not distribute into tissues extensively. Valsartan is highly bound to serum proteins (94 - 97%), mainly serum albumin.

Biotransformation

Valsartan is not biotransformed to a high extent as only about 20% of dose is recovered as metabolites. A hydroxy metabolite has been identified in plasma at low concentrations (less than 10% of the valsartan AUC). This metabolite is pharmacologically inactive.

Elimination

Valsartan shows multiexponential decay kinetics (t½α <1 h and t½ß about 9 h). Valsartan is primarily eliminated in faeces (about 83% of dose) and urine (about 13% of dose), mainly as unchanged drug. Following intravenous administration, plasma clearance of valsartan is about 2 l/h and its renal clearance is 0.62 l/h (about 30% of total clearance). The half-life of valsartan is 6 hours.

Hydrochlorothiazide

Absorption

The absorption of hydrochlorothiazide, after an oral dose, is rapid (tmax about 2 h). The increase in mean AUC is linear and dose proportional in the therapeutic range.

The effect of food on hydrochlorothiazide absorption, if any, has little clinical significance. Absolute bioavailability of hydrochlorothiazide is 70% after oral administration.

Distribution

The apparent volume of distribution is 4-8 l/kg.

Circulating hydrochlorothiazide is bound to serum proteins (40-70%), mainly serum albumin. Hydrochlorothiazide also accumulates in erythrocytes at approximately 3 times the level in plasma.

Elimination

Hydrochlorothiazide is eliminated predominantly as unchanged drug. Hydrochlorothiazide is eliminated from plasma with a half-life averaging 6 to 15 hours in the terminal elimination phase. There is no change in the kinetics of hydrochlorothiazide on repeated dosing, and accumulation is minimal when dosed once daily. There is more than 95% of the absorbed dose being excreted as unchanged compound in the urine. The renal clearance is composed of passive filtration and active secretion into the renal tubule.

Special populations

Older people

A somewhat higher systemic exposure to valsartan was observed in some elderly subjects than in young subjects; however, this has not been shown to have any clinical significance.

Limited data suggest that the systemic clearance of hydrochlorothiazide is reduced in both healthy and hypertensive elderly subjects compared to young healthy volunteers.

Renal impairment

At the recommended dose of Kylotan Plus H no dose adjustment is required for patients with a Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) of 30-70 ml/min.

In patients with severe renal impairment (GFR <30 ml/min) and patients undergoing dialysis no data are available for Kylotan Plus H. Valsartan is highly bound to plasma protein and is not to be removed by dialysis, whereas clearance of hydrochlorothiazide will be achieved by dialysis.

In the presence of renal impairment, mean peak plasma levels and AUC values of hydrochlorothiazide are increased and the urinary excretion rate is reduced. In patients with mild to moderate renal impairment, a 3-fold increase in hydrochlorothiazide AUC has been observed. In patients with severe renal impairment an 8-fold increase in AUC has been observed. Hydrochlorothiazide is contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment.

Hepatic impairment

In a pharmacokinetics trial in patients with mild (n=6) to moderate (n=5) hepatic dysfunction, exposure to valsartan was increased approximately 2-fold compared with healthy volunteers.

There is no data available on the use of valsartan in patients with severe hepatic dysfunction. Hepatic disease does not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of hydrochlorothiazide.

Pharmacotherapeutic group

The information provided in Pharmacotherapeutic group of Kylotan Plus H is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kylotan Plus H of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Valsartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Pharmacotherapeutic group in the instructions to the drug Kylotan Plus H directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close
Angiotensin II antagonists and diuretics, valsartan and diuretics; ATC code: C09D A03

Preclinical safety data

The information provided in Preclinical safety data of Kylotan Plus H is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kylotan Plus H of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Valsartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Preclinical safety data in the instructions to the drug Kylotan Plus H directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close

The potential toxicity of the valsartan - hydrochlorothiazide combination after oral administration was investigated in rats and marmosets in studies lasting up to six months. No findings emerged that would exclude the use of therapeutic doses in man.

The changes produced by the combination in the chronic toxicity studies are most likely to have been caused by the valsartan component. The toxicological target organ was the kidney, the reaction being more marked in the marmoset than the rat. The combination led to kidney damage (nephropathy with tubular basophilia, rises in plasma urea, plasma creatinine and serum potassium, increases in urine volume and urinary electrolytes from 30 mg/kg/day valsartan + 9 mg/kg/day hydrochlorothiazide in rats and 10 + 3 mg/kg/d in marmosets), probably by way of altered renal haemodynamics. These doses in rat, respectively, represent 0.9 and 3.5-times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide on a mg/m2 basis. These doses in marmoset, respectively, represent 0.3 and 1.2-times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide on a mg/m2 basis. (Calculations assume an oral dose of 320 mg/day valsartan in combination with 25 mg/day hydrochlorothiazide and a 60-kg patient.)

High doses of the valsartan - hydrochlorothiazide combination caused falls in red blood cell indices (red cell count, haemoglobin, haematocrit, from 100 + 31 mg/kg/d in rats and 30 + 9 mg/kg/d in marmosets). These doses in rat, respectively, represent 3.0 and 12 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide on a mg/m2 basis. These doses in marmoset, respectively, represent 0.9 and 3.5 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide on a mg/m2 basis. (Calculations assume an oral dose of 320 mg/day valsartan in combination with 25 mg/day hydrochlorothiazide and a 60-kg patient).

In marmosets, damage was observed in the gastric mucosa (from 30 + 9 mg/kg/d). The combination also led in the kidney to hyperplasia of the afferent aterioles (at 600 + 188 mg/kg/d in rats and from 30 + 9 mg/kg/d in marmosets). These doses in marmoset, respectively, represent 0.9 and 3.5 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide on a mg/m2 basis. These doses in rat, respectively, represent 18 and 73 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide on a mg/m2 basis. (Calculations assume an oral dose of 320 mg/day valsartan in combination with 25 mg/day hydrochlorothiazide and a 60-kg patient).

The above mentioned effects appear to be due to the pharmacological effects of high valsartan doses (blockade of angiotensin II-induced inhibition of renin release, with stimulation of the renin-producing cells) and also occur with ACE inhibitors. These findings appear to have no relevance to the use of therapeutic doses of valsartan in humans.

The valsartan - hydrochlorothiazide combination was not tested for mutagenicity, chromosomal breakage or carcinogenicity, since there is no evidence of interaction between the two substances. However, these tests were performed separately with valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide, and produced no evidence of mutagenicity, chromosomal breakage or carcinogenicity.

In rats, maternally toxic doses of valsartan (600 mg/kg/day) during the last days of gestation and lactation led to lower survival, lower weight gain and delayed development (pinna detachment and ear-canal opening) in the offspring. These doses in rats (600 mg/kg/day) are approximately 18 times the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis (calculations assume an oral dose of 320 mg/day and a 60-kg patient). Similar findings were seen with valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide in rats and rabbits. In embryo-fetal development (Segment II) studies with valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide in rat and rabbit, there was no evidence of teratogenicity; however, fetotoxicity associated with maternal toxicity was observed.

Incompatibilities

The information provided in Incompatibilities of Kylotan Plus H is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kylotan Plus H of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Valsartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Incompatibilities in the instructions to the drug Kylotan Plus H directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close

Not applicable.

Special precautions for disposal and other handling

The information provided in Special precautions for disposal and other handling of Kylotan Plus H is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Kylotan Plus H of the medicine (Hydrochlorothiazide, Valsartan). Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Special precautions for disposal and other handling in the instructions to the drug Kylotan Plus H directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.
more... close

No specific instructions for use/handling.

Site feedback

How easy to use our site?

Commentary is required, without it we won't know how to become better
The maximum length of review is 1000 symbols

Thanks!

You help us to become better