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Components:
Clarithromycin
Method of action:
Antiulcer, Bactericidal, Bacteriostatic
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Medically reviewed by Militian Inessa Mesropovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2019.12.11

Name of the medicinal product

Klaricid Paediatric Suspension 125mg/5ml

Qualitative and quantitative composition

Each 5 ml of the granules for suspension contains 125 mg of clarithromycin.

Excipient with known effect:

sucrose 550 mg/ml

castor oil, virgin 3.2mg/ml

Pharmaceutical form

White to off - white granules for reconstitution.

Therapeutic indications

Klaricid Paediatric Suspension 125mg/5ml is indicated in children 6 months to 12 years.

Klaricid Paediatric Suspension 125mg/5ml is indicated for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible organisms. Indications include:

- Lower respiratory tract infections (e.g. bronchitis, pneumonia) (see section 4.4 and 5.1 regarding Sensitivity Testing).

- Upper respiratory tract infections (e.g. pharyngitis, sinusitis).

- Skin and soft tissue infections (e.g. folliculitis, cellulitis, erysipelas) (see section 4.4 and 5.1 regarding Sensitivity Testing).

- Acute otitis media.

Consideration should be given to official guidance on the appropriate use of antibacterial agents.

Dosage (Posology) and method of administration

Paediatric patients under 12 years of age

Clinical trials have been conducted using Klaricid Paediatric Suspension in children 6 months to 12 years of age. Therefore, children under 12 years of age should use Klaricid Paediatric Suspension.

Recommended doses and dosage schedules:

The usual duration of treatment is for 5 to 10 days depending on the pathogen involved and the severity of the condition. The recommended daily dosage of Klaricid Paediatric Suspension 125mg/5ml in children is given in the following table and is based on a 7.5mg/kg b.i.d. dosing regime up to a maximum dose of 500 mg b.i.d. The prepared suspension can be taken with or without meals and can be taken with milk.

KLARICID PAEDIATRIC SUSPENSION 125mg/5ml DOSAGE IN CHILDREN

Dosage Based on Body Weight (kg)

Weight*

(kg)

Approx Age

(yrs)

Dosage

(ml)

bid

8-11

1 - 2

2.50

12-19

3 - 6

5.00

20-29

7 - 9

7.50

30-40

10 - 12

10.00

* Children < 8 kg should be dosed on a per kg basis (approx. 7.5 mg/kg bid)

Renal Impairment

In children with creatinine clearance less than 30 ml/min/1.73m2, the dosage of clarithromycin should be reduced by half to 7.5mg/kg per day.

Dosage should not be continued beyond 14 days in these patients.

Preparation for use: see section 6.6

Contraindications

Concomitant administration of clarithromycin and ergot alkaloids (e.g. ergotamine or dihydroergotamine) is contraindicated, as this may result in ergot toxicity.

Concomitant administration of clarithromycin and oral midazolam is contraindicated.

Concomitant administration of clarithromycin and any of the following drugs is contraindicated: astemizole, cisapride, pimozide and terfenadine as this may result in QT prolongation and cardiac arrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and torsades de pointes.

Clarithromycin should not be given to patients with history of QT prolongation (congenital or documented acquired QT prolongation) or ventricular cardiac arrhythmia, including torsades de pointes.

Concomitant administration with ticagrelor or ranolazine is contraindicated.

Clarithromycin should not be used concomitantly with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) that are extensively metabolized by CYP3A4, (lovastatin or simvastatin), due to the increased risk of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis.

As with other strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, Clarithromycin should not be used in patients taking colchicine.

Clarithromycin should not be given to patients with hypokalaemia (risk of prolongation of QT-time).

Clarithromycin should not be used in patients who suffer from severe hepatic failure in combination with renal impairment.

Special warnings and precautions for use

The physician should not prescribe clarithromycin to pregnant women without carefully weighing the benefits against risk, particularly during the first three months of pregnancy.

Clarithromycin is principally metabolised by the liver. Therefore, caution should be exercised in administering this antibiotic to patients with impaired hepatic function.

Caution should also be exercised when administering clarithromycin to patients with moderate to severe renal impairment.

Cases of fatal hepatic failure have been reported. Some patients may have had pre-existing hepatic disease or may have been taking other hepatotoxic medicinal products. Patients should be advised to stop treatment and contact their doctor if signs and symptoms of hepatic disease develop, such as anorexia, jaundice, dark urine, pruritus, or tender abdomen.

Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including macrolides, and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Clostridium difficile- associated diarrhoea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents including clarithromycin, and may range in severity from mild diarrhoea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon, which may lead to overgrowth of C. difficile. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhoea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents. Therefore, discontinuation of clarithromycin therapy should be considered regardless of the indication. Microbial testing should be performed and adequate treatment initiated. Drugs inhibiting peristalsis should be avoided.

There have been post-marketing reports of colchicine toxicity with concomitant use of clarithromycin and colchicine, especially in the elderly, some of which occurred in patients with renal insufficiency. Deaths have been reported in some such patients. Concomitant administration of clarithromycin and colchicine is contraindicated.

Caution is advised regarding concomitant administration of clarithromycin and triazolobenzodiazepines, such as triazolam, and intravenous or oromucosal midazolam.

Cardiovascular Events:

Prolonged cardiac repolarisation and QT interval, imparting a risk of developing cardiac arrhythmia and torsades de pointes, have been seen in treatment with macrolides including clarithromycin. Therefore, as the following situations may lead to an increased risk for ventricular arrhythmias (including torsades de pointes), clarithromycin should be used with caution in the following patients;

- Patients with coronary artery disease, severe cardiac insufficiency, conduction disturbances or clinically relevant bradycardia

- Patients with electrolyte disturbances such as hypomagnesaemia. Clarithromycin must not be given to patients with hypokalaemia.

- Patients concomitantly taking other medicinal products associated with QT prolongation.

- Concomitant administration of clarithromycin with astemizole, cisapride, pimozide and terfenadine is contraindicated.

- Clarithromycin must not be used in patients with congenital or documented acquired QT prolongation or history of ventricular arrhythmia.

Epidemiological studies investigating the risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes with macrolides have shown variable results. Some observational studies have identified a rare short-term risk of arrhythmia, myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality associated with macrolides including clarithromycin. Consideration of these findings should be balanced with treatment benefits when prescribing clarithromycin.

Pneumonia: In view of the emerging resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to macrolides, it is important that sensitivity testing be performed when prescribing clarithromycin for community-acquired pneumonia. In hospital-acquired pneumonia, clarithromycin should be used in combination with additional appropriate antibiotics.

Skin and soft tissue infections of mild to moderate severity: These infections are most often caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, both of which may be resistant to macrolides. Therefore, it is important that sensitivity testing be performed. In cases where beta-lactam antibiotics cannot be used (e.g. allergy), other antibiotics, such as clindamycin, may be the drug of first choice. Currently, macrolides are only considered to play a role in some skin and soft tissue infections, such as those caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum , acne vulgaris, and erysipelas and in situations where penicillin treatment cannot be used.

In the event of severe acute hypersensitivity reactions, such as anaphylaxis, severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) (e.g. Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)), clarithromycin therapy should be discontinued immediately and appropriate treatment should be urgently initiated.

Clarithromycin should be used with caution when administered concurrently with medications that induce the cytochrome CYP3A4 enzyme.

HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (statins): Concomitant use of clarithromycin with lovastatin or simvastatin is contraindicated. Caution should be exercised when prescribing clarithromycin with other statins. Rhabdomyolysis has been reported in patients taking clarithromycin and statins. Patients should be monitored for signs and symptoms of myopathy.

In situations where the concomitant use of clarithromycin with statins cannot be avoided, it is recommended to prescribe the lowest registered dose of the statin. Use of a statin that is not dependent on CYP3A metabolism (e.g. fluvastatin) can be considered (see 4.5).

Oral hypoglycaemic agents/Insulin: The concomitant use of clarithromycin and oral hypoglycaemic agents (such as sulphonylurias) and/or insulin can result in significant hypoglycaemia. Careful monitoring of glucose is recommended.

Oral anticoagulants: There is a risk of serious haemorrhage and significant elevations in International Normalized Ratio (INR) and prothrombin time when clarithromycin is co-administered with warfarin. INR and prothrombin times should be frequently monitored while patients are receiving clarithromycin and oral anticoagulants concurrently.

Long-term use may, as with other antibiotics, result in colonisation with increased numbers of non-susceptible bacteria and fungi. If superinfections occur, appropriate therapy should be instituted.

Attention should also be paid to the possibility of cross resistance between clarithromycin and other macrolide drugs, as well as lincomycin and clindamycin.

Excipients

Patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption or sucrase-isomaltase insufficiency should not take Klaricid Paediatric Suspension 125mg/5ml or Klaricid Paediatric Suspension 250mg/5ml. When prescribing to diabetic patients, the sucrose content should be taken into account.

Effects on ability to drive and use machines

There are no data on the effect of clarithromycin on the ability to drive or use machines. The potential for dizziness, vertigo, confusion and disorientation, which may occur with the medication, should be taken into account before patients drive or use machines.

Undesirable effects

a. Summary of the safety profile

The most frequent and common adverse reactions related to clarithromycin therapy for both adult and paediatric populations are abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting and taste perversion. These adverse reactions are usually mild in intensity and are consistent with the known safety profile of macrolide antibiotics.

There was no significant difference in the incidence of these gastrointestinal adverse reactions during clinical trials between the patient population with or without pre-existing mycobacterial infections.

b. Tabulated summary of adverse reactions

The following table displays adverse reactions reported in clinical trials and from post-marketing experience with clarithromycin immediate-release tablets, granules for oral suspension, powder for solution for injection, extended-release tablets and modified-release tablets.

The reactions considered at least possibly related to clarithromycin are displayed by system organ class and frequency using the following convention: very common (>1/10), common (> 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon (>1/1,000 to < 1/100) and not known (adverse reactions from post-marketing experience; cannot be estimated from the available data). Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness when the seriousness could be assessed.

System Organ Class

Very common

>1/10

Common

> 1/100 to < 1/10

Uncommon

>1/1,000 to < 1/100

Not Known*

(cannot be estimated from the available data)

Infections and infestations

Cellulitis1, candidiasis, gastroenteritis2, infection3, vaginal infection

Pseudomembranous colitis, erysipelas,

Blood and lymphatic system

Leukopenia, neutropenia4, thrombocythaemia3, eosinophilia4

Agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia

Immune system disorders

Anaphylactoid reaction1, hypersensitivity

Anaphylactic reaction. angioedema

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Anorexia, decreased appetite

Psychiatric disorders

Insomnia

Anxiety, nervousness3,

Psychotic disorder, confusional state5, depersonalisation, depression, disorientation, hallucination, abnormal dreams, mania

Nervous system disorders

Dysgeusia, headache

Loss of consciousness1, dyskinesia1, dizziness, somnolence5, tremor

Convulsion, ageusia, parosmia, anosmia, paraesthesia

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Vertigo, hearing impaired, tinnitus

Deafness

Cardiac disorders

Cardiac arrest1, atrial fibrillation1, electrocardiogram QT prolonged, extrasystoles1, palpitations

Torsades de pointes, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation

Vascular disorders

Vasodilation1

Haemorrhage

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorder

Asthma1, epistaxis2, pulmonary embolism1

Gastrointestinal disorders

Diarrhoea, vomiting, dyspepsia, nausea, abdominal pain

Oesophagitis1, gastrooesophageal reflux disease2, gastritis, proctalgia2, stomatitis, glossitis, abdominal distension4, constipation, dry mouth, eructation, flatulence,

Pancreatitis acute, tongue discolouration, tooth discolouration

Hepatobiliary disorders

Liver function test abnormal

Cholestasis4, hepatitis4, alanine aminotransferase increased, aspartate aminotransferase increased, gamma-glutamyltransferase increased4

Hepatic failure, jaundice hepatocellular

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Rash, hyperhidrosis

Dermatitis bullous1, pruritus, urticaria, rash maculo-papular3

Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) (e.g. Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP),Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)), acne

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Muscle spasms3, musculoskeletal stiffness1, myalgia2

Rhabdomyolysis2,, myopathy

Renal and urinary disorders

Blood creatinine increased1, blood urea increased1

Renal failure, nephritis interstitial

General disorders and administration site conditions

Injection site phlebitis1

Injection site pain1, injection site inflammation1

Malaise4, pyrexia3, asthenia, chest pain4, chills4, fatigue4

Investigations

Albumin globulin ratio abnormal1, blood alkaline phosphatase increased4, blood lactate dehydrogenase increased4

International normalised ratio increased, prothrombin time prolonged, urine colour abnormal

1 ADRs reported only for the Powder for Concentrate for Solution for Infusion formulation

2ADRs reported only for the Extended-Release Tablets formulation

3 ADRs reported only for the Granules for Oral Suspension formulation

4 ADRs reported only for the Immediate-Release Tablets formulation

5, 6 See section c)

* Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Patient exposure is estimated to be greater than 1 billion patient treatment days for clarithromycin.

c. Description of selected adverse reactions

Injection site phlebitis, injection site pain, and injection site inflammation are specific to the clarithromycin intravenous formulation.

In some of the reports of rhabdomyolysis, clarithromycin was administered concomitantly with statins, fibrates, colchicine or allopurinol.

There have been post-marketing reports of drug interactions and central nervous system (CNS) effects (e.g. somnolence and confusion) with the concomitant use of clarithromycin and triazolam. Monitoring the patient for increased CNS pharmacological effects is suggested.

There have been rare reports of clarithromycin ER tablets in the stool, many of which have occurred in patients with anatomic (including ileostomy or colostomy) or functional gastrointestinal disorders with shortened GI transit times. In several reports, tablet residues have occurred in the context of diarrhoea. It is recommended that patients who experience tablet residue in the stool and no improvement in their condition should be switched to a different clarithromycin formulation (e.g. suspension) or another antibiotic.

Special population: Adverse Reactions in Immunocompromised Patients (see section e).

d. Paediatric populations

Clinical trials have been conducted using clarithromycin paediatric suspension in children 6 months to 12 years of age. Therefore, children under 12 years of age should use clarithromycin paediatric suspension.

Frequency, type and severity of adverse reactions in children are expected to be the same as in adults.

e. Other special populations

Immunocompromised patients

In AIDS and other immunocompromised patients treated with the higher doses of clarithromycin over long periods of time for mycobacterial infections, it was often difficult to distinguish adverse events possibly associated with clarithromycin administration from underlying signs of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease or intercurrent illness.

In adult patients, the most frequently reported adverse reactions by patients treated with total daily doses of 1000 mg and 2000mg of clarithromycin were: nausea, vomiting, taste perversion, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, rash, flatulence, headache, constipation, hearing disturbance, Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT) and Serum Glutamic Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT) elevations. Additional low-frequency events included dyspnoea, insomnia and dry mouth. The incidences were comparable for patients treated with 1000mg and 2000mg, but were generally about 3 to 4 times as frequent for those patients who received total daily doses of 4000mg of clarithromycin.

In these immunocompromised patients, evaluations of laboratory values were made by analysing those values outside the seriously abnormal level (i.e. the extreme high or low limit) for the specified test. On the basis of these criteria, about 2% to 3% of those patients who received 1000mg or 2000mg of clarithromycin daily had seriously abnormal elevated levels of SGOT and SGPT, and abnormally low white blood cell and platelet counts. A lower percentage of patients in these two dosage groups also had elevated Blood Urea Nitrogen levels. Slightly higher incidences of abnormal values were noted for patients who received 4000mg daily for all parameters except White Blood Cell.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.

Overdose

Reports indicate that the ingestion of large amounts of clarithromycin can be expected to produce gastro-intestinal symptoms. One patient who had a history of bipolar disorder ingested 8 grams of clarithromycin and showed altered mental status, paranoid behaviour, hypokalaemia and hypoxaemia.

Adverse reactions accompanying overdosage should be treated by the prompt elimination of unabsorbed drug and supportive measures. As with other macrolides, clarithromycin serum levels are not expected to be appreciably affected by haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.

Pharmacodynamic properties

ATC Classification:

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antibacterial for systemic use, macrolide

ATC-Code: J01FA09

Mode of Action:

Clarithromycin is an antibiotic belonging to the macrolide antibiotic group. It exerts its anti-bacterial action by selectively binding to the 50s ribosomal sub-unit of susceptible bacteria preventing translocation of activated amino acids. It inhibits the intracellular protein synthesis of susceptible bacteria.

The 14-hydroxy metabolite of clarithromycin, a product of parent drug metabolism also has anti-microbial activity. The metabolite is less active than the parent compound for most organisms, including mycobacterium spp. An exception is Haemophilus influenza where the 14-hydroxy metabolite is two-fold more active than the parent compound.

Clarithromycin is also bactericidal against several bacterial strains.

Clarithromycin is usually active against the following organisms in vitro:-

Gram-positive Bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin susceptible); Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci); alpha-haemolytic streptococci (viridans group); Streptococcus (Diplococcus) pneumoniae; Streptococcus agalactiae; Listeria monocytogenes.

Gram-negative Bacteria: Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Legionella pneumophila, Bordetella pertussis, Helicobacter pylori; Campylobacter jejuni.

Mycoplasma: Mycoplasma pneumoniae; Ureaplasma urealyticum.

Other Organisms: Chlamydia trachomatis; Mycobacterium avium; Mycobacterium leprae; Chlamydia pneumoniae.

Anaerobes: Macrolide-susceptible Bacteroides fragilis; Clostridium perfringens; Peptococcus species; Peptostreptococcus species; Propionibacterium acnes.

Clarithromycin also has bactericidal activity against several bacterial strains. These organisms include H. influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Moraxella (Brahamella) catarrhalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter species.

Breakpoints

The following breakpoints have been established by the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST).

Breakpoints (MIC, mg/L)

Microorganism

Susceptible (≤)

Resistant (>)

Staphylococcus spp.

1 mg/L

2 mg/L

Streptococcus A, B, C and G

0.25 mg/L

0.5 mg/L

Streptococcus pneumonia

0.25 mg/L

0.5 mg/L

Viridans group streptococcus

IE

IE

Haemophilus spp.

1 mg/L

32 mg/L

Moraxella catarrhalis

0.25 mg/L

0.5 mg/L 1

Helicobacter pylori

0.25 mg/L1

0.5 mg/L

1 The breakpoints are based on epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs), which distinguish wild-type isolates from those with reduces susceptibility.

“IE" indicates that there is insufficient evidence that the species in question is a good target for therapy with the drug.

Pharmacokinetic properties

Clarithromycin is rapidly and well absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract after oral administration. The microbiologically active 14(R)-hydroxyclarithromycin is formed by first pass metabolism. Clarithromycin, may be given without regard to meals as food does not affect the extent of bioavailability. Food does slightly delay the onset of absorption of clarithromycin and formation of the 14-hydroxy metabolite. Although the pharmacokinetics of clarithromycin are non linear, steady state is attained within 2 days of dosing. 14-Hydroxyclarithromycin is the major urinary metabolite and accounts for 10-15% of the dose. Most of the remainder of the dose is eliminated in the faeces, primarily via the bile. 5-10% of the parent drug is recovered from the faeces.

Clarithromycin provides tissue concentrations that are several times higher than circulating drug level. Increased levels of clarithromycin have been found in both tonsillar and lung tissue. Clarithromycin penetrates into the middle ear fluid at concentrations greater than in the serum. Clarithromycin is 80% bound to plasma proteins at therapeutic levels.

Klaricid Paediatric Suspension 125mg/5ml does not contain tartrazine or other azo dyes, lactose or gluten.

Pharmacotherapeutic group

Antibacterial for systemic use, macrolide

Preclinical safety data

The acute oral LD50 values for a clarithromycin suspension administered to 3-day old mice were 1290 mg/kg for males and 1230 mg/kg for females. The LD50 values in 3-day old rats were 1330 mg/kg for males and 1270 mg/kg for females. For comparison, the LD50 of orally-administered clarithromycin is about 2700 mg/kg for adult mice and about 3000 mg/kg for adult rats. These results are consistent with other antibiotics of the penicillin group, cephalosporin group and macrolide group in that the LD50 is generally lower in juvenile animals than in adults.

In both mice and rats, body weight was reduced or its increase suppressed and suckling behaviour and spontaneous movements were depressed for the first few days following drug administration. Necropsy of animals that died disclosed dark-reddish lungs in mice and about 25% of the rats; rats treated with 2197 mg/kg or more of a clarithromycin suspension were also noted to have a reddish - black substance in the intestines, probably because of bleeding. Deaths of these animals were considered due to debilitation resulting from depressed suckling behaviour or bleeding from the intestines.

Pre-weaning rats (5 days old) were administered a clarithromycin suspension formulation for two weeks at doses of 0, 15, 55 and 200 mg/kg/day. Animals from the 200 mg/kg/day group had decreased body-weight gains, decreased mean haemoglobin and haematocrit values, and increased mean relative kidney weights compared to animals from the control group. Treatment-related minimal to mild multifocal vacuolar degeneration of the intrahepatic bile duct epithelium and an increased incidence of nephritic lesions were also observed in animals from this treatment group. The "no-toxic effect" dosage for this study was 55 mg/kg/day.

An oral toxicity study was conducted in which immature rats were administered a clarithromycin suspension (granules for suspension) for 6 weeks at daily dosages of 0, 15, 50 and 150 mg base/kg/day. No deaths occurred and the only clinical sign observed was excessive salivation for some of the animals at the highest dosage from 1 to 2 hours after administration during the last 3 weeks of treatment. Rats from the 150 mg/kg dose group had lower mean body weights during the first three weeks, and were observed to have decreased mean serum albumin values and increased mean relative liver weight compared to the controls. No treatment-related gross or microscopic histopathological changes were found. A dosage of 150 mg/kg/day produced slight toxicity in the treated rats and the "no effect dosage" was considered to be 50 mg/kg/day.

Juvenile beagle dogs, 3 weeks of age, were treated orally daily for four weeks with 0, 30, 100, or 300 mg/kg of clarithromycin, followed by a 4-week recovery period. No deaths occurred and no changed in the general condition of the animals were observed. Necropsy revealed no abnormalities. Upon histological examination, fatty deposition of centrilobular hepatocytes and cell infiltration of portal areas were observed by light microscopy and an increase in hepatocellular fat droplets was noted by electron microscopy in the 300 mg/kg dose group. The toxic dose in juvenile beagle dogs was considered to be greater than 300 mg/kg and the "no effect dose" 100 mg/kg.

Fertility, Reproduction and Teratogenicity

Fertility and reproduction studies have shown daily dosages of 150-160 mg/kg/day to male and female rats caused no adverse effects on the oestrus cycle, fertility, parturition and number and viability of offspring. Two teratogenicity studies in both Wistar (p.o.) and Sprague-Dawley (p.o. and i.v.) rats, one study in New Zealand white rabbits and one study in cynomolgus monkeys failed to demonstrate any teratogenicity from clarithromycin.

List of excipients

Granule component and coating:

Carbomers

Povidone

Hypromellose phthalate

Castor Oil, virgin

Other ingredients:

Silicon dioxide

Sucrose

Xanthan gum

Flavour - fruit punch

Potassium sorbate

Citric acid

Titanium dioxide

Maltodextrin

Incompatibilities

None known.

Shelf life

The recommended shelf life is 36 months. Once reconstituted, Klaricid Paediatric Suspension 125mg/5ml should be used within 14 days.

Special precautions for storage

Do not store above 25°C.

Nature and contents of container

Granules for reconstitution in a HDPE bottle with a PS-measuring spoon or an oral PP measuring syringe. Pack sizes of 50, 70, 100 and 140ml are available.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

Special precautions for disposal and other handling

140ml bottle: 74ml of water should be added to the granules in the bottle and shaken until all of the particles are suspended. Avoid vigorous and/ or lengthy shaking. Shake prior to each subsequent use to ensure re-suspension. The concentration of clarithromycin in the reconstituted suspension is 125mg per 5ml.

100ml bottle: 53ml of water should be added to the granules in the bottle and shaken until all of the particles are suspended. Avoid vigorous and/ or lengthy shaking. Shake prior to each subsequent use to ensure re-suspension.. The concentration of clarithromycin in the reconstituted suspension is 125mg per 5ml.

70ml bottle: 37ml of water should be added to the granules in the bottle and shaken until all of the particles are suspended. Avoid vigorous and/ or lengthy shaking. Shake prior to each subsequent use to ensure re-suspension. The concentration of clarithromycin in the reconstituted suspension is 125mg per 5ml.

50ml bottle: 27ml of water should be added to the granules in the bottle and shaken until all of the particles are suspended. Avoid vigorous and/ or lengthy shaking. Shake prior to each subsequent use to ensure re-suspension. The concentration of clarithromycin in the reconstituted suspension is 125mg per 5ml.

Administration

Several devices can be used to dose and administer Clarithromycin Pediatric Suspension.

Marketing authorisation holder

Mylan Products Ltd

20 Station Close

Potters Bar

Herts

EN6 1TL

United Kingdom.

Marketing authorisation number(s)

PL 46302/0014

Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

16/10/1995

Date of revision of the text

10 May 2018

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