Medically reviewed by Oliinyk Elizabeth Ivanovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2020-04-02
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Ketokam is indicated for the prophylaxis and reduction of inflammation and associated symptoms following ocular surgery.
Ketokam is indicated in adults.
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) and other treatment options before deciding to use Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine). Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals.
Acute Pain in Adult Patients
Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) ORAL is indicated for the short-term ( ≤ 5 days) management of moderately severe acute pain that requires analgesia at the opioid level, usually in a postoperative setting. Therapy should always be initiated with IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine, and Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) ORAL is to be used only as continuation treatment, if necessary.
The total combined duration of use of Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) ORAL and ketorolac tromethamine is not to exceed 5 days of use because of the potential of increasing the frequency and severity of adverse reactions associated with the recommended doses (see WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, and ADVERSE REACTIONS). Patients should be switched to alternative analgesics as soon as possible, but Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) ORAL therapy is not to exceed 5 days.
One drop instilled into the eye three times daily starting 24 hours pre-operatively and continuing for up to three weeks post-operatively.
There is no relevant use of Ketokam in the paediatric population in the indication: For the prophylaxis and reduction of inflammation following cataract surgery.
Method of administration
Instil one drop of the solution into the inferior conjunctival sac of the eye to be treated, while pulling the lower eyelid gently downwards and looking upwards.
If Ketokam is used concomitantly with other topical eye medications there must be an interval of at least 5 minutes between the two medications.
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) and other treatment options before deciding to use Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine). Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals. In adults, the combined duration of use of IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine and Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) ORAL is not to exceed 5 days. In adults, the use of Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) ORAL is only indicated as continuation therapy to IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine.
Transition from IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine (single- or multiple-dose) to multiple-dose Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) ORAL:
Patients age 17 to 64: 20 mg PO once followed by 10 mg q4-6 hours prn not > 40 mg/day
Patients age ≥ 65, renally impaired, and/or weight < 50 kg (110 lbs): 10 mg PO once followed by 10 mg q4-6 hours prn not > 40 mg/day
Oral formulation should not be given as an initial dose
Use minimum effective dose for the individual patient
Do not shorten dosing interval of 4 to 6 hours
Total duration of treatment in adult patients: the combined duration of use of IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine and Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) ORAL is not to exceed 5 days.
The following table summarizes Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) ORAL dosing instructions in terms of age group:
Table 4 :Summary of Dosing Instructions
|Patient Population||KetokamORA L(following IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine)|
|Age < 17 years||Oral not approved|
|Adult Age 17 to 64 years||20 mg once, then 10 mg q4-6 hours prn not > 40 mg/day|
|Adult Age ≥ 65 years, renally impaired, and/or weight < 50 kg||10 mg once, then 10 mg q4-6 hours prn not > 40 mg/day|
The potential exists for cross-sensitivity to acetylsalicylic acid and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Ketokam is contraindicated in individuals who have previously exhibited sensitivities to these drugs.
Ketokam is contraindicated in patients with previously demonstrated hypersensitivity to ketorolac tromethamine.
Ketokam is contraindicated in patients with active peptic ulcer disease, in patients with recent gastrointestinal bleeding or perforation and in patients with a history of peptic ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding.
Ketokam should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients (see WARNINGS: Anaphylactoid Reactions, and PRECAUTIONS: Preexisting Asthma).
Ketokam is contraindicated as prophylactic analgesic before any major surgery.
Ketokam is contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS).
Ketokam is contraindicated in patients with advanced renal impairment or in patients at risk for renal failure due to volume depletion (see WARNINGS for correction of volume depletion).
Ketokam is contraindicated in labor and delivery because, through its prostaglandin synthesis inhibitory effect, it may adversely affect fetal circulation and inhibit uterine contractions, thus increasing the risk of uterine hemorrhage.
Ketokam inhibits platelet function and is, therefore, contraindicated in patients with suspected or confirmed cerebrovascular bleeding, hemorrhagic diathesis, incomplete hemostasis and those at high risk of bleeding (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS).
Ketokam is contraindicated in patients currently receiving aspirin or NSAIDs because of the cumulative risks of inducing serious NSAID-related adverse events.
The concomitant use of Ketokam and probenecid is contraindicated.
The concomitant use of ketorolac tromethamine and pentoxifylline is contraindicated.
It is recommended that Ketokam be used with caution in patients with known bleeding tendencies or who are receiving other medications which may prolong bleeding time.
In common with other anti-inflammatory drugs, Ketokam may mask the usual signs of infection.
All non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may slow down or delay wound healing. Concomitant use of NSAIDs and topical steroids can increase the potential for healing problems.
Concomitant use of Ketokam and topical corticosteroids should be exercised with caution in patients susceptible to corneal epithelial breakdown.
Use of topical NSAIDS may result in keratitis. In some patients, continued use of topical NSAIDs may result in epithelial breakdown, corneal thinning, corneal erosion, corneal ulceration or corneal perforation. These events may be sight threatening. Patients with evidence of corneal epithelial breakdown should immediately discontinue use of topical NSAIDs and should be closely monitored for corneal health.
Topical NSAIDs should be used with caution in patients with complicated ocular surgeries, corneal denervation, corneal epithelial defects, diabetes mellitus, ocular surface diseases (e.g. dry eye syndrome), rheumatoid arthritis, or repeat ocular surgeries within a short period of time, as they may be at increased risk for corneal adverse events which may become sight threatening.
Post marketing experience with topical NSAIDs also suggest that use more than 24 hours prior to surgery or use beyond 14 days post surgery may increase patient risk for the occurrence and severity of corneal adverse events.
The preservative in Ketokam, benzalkonium chloride, may cause eye irritation. Contact lenses must be removed prior to application, with at least a 15-minute wait before reinsertion. Benzalkonium chloride is known to discolour soft contact lenses. Contact with soft contact lenses must be avoided.
There have been post-marketing reports of bronchospasm or exacerbation of asthma in patients, who have either a known hypersensitivity to aspirin/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or a past medical history of asthma associated with the use of Ketokam, which may be contributory. Caution is recommended in the use of Ketokam in these individuals.
Patients should be instructed to avoid allowing the tip of the dispensing container to contact the eye or surrounding structures to avoid injury and contamination of eye drops.
Undesirable effects may be minimised by using the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration necessary to control symptoms.
(see also BOXED WARNING)
The total combined duration of use of KetokamORAL and IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine is not to exceed 5 days in adults. Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) ORAL is not indicated for use in pediatric patients.
The most serious risks associated with Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) are:
Gastrointestinal Effects - Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation
Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) is contraindicated in patients with previously documented peptic ulcers and/or GI bleeding. Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) can cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including bleeding, ulceration and perforation, of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine).
Only one in five patients who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. Minor upper gastrointestinal problems, such as dyspepsia, are common and may also occur at any time during NSAID therapy. The incidence and severity of gastrointestinal complications increases with increasing dose of, and duration of treatment with, Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine). Do not use Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) for more than five days. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk. In addition to past history of ulcer disease, other factors that increase the risk for GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include concomitant use of oral corticosteroids, or anticoagulants, longer duration of NSAID therapy, smoking, use of alcohol, older age, and poor general health status. Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in elderly or debilitated patients and therefore, special care should be taken in treating this population.
To minimize the potential risk for an adverse GI event, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest possible duration. Patients and physicians should remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy and promptly initiate additional evaluation and treatment if a serious GI adverse event is suspected. This should include discontinuation of Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out. For high risk patients, alternate therapies that do not involve NSAIDs should be considered.
NSAIDs should be given with care to patients with a history of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease) as their condition may be exacerbated.
Because prostaglandins play an important role in hemostasis and NSAIDs affect platelet aggregation as well, use of Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) in patients who have coagulation disorders should be undertaken very cautiously, and those patients should be carefully monitored. Patients on therapeutic doses of anticoagulants (eg, heparin or dicumarol derivatives) have an increased risk of bleeding complications if given Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) concurrently; therefore, physicians should administer such concomitant therapy only extremely cautiously. The concurrent use of Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) and therapy that affects hemostasis, including prophylactic low-dose heparin (2500 to 5000 units q12h), warfarin and dextrans have not been studied extensively, but may also be associated with an increased risk of bleeding. Until data from such studies are available, physicians should carefully weigh the benefits against the risks and use such concomitant therapy in these patients only extremely cautiously. Patients receiving therapy that affects hemostasis should be monitored closely.
In postmarketing experience, postoperative hematomas and other signs of wound bleeding have been reported in association with the peri-operative use of IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine. Therefore, peri-operative use of Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) should be avoided and postoperative use be undertaken with caution when hemostasis is critical (see PRECAUTIONS).
Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of a NSAID may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.
Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) and its metabolites are eliminated primarily by the kidneys, which, in patients with reduced creatinine clearance, will result in diminished clearance of the drug (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Therefore, Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) should be used with caution in patients with impaired renal function (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION) and such patients should be followed closely. With the use of Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) , there have been reports of acute renal failure, interstitial nephritis and nephrotic syndrome.
Impaired Renal Function
Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) is contraindicated in patients with serum creatinine concentrations indicating advanced renal impairment (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) should be used with caution in patients with impaired renal function or a history of kidney disease because it is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis. Because patients with underlying renal insufficiency are at increased risk of developing acute renal decompensation or failure, the risks and benefits should be assessed prior to giving Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) to these patients.
As with other NSAIDs, anaphylactoid reactions may occur in patients without a known previous exposure or hypersensitivity to Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine). Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) should not be given to patients with the aspirin triad. This symptom complex typically occurs in asthmatic patients who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or who exhibit severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS: Preexisting Asthma). Anaphylactoid reactions, like anaphylaxis, may have a fatal outcome. Emergency help should be sought in cases where an anaphylactoid reaction occurs.
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. All NSAIDs, both COX-2 selective and nonselective, may have a similar risk. Patients with known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease may be at greater risk. To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the signs and/or symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.
There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID does increase the risk of serious GI events (see Gastrointestinal Effects - Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation). Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10-14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
NSAIDs, including Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) , can lead to onset of new hypertension or worsening of preexisting hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking thiazides or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs. NSAIDs, including Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) , should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. Blood pressure (BP) should be monitored closely during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.
Congestive Heart Failure and Edema
Fluid retention, edema, retention of NaCl, oliguria, elevations of serum urea nitrogen and creatinine have been reported in clinical trials with Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine). Therefore, Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) should be used only very cautiously in patients with cardiac decompensation, hypertension or similar conditions.
NSAIDS, including Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) , can cause serious skin adverse events such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Patients should be informed about the signs and symptoms of serious skin manifestations and use of the drug should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash, mucosal lesions, or any other sign of hypersensitivity.
In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.
Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to disease exacerbation. Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should have their therapy tapered slowly if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids.
The pharmacological activity of Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) in reducing inflammation may diminish the utility of this diagnostic sign in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, painful conditions.
Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic function or a history of liver disease. Borderline elevations of one or more liver tests may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs including Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine). These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain unchanged, or may be transient with continuing therapy. Notable elevations of ALT or AST (approximately three or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials with NSAIDs. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatic reactions, including jaundice and fatal fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis and hepatic failure, some of them with fatal outcomes have been reported.
A patient with symptoms and/or signs suggesting liver dysfunction, or in whom an abnormal liver test has occurred, should be evaluated for evidence of the development of a more severe hepatic reaction while on therapy with Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine). If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (eg, eosinophilia, rash, etc.), Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) should be discontinued.
Anemia is sometimes seen in patients receiving NSAIDs, including Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine). This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythropoiesis. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, including Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) , should have their hemoglobin or hematocrit checked if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia. NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and have been shown to prolong bleeding time in some patients. Unlike aspirin, their effect on platelet function is quantitatively less, of shorter duration, and reversible. Patients receiving Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) who may be adversely affected by alterations in platelet function, such as those with coagulation disorders or patients receiving anticoagulants, should be carefully monitored.
Patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma. The use of aspirin in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma has been associated with severe bronchospasm which can be fatal. Since cross reactivity, including bronchospasm, between aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) should not be administered to patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity and should be used with caution in patients with preexisting asthma.
Information for Patients
Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) is a potent NSAID and may cause serious side effects such as gastrointestinal bleeding or kidney failure, which may result in hospitalization and even fatal outcome.
Physicians, when prescribing Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) , should inform their patients or their guardians of the potential risks of Ketokam treatment (see BOXED WARNING, WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, and ADVERSE REACTIONS sections), instruct patients to seek medical advice if they develop treatment-related adverse events, and advise patients not to give Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) ORAL to other family members and to discard any unused drug.
Remember that the total combined duration of use of KetokamORAL and IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine is not to exceed 5 days in adults. Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) ORAL is not indicated for use in pediatric patients.
Patients should be informed of the following information before initiating therapy with an NSAID and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to read the NSAID Medication Guide that accompanies each prescription dispensed.
- Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) , like other NSAIDs, may cause serious CV side effects, such as MI or stroke, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious CV events can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, slurring of speech, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up (see WARNINGS: Cardiovascular Effects).
- Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) , like other NSAIDs, can cause GI discomfort and rarely, serious GI side effects, such as ulcers and bleeding, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms including epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up (see WARNINGS: Gastrointestinal Effects - Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation).
- Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) , like other NSAIDs, can cause serious skin side effects such as exfoliative dermatitis, SJS, and TEN, which may result in hospitalizations and even death. Although serious skin reactions may occur without warning, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of skin rash and blisters, fever, or other signs of hypersensitivity such as itching, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative signs or symptoms. Patients should be advised to stop the drug immediately if they develop any type of rash and contact their physicians as soon as possible.
- Patients should promptly report signs or symptoms of unexplained weight gain or edema to their physicians.
- Patients should be informed of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (eg, nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and “flu-like” symptoms). If these occur, patients should be instructed to stop therapy and seek immediate medical therapy.
- Patients should be informed of the signs of an anaphylactoid reaction (eg, difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). If these occur, patients should be instructed to seek immediate emergency help (see WARNINGS).
- In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) should be avoided because it will cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.
Because serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, physicians should monitor for signs or symptoms of GI bleeding. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, should have their CBC and a chemistry profile checked periodically. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver or renal disease develop, systemic manifestations occur (eg, eosinophilia, rash, etc.) or if abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) should be discontinued.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis and Impairment of Fertility
An 18-month study in mice with oral doses of ketorolac tromethamine at 2 mg/kg/day (0.9 times the human systemic exposure at the recommended IM or IV dose of 30 mg qid, based on area-under-the-plasma-concentration curve [AUC]), and a 24-month study in rats at 5 mg/kg/day (0.5 times the human AUC) showed no evidence of tumorigenicity. Ketorolac tromethamine was not mutagenic in the Ames test, unscheduled DNA synthesis and repair, and in forward mutation assays.
Ketorolac tromethamine did not cause chromosome breakage in the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. At 1590 μg/mL and at higher concentrations, ketorolac tromethamine increased the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovarian cells.
Impairment of fertility did not occur in male or female rats at oral doses of 9 mg/kg (0.9 times the human AUC) and 16 mg/kg (1.6 times the human AUC) of ketorolac tromethamine, respectively.
Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category C
Reproduction studies have been performed during organogenesis using daily oral doses of ketorolac tromethamine at 3.6 mg/kg (0.37 times the human AUC) in rabbits and at 10 mg/kg (1.0 times the human AUC) in rats. Results of these studies did not reveal evidence of teratogenicity to the fetus. However, animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response.
Because of the known effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the fetal cardiovascular system (closure of ductus arteriosus), use during pregnancy (particularly late pregnancy) should be avoided. Oral doses of ketorolac tromethamine at 1.5 mg/kg (0.14 times the human AUC), administered after gestation Day 17, caused dystocia and higher pup mortality in rats.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) in pregnant women. Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Labor and Delivery
The use of Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) is contraindicated in labor and delivery because, through its prostaglandin synthesis inhibitory effect, it may adversely affect fetal circulation and inhibit uterine contractions, thus increasing the risk of uterine hemorrhage (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Effects on Fertility
The use of ketorolac tromethamine, as with any drug known to inhibit cyclooxygenase/prostaglandin synthesis, may impair fertility and is not recommended in women attempting to conceive. In women who have difficulty conceiving or are undergoing investigation of infertility, withdrawal of ketorolac tromethamine should be considered.
After a single administration of 10 mg of Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) ORAL to humans, the maximum milk concentration observed was 7.3 ng/mL, and the maximum milk-to-plasma ratio was 0.037. After 1 day of dosing (qid), the maximum milk concentration was 7.9 ng/mL, and the maximum milk-to-plasma ratio was 0.025. Because of the possible adverse effects of prostaglandin-inhibiting drugs on neonates, use in nursing mothers is contraindicated.
Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) ORAL is not indicated for use in pediatric patients. The safety and effectiveness of Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) ORAL in pediatric patients below the age of 17 have not been established.
Geriatric Use ( ≥ 65 years of age)
Because ketorolac tromethamine may be cleared more slowly by the elderly (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY) who are also more sensitive to the dose-related adverse effects of NSAIDs (see WARNINGS: Gastrointestinal Effects - Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation), extreme caution, reduced dosages (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION), and careful clinical monitoring must be used when treating the elderly with Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine).
Transient blurring of vision may occur on instillation of eye drops. Do not drive or use hazardous machinery unless vision is clear.
The most frequent adverse events reported with the use of Ketokam are transient stinging and burning on instillation.
The frequency of adverse reactions documented during clinical trials of ketorolac trometamol and through post-marketing experience is given below and is defined as follows:
Very Common (> 1/10); Common (>1/100 to <1/10); Uncommon (>1/1,000 to <1/100); Rare (>1/10,000 to <1/1,000); Very Rare (<1/10,000); Not Known (cannot be estimated from available data).
Immune system disorders
Common: Hypersensitivity including localised allergic reactions
Nervous system disorders
Very Common: Eye irritation (including burning sensation)
Eye pain (including stinging)
Common: Superficial (punctate) keratitis
Eye and/or eyelid oedema
Cystoid mKetokam oedema
Increased intraocular pressure
Blurred and/or diminished vision
Uncommon: Corneal ulcer
Not known: Corneal damage, e.g. thinning, erosion, epithelial breakdown and perforation*
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders
Not known: Bronchospasm or exacerbation of asthma**
*Occasional post marketing reports of corneal damage including corneal thinning, corneal erosion, epithelial breakdown and corneal perforation have been received. These occurred mainly in patients using concomitant topical corticosteroids and/or with predisposing co-morbidity.
**There have been post-marketing reports of bronchospasm or exacerbation of asthma, in patients, who have either a known hypersensitivity to aspirin/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or a past medical history of asthma, associated with the use of Ketokam which may be contributory.
None of the typical adverse reactions reported with the systemic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (including ketorolac trometamol) have been observed at the doses used in topical ophthalmic therapy.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via:
Yellow Card Scheme
Adverse reaction rates increase with higher doses of Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine). Practitioners should be alert for the severe complications of treatment with Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) , such as GI ulceration, bleeding and perforation, postoperative bleeding, acute renal failure, anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions and liver failure (see BOXED WARNING, WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). These NSAID-related complications can be serious in certain patients for whom Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) is indicated, especially when the drug is used inappropriately.
In patients taking Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) or other NSAIDs in clinical trials, the most frequently reported adverse experiences in approximately 1% to 10% of patients are:
|Gastrointestinal (GI) experiences including:|
|flatulence||GI fullness||GI ulcers (gastric/duodenal)|
|abnormal renal function||Anemia||dizziness|
|drowsiness||Edema||elevated liver enzymes|
|headaches*||Hypertension||increased bleeding time|
|injection site pain||Pruritus||purpura|
|*Incidence greater than 10%|
Additional adverse experiences reported occasionally ( < 1% in patients taking Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) or other NSAIDs in clinical trials) include:
Body as a Whole: fever, infections, sepsis
Cardiovascular: congestive heart failure, palpitation, pallor, tachycardia, syncope
Dermatologic: alopecia, photosensitivity, urticaria
Gastrointestinal: anorexia, dry mouth, eructation, esophagitis, excessive thirst, gastritis, glossitis, hematemesis, hepatitis, increased appetite, jaundice, melena, rectal bleeding
Hemic and Lymphatic: ecchymosis, eosinophilia, epistaxis, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia
Metabolic and Nutritional: weight change
Nervous System: abnormal dreams, abnormal thinking, anxiety, asthenia, confusion, depression, euphoria, extrapyramidal symptoms, hallucinations, hyperkinesis, inability to concentrate, insomnia, nervousness, paresthesia, somnolence, stupor, tremors, vertigo, malaise
Reproductive, female: infertility
Respiratory: asthma, cough, dyspnea, pulmonary edema, rhinitis
Special Senses: abnormal taste, abnormal vision, blurred vision, hearing loss
Urogenital: cystitis, dysuria, hematuria, increased urinary frequency, interstitial nephritis, oliguria/polyuria, proteinuria, renal failure, urinary retention
Other rarely observed reactions (reported from postmarketing experience in patients taking Ketokam (ketorolac tromethamine) or other NSAIDs) are:
Body as a Whole: angioedema, death, hypersensitivity reactions such as anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid reaction, laryngeal edema, tongue edema (see WARNINGS), myalgia
Cardiovascular: arrhythmia, bradycardia, chest pain, flushing, hypotension, myocardial infarction, vasculitis
Dermatologic: exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, Lyell's syndrome, bullous reactions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis
Gastrointestinal: acute pancreatitis, liver failure, ulcerative stomatitis, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease)
Hemic and Lymphatic: agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia, postoperative wound hemorrhage (rarely requiring blood transfusion - see BOXED WARNING, WARNINGS, and PRECAUTIONS)
Metabolic and Nutritional: hyperglycemia, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia
Nervous System: aseptic meningitis, convulsions, coma, psychosis
Respiratory: bronchospasm, respiratory depression, pneumonia
Special Senses: conjunctivitis
Urogenital: flank pain with or without hematuria and/or azotemia, hemolytic uremic syndrome
Postmarketing Surveillance Study
A large postmarketing observational, nonrandomized study, involving approximately 10,000 patients receiving ketorolac tromethamineIV/IM, demonstrated that the risk of clinically serious gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding was dose-dependent (see Tables 3A and 3B). This was particularly true in elderly patients who received an average daily dose greater than 60 mg/day of ketorolac tromethamineIV/IM (see Table 3A).
Table 3 Incidence of Clinically Serious GI Bleeding as Related to Age, Total Daily Dose, and History of GI Perforation, Ulcer, Bleeding (PUB) After up to 5 Days of Treatment With Ketorolac TromethamineIV/IMA.
|A. Adult Patients Without History of PUB|
|Age of Patients||Total Daily Dose of Ketorolac TromethamineIV/IM|
|≤ 60 mg||> 60 to 90 mg||> 90 to 120 mg||> 120 mg|
|< 65 years of age||0.4%||0.4%||0.9%||4.6%|
|≥ 65 years of age||1.2%||2.8%||2.2%||7.7%|
|B. Adult Patients With History of PUB|
|Age of Patients||Total Daily Dose of Ketorolac TromethamineIV/IM|
|≤ 60 mg||> 60 to 90 mg||> 90 to 120 mg||> 120 mg|
|< 65 years of age||2.1%||4.6%||7.8%||15.4%|
|≥ 65 years of age||4.7%||3.7%||2.8%||25.0%|
No case of overdose has been reported. Overdose is unlikely to occur via the recommended method of administration.
If accidentally ingested, drink fluids to dilute.
Symptoms and Signs
Symptoms following acute NSAID overdoses are usually limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which are generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding can occur. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression and coma may occur, but are rare. Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported with therapeutic ingestion of NSAIDs, and may occur following an overdose.
Patients should be managed by symptomatic and supportive care following a NSAIDs overdose. There are no specific antidotes. Emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 g to 100 g in adults, 1 g/kg to 2 g/kg in children) and/or osmotic cathartic may be indicated in patients seen within 4 hours of ingestion with symptoms or following a large oral overdose (5 to 10 times the usual dose). Forced diuresis, alkalization of urine, hemodialysis or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding. Single overdoses of Ketokam have been variously associated with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, hyperventilation, peptic ulcers and/or erosive gastritis and renal dysfunction which have resolved after discontinuation of dosing.
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Anti-inflammatory agents, non-steroids
ATC code: S01BC 05.
Ketokam (ketorolac trometamol) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent demonstrating analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. Ketorolac trometamol inhibits the cyclo-oxygenase enzyme essential for biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Ketokam has been shown to reduce prostaglandin levels in the aqueous humour after topical ophthalmic administration.
Ketorolac trometamol given systemically does not cause pupil constriction. Results from clinical studies indicate that Ketokam has no significant effect on intra-ocular pressure.
a) General characteristics
Rabbit aqueous humor bioavailability:
Mean concentration of total radioactivity
0.856 Âµg-equiv./ml @ 0.5 hr
1.607 Âµg-equiv./ml @ 2 hr
AUC (0-8 hr)
9.39 Âµg-equiv. hr/ml
13.53 Âµg-equiv. hr/ml
Absolute ocular bioavailability
After topical ocular doses in the rabbit the half life of total radioactivity in aqueous humor was longer than after intracameral injection. This suggests that topical dosing may lead to a "reservoir" effect in the corneal epithelium and continued flux of drug from the reservoir into the aqueous humor.
After ophthalmic doses were administered to rabbits, peak concentrations of radioactivity were achieved within 1 hour in the ocular tissues and were highest in the cornea (6.06 mcg-eq/ml). At 1 hour, the majority of the radioactivity (0.9% of administered dose) was recovered from the sclera (0.58%) and cornea (0.24%), and smaller amounts were recovered from the aqueous humor (0.026%), vitreous humor (0.023%), retina-choroid (0.018%), iris-ciliary body (0.007%) and lens (0.002%).
Relative to plasma AUC values, the AUC's in rabbits were higher for cornea (104 fold), sclera (27 fold), iris-ciliary body (5.8 fold), retina-choroid (5.6 fold), aqueous humor (3.3 fold) and approximately one-half in the vitreous humor and lens. After ophthalmic administration, concentrations of drug-related radioactivity were higher in the ocular tissues and lower in plasma compared with those after IV dosing.
After ophthalmic doses in the rabbit, ketorolac was absorbed rapidly into the systemic circulation (Tmax, 15 min). Plasma half-lives after ophthalmic doses (6.6 - 6.9 hr) were longer than those after IV administration (1.1 hr), suggesting that removal of drug from eye into the venous circulation may be rate-limiting. By comparison of drug levels in aqueous humor after intracameral injection vs. plasma levels after IV administration, ketorolac was shown to clear more rapidly from plasma (6 ml/min) than from the anterior chamber (11 mcl/min).
In the cynomolgus monkey, peak plasma levels of ketorolac occurred at 1.1 hr after the ophthalmic dose. The plasma half-life of ketorolac was similar after ophthalmic (1.8 hr) and IV doses (1.6 hr).
The majority of the ophthalmic dose was excreted in urine (66% in rabbit and 75% in monkey) and a small amount in faeces (11% in rabbit and 2% in monkey). The extent of systemic absorption after ophthalmic dosing averaged 73% in the rabbit and 76% in the cynomolgus monkey.
After ophthalmic administration in rabbits, ketorolac represented the major component (more than 90%) of radioactivity in aqueous humor and plasma and the p-hydroxy metabolite accounted for 5% of radioactivity in plasma. Ketorolac was also the major component (96%) of plasma radioactivity after ophthalmic dosing in monkeys.
After ophthalmic dosing in the rabbit, 72%, 17% and 6% of the total radioactivity in urine was comprised of intact ketorolac, p-hydroxy ketorolac and other polar metabolites, respectively. After IV dosing, the relative proportions of total radioactivity in urine averaged 6% as intact ketorolac, 68% as p-hydroxy ketorolac and 22% as polar metabolites.
In the monkey, intact ketorolac and its polar metabolite accounted for 32% and 65% of the total radioactivity in urine, respectively, after ophthalmic dosing, and 50% and 49% of the radioactivity in urine, respectively, after IV dosing. Thus, the metabolism of ketorolac was qualitatively similar after ophthalmic and IV administration in the monkey and rabbit.
b) Characteristics in patients
Ketorolac tromethamine solutions (0.1% or 0.5%) or vehicle were instilled into the eyes of patients approximately 12 hours and 1 hour prior to surgery. Concentrations of ketorolac in aqueous humor sampled at the time of surgery were at the lower limit of detection (40 ng/ml) in 1 patient and below the quantitation limit in 7 patients dosed with 0.1% ketorolac tromethamine. The average aqueous humor level of ketorolac in patients treated with 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine was 95 ng/ml. Concentrations of PGE2 in aqueous humor were 80 pg/ml, 40 pg/ml and 28 pg/ml in patients treated with vehicle, 0.1% ketorolac tromethamine and 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine, respectively.
In the 21-day multiple dose (TID) tolerance study in healthy subjects, only 1 of 13 subjects had a detectable plasma level pre-dose (0.021 Âµg/ml). In another group of 13 subjects, only 4 subjects showed very low plasma levels of ketorolac (0.011 to 0.023 Âµg/ml) 15 minutes after the ocular dose.
Thus, higher levels of ketorolac in the aqueous humor and very low or no detectable plasma levels after ophthalmic doses, suggest that the use of ketorolac tromethamine by the ophthalmic route in treatment of ocular disorders results in quite low systemic absorption in patients.
Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential, toxicity to reproduction and development.
Acute, sub-acute and chronic studies of Ketokam in experimental animals have established the safety of the drug. In addition, octoxinol 40 was separately evaluated for its ocular safety. Ketokam was found to be non-irritating, it did not demonstrate a local anaesthetic effect, it did not influence the healing of experimental corneal wounds in rabbits, it did not enhance the spread of experimental ocular infections of Candida albicans, Herpes simplex virus type one, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa in rabbits, and it did not increase the ocular pressure of normal rabbit eyes.
No special requirements.
Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
However, we will provide data for each active ingredient