Medically reviewed by Oliinyk Elizabeth Ivanovna, PharmD. Last updated on 2020-03-28
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Tropicamide is a short acting anticholinergic agent used as a mydriatic and cycloplegic. It is indicated for topical use for:
Diagnostic purposes for fundoscopy and cycloplegic refraction.
Use in pre- and post-operative states where a short acting mydriatic is required.
Adults, Elderly and children:
One or two drops of 0.5% solution instilled into the eyes 15 to 20 minutes prior to examination.
One or two drops of 1% solution repeated after 5 minutes. If the patient is not seen within 20 to 30 minutes an additional drop may be instilled to prolong the effect.
Use in Children:
Tropicamide has been reported to be inadequate for cycloplegia in children.8 )
Method of administration
- For topical ophthalmic use only.
- After cap is removed, if tamper evident nap collar is loose, remove before using product.
- Nasolacrimal occlusion or gently closing the eyelid after administration is recommended. This may reduce the systemic absorption of medicinal products administered via the ocular route and result in a decrease in systemic adverse reactions.
- If more than one topical ophthalmic product is being used, the products must be administered at least 5 minutes apart. Eye ointments should be administered last.
- Glaucoma or a tendency towards glaucoma (e.g. Narrow anterior chamber angle).
- Hypersensitivity to any component.
- Tropicamide may cause increased intraocular pressure. The possibility of undiagnosed glaucoma should be considered in some patients, such as elderly patients. Determine the intraocular pressure and an estimation of the depth of the angle of the anterior chamber prior to initiation of therapy.
- Tropicamide-induced psychotic reactions and behavioral disturbances may occur in patients with increased susceptibility to anticholinergic drugs.
- Extreme caution is advised for use in children and individuals susceptible to belladonna alkaloids because of the increased risk of systemic toxicity.
- Use with caution in an inflamed eye as the hyperaemia greatly increases the rate of systemic absorption through the conjunctiva. To reduce systemic absorption the lacrimal sac should be compressed at the medial can thus by digital pressure for at least two minutes after instillation of the drops.
- Alcon Mydril contain benzalkonium chloride which may cause eye irritation and is known to discolour soft contact lenses. Avoid contact with soft contact lenses. Patients must be instructed to remove contact lenses prior to the application of Alcon Mydril and wait at least 15 minutes before reinsertion.
- Not for intravenous injection, life threatening adverse reactions have been reported to occur if this preparation is administered intravenously.
- Tropicamide may cause central nervous system disturbances, which may be dangerous in infants and children.
- Excessive use in children may produce systemic toxic symptoms. Use with extreme caution in infants, small or premature children, or children with Down syndrome, spastic paralysis or brain damage.
- Parents should be warned of the oral toxicity of this preparation for children and advised to wash their own hands and the child's hands after use.
Tropicamide eye drops have a moderate influence on the ability to drive and use machines.
Tropicamide may cause drowsiness, blurred vision and sensitivity to light. Patients should be warned not to drive or engage in other hazardous activities unless vision is clear. Complete recovery from the effects of tropicamide eyedrops may take up to six hours.
The following adverse reactions have been reported following use of tropicamide topical ophthalmic preparations. Frequencies cannot be estimated from the available data. Within each System Organ Class adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.
System Organ Classification
MedDRA Preferred Term (v. 12.1)
Nervous system disorders
Not known (cannot be estimated from the available data): dizziness, headache
Not known (cannot be estimated from the available data): vision blurred, photophobia, eye pain, eye irritation, ocular hyperaemia
Not known (cannot be estimated from the available data): syncope, hypotension
Not known (cannot be estimated from the available data): nausea
Skin and subcutaneous issue disorders
Not known (cannot be estimated from the available data): rash
General disorders and administration site conditions
Not known (cannot be estimated from the available data): drug effect prolonged (mydriasis)
Cycloplegic drugs may increase intraocular pressure and can precipitate angle-closure glaucoma in predisposed patients (4 Special warnings and precautions for use).
Other toxic manifestations of anticholinergic drugs include flushing of the skin, dryness of the mouth, dryness of mucous membranes, dryness of the skin, bradycardia followed by tachycardia with palpitations and arrhythmias, decrease secretion in sweat glands and dryness of the mouth, diminished gastrointestinal motility and constipation, urinary urgency, difficulty and retention and decreased nasal, bronchial and lachrymal secretions.
Local: increased intraocular pressure, transient stinging and sensitivity to light secondary to pupillary dilation. Prolonged administration may lead to local irritation, hyperaemia, oedema and conjunctivitis.
Vomiting, giddiness and staggering may occur, a rash may be present in children and abdominal distention in infants.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.
An ocular overdose of Tropicamide Eye Drops can be flushed from the eye(s) with lukewarm water.
Systemic toxicity may occur following topical use, particularly in children, it is manifested by flushing and dryness of the skin, (a rash may be present in children), blurred vision, a rapid and irregular pulse, fever abdominal distention in infants, convulsions and hallucinations and the loss of neuro-muscular co-ordination.
Treatment is symptomatic and supportive, (there is no evidence that physostigmine is superior to supportive management). In infants and small children the body surface must be kept moist. If accidentally ingested, induce emesis or perform gastric lavage.
Ophthalmologicals; Mydriatics and Cycloplegics.
ATC Code: S01F A06.
Tropicamide is an anticholinergic which blocks the responses of the sphincter muscle of the iris and the ciliary muscle to cholinergic stimulation thus dilating the pupil (mydriasis). At higher concentrations (1%), tropicamide also paralyses accommodation. This preparation acts rapidly and has a relatively short duration of action.
Tropicamide administered topically to the human eye does not bind to tissues as firmly as does atropine. The wash out time for half recovery of carbachol responsiveness was shown to be less than 15 minutes for non-pigmented iris and 30 minutes for pigmented iris.
There are no preclinical data of relevance to the prescriber which are additional to that already included in other sections of the SPC.
Do not touch dropper tip to any surface as this may contaminate the contents.